Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

The Hofmeister effect and the behaviour of water at interfaces

  • Kim D. Collins (a1) and Michael W. Washabaugh (a1)

Starting from known properties of non-specific salt effects on the surface tension at an air–water interface, we propose the first general, detailed qualitative molecular mechanism for the origins of ion-specific (Hofmeister) effects on the surface potential difference at an air–water interface; this mechanism suggests a simple model for the behaviour of water at all interfaces (including water–solute interfaces), regardless of whether the non-aqueous component is neutral or charged, polar or non-polar. Specifically, water near an isolated interface is conceptually divided into three layers, each layer being 1 water-molecule thick. We propose that the solute determines the behaviour of the adjacent first interfacial water layer (I1); that the bulk solution determines the behaviour of the third interfacial water layer (I3), and that both I1 and I3 compete for hydrogen-bonding interactions with the intervening water layer (I2), which can be thought of as a transition layer. The model requires that a polar kosmotrope (polar water-structure maker) interact with I1 more strongly than would bulk water in its place; that a chaotrope (water-structure breaker) interact with I1 somewhat less strongly than would bulk water in its place; and that a non-polar kosmotrope (non-polar water-structure maker) interact with I1 much less strongly than would bulk water in its place.

We introduce two simple new postulates to describe the behaviour of I1 water molecules in aqueous solution. The first, the ‘relative competition’ postulate, states that an I1 water molecule, in maximizing its free energy (—δG), will favour those of its highly directional polar (hydrogen-bonding) interactions with its immediate neighbours for which the maximum pairwise enthalpy of interaction (—δH) is greatest; that is, it will favour the strongest interactions. We describe such behaviour as ‘compliant’, since an I1 water molecule will continually adjust its position to maximize these strong interactions. Its behaviour towards its remaining immediate neighbours, with whom it interacts relatively weakly (but still favourably), we describe as ‘recalcitrant’, since it will be unable to adjust its position to maximize simultaneously these interactions. The second, the ‘charge transfer’ postulate, states that the strong polar kosmotrope–water interaction has at least a small amount of covalent character, resulting in significant transfer of charge from polar kosmotropes to water–especially of negative charge from Lewis bases (both neutral and anionic); and that the water-structuring effect of polar kosmotropes is caused not only by the tight binding (partial immobilization) of the immediately adjacent (I1) water molecules, but also by an attempt to distribute among several water molecules the charge transferred from the solute. When extensive, cumulative charge transfer to solvent occurs, as with macromolecular polyphosphates, the solvation layer (the layer of solvent whose behaviour is determined by the solute) can become up to 5- or 6-water-molecules thick.

We then use the ‘relative competition’ postulate, which lends itself to simple diagramming, in conjunction with the ‘charge transfer’ postulate to provide a new, startlingly simple and direct qualitative explanation for the heat of dilution of neutral polar solutes and the temperature dependence of relative viscosity of neutral polar solutes in aqueous solution. This explanation also requires the new and intriguing general conclusion that as the temperature of aqueous solutions is lowered towards o °C, solutes tend to acquire a non-uniform distribution in the solution, becoming increasingly likely to cluster 2 water molecules away from other solutes and surfaces (the driving force for this process being the conversion of transition layer water to bulk water). The implications of these conclusions for understanding the mechanism of action of general (gaseous) anaesthetics and other important interfacial phenomena are then addressed.

Hide All
1Acharya A. S. & Sussman L. G. (1984). The reversibility of the ketoamine linkages of aldoses with proteins. J. biol. Chem. 259, 43724378.
2Adams D. M., Blandamer M. J., Symons M. C. R. & Waddington D. (1971). Solvation spectra. Part 39. Infra-red and Raman studies of aqueous and non-aqueous solutions containing per-chlorates. Trans. Faraday Soc. 67, 611617.
3Adams P. A. (1980). The interpretation of entropy/enthalpy compensation phenomena in the deacylation of acyl-α-chymotrypsins. Biochem. J. 191, 653655.
4Adams R. L. P., Burdon R. H., Campbell A. M. & Smellie R. M. S. (1976). Davidson's The Biochemistry of the Nucleic Acids, 8th ed., p. 70. New York: Academic Press.
5Adamson A. W. (1982). Physical Chemistry of Surfaces, 4th ed.New York: John Wiley.
6Agustsson I. & Strom A. R. (1981). Biosynthesis and turnover of trimethylamine oxide in the teleost cod, Gadus morhua. J. biol. Chem. 256, 80458049.
7Ahmad F. & McPhie P. (1978). Thermodynamics of the denaturation of pepsinogen by urea. Biochemistry 17, 241246.
8Ahmad F. & McPhie P. (1980). The intrinsic viscosity of glyco-proteins. Int. J. Biochem. 11, 9196.
9Aird R. B. (1983). The importance of seizure-inducing factors in the control of refractory forms of epilepsy. Epilepsia 24, 567583.
10Alber T., Hartman F. C., Johnson R. M., Petsko G. A. & Tsernoglou D. (1981). Crystallization of yeast triose phosphate isomerase from polyethylene glycol. Protein crystal formation following phase separation. J. biol. Chem. 256, 13561361.
11Albert A. & Serjeant E. P. (1984). The Determination of Ionization Constants. A Laboratory Manual, 3rd ed., p. 163. New York: Chapman and Hall.
12Alexander R., Ko E. C. F., Parker A. J. & Broxton T. J.(1968). Solvation of ions. XIV. Protic-dipolar aprotic solvent effects on rates of bimolecular reactions. Solvent activity coefficients of reactants and transition states at 25°. J. Am. chem. Soc. 90, 50495069.
13Alkana R. L., Finn D. A., Galleisky G. G., Syapin P. J. & Malcolm R. D. (1985). Ethanol withdrawal in mice precipitated and exacerbated by hyperbaric exposure. Science 229, 772774.
14Alkana R. L. & Malcolm R. D. (1981). Low-level hyperbaric ethanol antagonism in mice. Dose and pressure response. Pharmacology 22, 199208.
15Allen A. (1983). Mucus – a protective secretion of complexity. Trends Biochem. Sci. 8, 169173.
16Aloni Y., Delmer D. P. & Benziman M. (1982). Achievement of high rates of in vitro synthesis of 1,4-β-D-glucan: activation by cooperative interaction of the Acetobacter xylinum enzyme system with GTP, polyethylene glycol, and a protein factor. Proc. natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 79, 64486452.
17Altekar W. (1975). Fluorescence studies of the interactions of neutral salts with proteins. Indian J. biochem. Biophys. 12, 397399.
18Altekar W. (1977 a). Fluorescence of proteins in aqueous neutral salt solutions. I. Influence of anions. Biopolymers 16, 341368.
19Altekar W. (1977 b). Fluorescence of proteins in aqueous neutral salt solutions. II. Influence of monovalent cation chlorides, particularly cesium chloride. Biopolymers 16, 369386.
20Anderson P. M. (1981). Purification and properties of the glutamine-and N–acetyl-L-glutamate-dependent carbamoyl phosphate synthetase from liver of Sgualus acanthias. J. biol. Chem. 256, 1222812235.
21Anderson R. G. & Symons M. C. R. (1969). Solvation spectra. Part 28. N.m.r. studies of aqueous tertiary butyl alcohol in the presence and absence of various solutes. Trans. Faraday Soc. 65, 25502558.
22Angell C. A. (1983). Supercooled water. Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem. 34, 593630.
23Aniya Y. & Matsusaki K. (1983). Effects of neutral salts on hepatic microsomal drug-metabolizing enzyme system in rats. Japan J. Pharmacol. 33, 647653.
24Arakawa T. & Timasheff S. N. (1982 a). Stabilization of protein structure by sugars. Biochemistry 21, 65366544.
25Arakawa T. & Timasheff S. N. (1982 b). Preferential interactions of proteins with salts in concentrated solutions. Biochemistry 21, 65456552.
26Arakawa T. & Timasheff S. N. (1983). Preferential interactions of proteins with solvent components in aqueous amino acid solutions. Arch. biochem. Biophys. 224, 169177.
27Arakawa T. & Timasheff S. N. (1984 a). The mechanism of action of Na glutamate, lysine HC1, and piperazine-N, N′ -bis(2-ethanesulphonic acid) in the stabilization of tubulin and microtubule formation. J. biol. Chem. 259, 49794986.
28Arakawa T. & Timasheff S. N. (1984 b). Mechanism of protein salting in and salting out by divalent cation salts: balance between hydration and salt binding. Biochemistry 23, 59125923.
29Arakawa T. & Timasheff S. N. (1984 c). Protein stabilization and destabilization by guanidinium salts. Biochemistry 23, 59245929.
30Arakawa T. & Timasheff S. N. (1985 a). Mechanism of poly(ethylene glycol) interaction with proteins. Biochemistry 24, 67566762.
31Arakawa T. & Timasheff S. N. (1985 b). Theory of protein solubility. Methods Enzymol. 114, 4977.
32Argos P., Rossmann M. G., Grau U. M., Zuber H., Frank G. & Tratschin J. D. (1979). Thermal stability and protein structure. Biochemistry 18, 56985703.
33Arnett E. M., Bentrude W. G., Burke J. J. & Duggleby P. McC. (1965). Solvent effects in organic chemistry. V. Molecules, ions, and transition states in aqueous ethanol. J. Am. chem. Soc. 87, 15411553.
34Arnett E. McC., Duggleby P. McC. & Burke J. J. (1963). The importance of ground state solvation in the solvolysis of t–butyl chloride. J. Am. chem. Soc. 85, 13501352.
35Arnett E. M. & McKelvey D. R. (1965). A large solvation enthalpy effect in highly aqueous t–butyl alcohol solutions. J. Am. chem. Soc. 87, 13931394.
36Arnett E. M. & McKelvey D. R. (1966). A large enhancement of solvation enthalpy by the reduction of temperature. J. Am. chem. Soc. 88, 50315033.
37Arshadi M. & Kebarle P. (1970). Hydration of OH and O2 in the gas phase. Comparative solvation of OH by water and the hydrogen halides. Effects of acidity. J. phys. Chem. 74, 14831485.
38Arshadi M., Yamdagni R. & Kebarle P. (1970). Hydration of the halide negative ions in the gas phase. II. Comparison of hydration energies for the alkali positive and halide negative ions. J. phys. Chem. 74, 14751482.
39Asahina E. (1965). Freezing process and injury in isolated animal cells. Fedn Proc. 24, S183–S187.
40Asakura T., Adachi K. & Schwartz E. (1978). Stabilizing effect of various organic solvents on protein. J. biol. Chem. 253, 64236425.
41Ashwood-Smith M. J. (1967). Radioprotective and cryoprotective properties of dimethyl sulfoxide in cellular systems. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 141, 4562.
42Atha D. H. & Ingham K. C. (1981). Mechanism of precipitation of proteins by polyethylene glycols. Analysis in terms of excluded volume. J. biol. Chem. 256, 1210812117.
43Aveyard R. & Lawrence A. S. C. (1964). Calorimetrie studies on n–aliphatic alcohol + water and n–aliphatic alcohol + water detergent systems. Trans. Faraday Soc. 60, 22652278.
44Aviram I. (1973 a). The interaction of chaotropic anions with proteins at acid pH. Eur. J. Biochem. 40, 631636.
45Aviram I. (1973 b). The interaction of chaotropic anions with acid ferricytochrome c. J. biol. Chem. 248, 18941896.
46Avron M. (1986). The osmotic components of halotolerant algae. Trends Biochem. Sci. 11, 56.
47Back J. F., Oakenfull D. & Smith M. B. (1979). Increased thermal stability of proteins in the presence of sugars and polyols. Biochemistry 18, 51915196.
48Bailey F. E. Jr. & Callard R. W. (1959). Some properties of poly(ethylene oxide) in aqueous solution. J. Applied Polymer Science 1, 5662.
49Baird J. K., Sandford P. A. & Cottrell I. W. (1983). Industrial applications of some new microbial polysaccharides. Biotechnology 1, 778783
50Baker E. N. & Dodson E. J. (1980). Crystallographic refinement of the structure of actinidin at 1·7 Å resolution by fast Fourier least-squares methods. Acta Cryst. A36, 559572.
51Baker E. N. & Hubbard R. E. (1984). Hydrogen bonding in globular proteins. Prog. biophys. molec. Biol. 44, 97179.
52Balasubramanian D. & Mitra P. (1979). Critical solution temperatures of liquid mixtures and the hydrophobic effect. J. phys. Chem. 83, 27242727.
53Ball C. D., Hardt C. R. & Duddles W. J. (1943). The influence of sugars on the formation of sulfhydryl groups in heat denaturation and heat coagulation of egg albumin. J. biol. Chem. 151, 163169.
54Bamberger S., Seaman G. V. F., Brown J. A. & Brooks D. E. (1984). The partition of sodium phosphate and sodium chloride in aqueous dextran poly(ethylene glycol) two-phase systems. J. Colloid and Interface Sci. 99, 187193.
55Barclay D. J. (1968). Chemical softness and specific adsorption at electrodes. J. electroanal. Chem. 19, 318321.
56Barclay I. M. & Butler J. A. V. (1938). The entropy of solution. Trans. Faraday Soc. 34, 14451454.
57Bark L. S., Graham R. J. T. & McCormick D. (1966). Chromatography of halide ions on thin layers of cellulose. Anal. chim. Acta 35, 268270.
58Barone G., Rizzo E. & Vitagliano V. (1970). Opposite effect of urea and some of its derivatives on water structure. J. phys. Chem. 74, 22302232.
59Barrett E. L. & Kwan H. S. (1985). Bacterial reduction of Tri-methylamine oxide. Ann. Rev. Microbiol. 39, 131149.
60Barry P. H. & Diamond J. M. (1984). Effects of unstirred layers on membrane phenomena. Physiological Reviews 64, 763872.
61Baux G., Simonneau M. & Tauc L. (1979). Transmitter release: ruthenium red used to demonstrate a possible role of sialic acid-containing substrates. J. Physiol. 291, 161178.
62Beaudette N. V., Okabayashi H. & Fasman G. D. (1982). Conformational effects of organic solvents on histone complexes. Biochemistry 21, 17651772.
63Beauregard D. V. & Barrett R. E. (1968). Ultrasonics and water structure in urea solutions. J. chem. Phys. 49, 52415244.
64Beilinsson A. (1929). Stabilization of protein solutions to heat with sucrose and glycerol. Biochem. Z. 213, 399405.
65Bell G. M. & Rangecroft P. D. (1971). Theory of surface tension for a 2–1 electrolyte solution. Trans. Faraday Soc. 67, 649659.
66Bell R. P. (1937). Relations between the energy and entropy of solution and their significance. Trans. Faraday Soc. 33, 496501.
67Bell R. P. (1973). The Proton in Chemistry, 2nd. ed., p. 82. Ithaca: Cornell Univ. Press.
68Bello J. & Bello H. R. (1962). Evidence from model peptides relating to the denaturation of proteins by lithium salts. Nature 194, 681682.
69Bello J., Haas D. & Bello H. R. (1966). Interactions of protein-denaturing salts with model amides. Biochemistry 5, 25392548.
70Bello J., Riese H. C. A. & Vinograd J. R. (1956). Mechanism of gelation of gelatin. Influence of certain electrolytes on the melting points of gels of gelatin and chemically modified gelatins. J. phys.Chem. 60, 12991306.
71Ben-Amotz A. & Avron M. (1983). Accumulation of metabolites by halotolerant algae and its industrial potential. Ann. Rev. Microbiol. 37, 95119.
72Ben-Naim A. (1967). Solubility and thermodynamics of solution of argon in water-methanol system. J. phys. Chem. 71, 40024007.
73Ben-Naim A. (1968). Solubility and thermodynamics of solution of argon in the water–ethylene glycol system. J. phys. Chem. 72, 29983001.
74Ben-Naim A. & Baer S. (1964). Solubility and thermodynamics of solution of argon in water + ethanol system. Trans. Faraday Soc. 60, 17361741.
75Ben-Naim A. & Moran G. (1965). Solubility and thermodynamics of solution of argon in water + p–dioxane system. Trans. Faraday Soc. 61, 821825.
76Bergqvist M. S. & Forslind E. (1962). Proton magnetic resonance study of the water lattice distortions in aqueous alkali halide solutions. Acta chem. scand. 16, 20692086.
77Bernal J. D. & Fowler R. H. (1933). A theory of water and ionic solution, with particular reference to hydrogen and hydroxyl ions. J. chem. Phys. 1, 515548.
78Berry R. S. & Reimann C. W. (1963). Absorption spectrum of gaseous F and electron affinities of the halogen atoms. J. chem. Phys. 38, 15401543.
79Bigelis R. & Umbarger H. E. (1975). Purification of yeast α-isopropylmalate isomerase. High ionic strength hydrophobicchromatography. J. biol. Chem. 250, 43154321.
80Bigelis R. & Umbarger H. E. (1976). Yeast α-isopropylmalate isomerase. Factors affecting stability and enzyme activity. J. biol. Chem. 251, 35453552.
81Bingham E. C. (1941). Fluidity of electrolytes. J. phys. Chem. 45, 885903.
82Bio-Rad (1984). The Bio-Gel phenyl-5PW column: reversed phase without denaturation. Bulletin 1153, Bio-Rad, Richmond, California.
83Blake C. C. F., Pulford W. C. A. & Artymiuk P. J. (1983). X-ray studies of water in crystals of lysozyme. J. molec. Biol. 167, 693723.
84Blandamer M. J. (1973). Acoustic properties. In Water. A Comprehensive Treatise, vol. 2: Water in Crystalline Hydrates. Aqueous Solutions of Simple Nonelectrolytes (ed. Franks F.), pp. 495528. New York: Plenum Press.
85Blandamer M. J., Clarke D. E., Claxton T. A., Fox M. F., Hidden N. J., Oakes J., Symons M. C. R., Verma G. S. P. & Wootten M. J. (1967 a). Application of spectroscopic and relaxation techniques to the study of t–butyl alcohol–water mixtures. Chem. Comm. 273274.
86Blandamer M. J. & Fox M. F. (1970). Theory and applications of charge-transfer-to-solvent spectra. Chem. Rev. 70, 5993.
87Blandamer M. J., Hidden N. J., Symons M. C. R. & Treloar N. C. (1969). Ultrasonic absorption properties of solutions. Part 7. Mixtures of water + substituted alcohols. Trans. Faraday Soc. 65, 18051809.
88Bockris J. O'M., Devanathan M. A. V. & Muller K. (1963). On the structure of charged interfaces. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A274, 5579.
89Bode W. & Schwager P. (1975). The refined crystal structure of bovine β-trypsin at 1·8 Å resolution. II. Crystallographic refinement, calcium binding site, benzamidine binding site and active site at pH 7·0. J. Molec. Biol. 98, 693717.
90Boggs J. M., Yoong T. & Hsia J. C. (1976). Site and mechanism of anesthetic action. I. Effect of anesthetics and pressure on fluidity of spin-labeled lipid vesicles. Mol. Pharmacol. 12, 127135.
91Bohon R. L. & Claussen W. F. (1951). The solubility of aromatic hydrocarbons in water. J. Am. chem. Soc. 73, 15711578.
92Bonner O. D., Arisman R. K. & Jumper C. F. (1977). The effect of organic solutes on water structure. Z. phys. Chem. (Leipzig) 258, 4958.
93Bonner O. D. & Woolsey G. B. (1968). The effect of solutes and temperature on the structure of water. J phys. Chem. 72, 899905.
94Borak J. (1978). Chromatographic behaviour of inorganic salts on hydroxyethyl methacrylate gels. J. Chromat. 155, 6982.
95Borejdo J., Linder S. & Werber M. M. (1984). Hydrophobic interaction chromatography of myosin fragments: potential use in purification. Arch. biochem. Biophys. 231, 193201.
96Bourgarit J.-J. (1975). Random immunoglobulin. I. Non-specific adsorption of the fluorescent dye rhodamine B on human immunoglobulin is resolved from fluorescence quenching titration in chao-tropic media. Ann. Immunol. (Inst. Pasteur) 126C, 639652.
97Bower V. E. & Robinson R. A. (1963). The thermodynamics of the ternary system: urea–sodium chloride–water at 25°. J. phys. Chem. 67, 15241527.
98Bradbury S. L. & Jakoby W. B. (1972). Glycerol as an enzyme-stabilizing agent: effects on aldehyde dehydrogenase. Proc. natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 69, 23732376.
99Braibanti A. (ed.) (1979). Bioenergetics and Thermodynamics: Model Systems. Boston: D. Reidel.
100Brandts J. F. (1964). The thermodynamics of protein denaturation. I. The denaturation of chymotrypsinogen. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 86, 42914301.
101Brandts J. F. (1967). Heat effects on proteins and enzmes. In Thermobiology (ed. Rose A. H.), pp. 2572. New York: Academic Press.
102Brandts J. F., Fu J. & Nordin J. H. (1970). The low temperature denaturation of chymotrypsinogen in aqueous solution and in frozen aqueous solution. In The Frozen Cell (ed. Wolstenholme G. E. W. and O'Connor M.), pp. 189212. Ciba Foundation Symposium, London: J. & A. Churchill.
103Brandts J. F. & Hunt L. (1967). The thermodynamics of protein denaturation. III. The denaturation of ribonuclease in water and in aqueous urea and aqueous ethanol mixtures. J. Am. chem. Soc. 89, 48264838.
104Britton H. G., Rubio V. & Grisolia S. (1981). Synthesis of carbamoyl phosphate by carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I in the absence of acetylglutamate. Activation of the enzyme by cryoprotectants. Biochem. biophys. Res. Comm. 99, 11311137.
105Brooks D. E. (1973 a). The effect of neutral polymers on the electrokinetic potential of cells and other charged particles. II. A model for the effect of adsorbed polymer on the diffuse double layer. J. Colloid and Interface Sci. 43, 687699.
106Brooks D. E. (1973 b). The effect of neutral polymers on the electrokinetic potential of cells and other charged particles. III. Experimental studies on the dextran/erythrocyte system. J. Colloid and Interface Sci. 43, 700713.
107Brooks D. E., Greig R. G. & Janzen J. (1980). Mechanisms of erythrocyte aggregation. In Erythrocyte Mechanics and Blood Flow (ed. Cokelet G. R., Meiselman H. J. and Brooks D. E.), pp. 119140. Kroc. Found. Ser. 13, New York: Alan R. Liss.
108Brooks D. E. & Seaman G. V. F. (1973). The effect of neutral polymers on the electrokinetic potential of cells and other charged particles. I. Models for the zeta potential increase. J. Colloid and Interface Sci. 43, 670686.
109Brown A. D. (1976). Microbial water stress. Bact. Rev. 40, 803846.
110Brown J. E. & Klee W. A. (1971). Helix-coil transition of the isolated amino terminus of ribonuclease. Biochemistry 10, 470476.
111Brown R. F. (1962). The linear enthalpy–entropy effect. J. Org. Chem. 27, 30153026.
112Bruins E. M. (1932). Numerical definition of the lyotropic series. Proc. Acad. Sci. Amsterdam 35, 107115.
113Bruins E. M. (1934). The lyotropic number and its elucidation. Ree. trav. chim. 53, 292307.
114Buchner E. H. (1934). A quantitative relationship in the lyotropic series. Rec. trav. chim. 53, 288291.
115Buchner E. H. (1936). Quantitative relations in the lyotropic series. Kolloid-Zeitschrift 75, 19.
116Buchner E. H. (1942). The lyotropic effect. Chem. Weekblad 39, 402404.
117Bull H. B. (1981). Protein hydration: a sucrose probe. Arch. biochem. Biophys. 208, 229232.
118Bull H. B. & Breese K. (1978). Interaction of alcohols with proteins. Biopolymers 17, 21212131.
119Bush C. A., Ralapati S., Matson G. M., Yamasaki R. B., Osuga D. T., Yeh Y. & Feeney R. E. (1984). Conformation of the antifreeze glycoprotein of polar fish. Arch. biochem. Biophys. 232, 624631.
120Buswell A. M., Gore R. C. & Rodebush W. H. (1939). Effect of ions of the lyotropic series on the infrared absorption spectrum of water. J. phys. Chem. 43, 11811184.
121Butler J. A. V. (1937). The energy and entropy of hydration of organic compounds. Trans. Faraday Soc. 33, 229238.
122Bywater R. P. & Marsden N. V. B. (1983). Gel chromatography. In Journal of Chromatography Library 22A, Chromatography Fundamentals and Applications of Chromatographic and Electro-phoretic Methods, part A: Fundamentals and Techniques (ed. Heftmann E.), pp. A257–A330. New York: Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co.
123Calhoun D. B. & Englander S. W. (1985). Internal protein motions, concentrated glycerol, and hydrogen exchange studied in myoglobin. Biochemistry, 24, 20952100.
124Cantwell F. F. & Puon S. (1979). Mechanism of Chromatographic retention of organic ions on a nonionic adsorbent. Analyt. Chem. 51, 623632.
125Caplan A. I. (1984). Cartilage. Scientific American 251, 8494.
126Cargill R. W. & Morrison T. J. (1975). Solubility of argon in water + alcohol systems. J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 1 71, 618624.
127Carlson S. S. & Kelly R. B. (1983). A highly antigenic proteoglycan-like component of cholinergic synaptic vesicles. J. biol. Chem. 258, 1108211091.
128Carrelli A. & Caggia L. D. (1959). On the dielectric constant of some aqueous solutions. Il Nuovo Cimento 14, 161167.
129Casassa E. F. & Eisenberg H. (1961). Partial specific volumes and refractive index increments in multicomponent systems. J. phys. Chem. 65, 427433.
130Casassa E. F. & Eisenberg H. (1964). Thermodynamic analysis of multicomponent solutions. Adv. Protein Chem. 19, 287395.
131Chadwell H. M. & Asnes B. (1930). The viscosities of several aqueous solutions of organic substances II. J Am. chem. Soc. 52, 35073518.
132Chandra B. R. S., Prakash V. & Rao M. S. N. (1986). Partial specific volume and interaction of glycinin with solvent components in urea and guanidine hydrochloride. Int. J. Peptide Protein Res. 27, 138144.
133Chandrasekhar J., Spellmeyer D. C. & Jorgensen W. L. (1984). Energy component analysis for dilute aqueous solutions of Li+, Na+, F, and Cl ions. J Am. chem. Soc. 106, 903910.
134Charest R. & Dunn A. (1984). Chromatographic separation of choline, trimethylamine, trimethylamine oxide, and betaine from tissues of marine fish. Analyt. Biochem. 136, 421424.
135Cheesman D. F. & King A. (1940). The electrical double layer in relation to the stabilisation of emulsions with electrolytes. Trans. Faraday Soc. 36, 241247.
136Chien S. (1980). Aggregation of red blood cells: an electrochemical and colloid chemical problem. In Bioelectrochemistry: ions, surfaces, membranes (ed. Blank M.), Adv. Chem. Ser. no. 188, pp. 338, Washington, D.C.: American Chemical Society.
137Chilson O. P., Costello L. A. & Kaplan N. O. (1965). Effects of freezing on enzymes. Fedn Proc. 24, S55–S65.
138Choppin G. R. & Buijs K. (1963). Near-infrared studies of the structure of water. II. Ionic solutions. J. chem. Phys. 39, 20422050.
139Ciferri A. & Orofino T. A. (1966). Phase separation of poly-L-proline in salt solutions. J. phys. Chem. 70, 32773285.
140Clark M. E., Hinke J. A. M. & Todd M. E. (1981). Studies on water in barnacle muscle fibres. II. Role of ions and organic solutes in swelling of chemically-skinned fibres. J. exp. Biol. 90, 4363.
141Clark M. E. & Zounes M. (1977). The effects of selected cell osmolytes on the activity of lactate dehydrogenase from the eury-haline polychaete, Nereis succinea. Biol. Bull. 153, 468484.
142Clarke G. A. & Taft R. W. (1962). The effects of aqueous electrolytes on the activity coefficient of t–butyl chloride and of its solvolysis transition state. J. Am. chem. Soc. 84, 22952303.
143Cohen A. S., Shirahama T., Sipe J. D. & Skinner M. (1984). Amyloid proteins, precursors, mediator, and enhancer. Adv. Biol. Dis. 1, 8386.
144Combes D. & Monsan P. (1984). Effect of polyhydric alcohols on invertase stabilization. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 434, 6163.
145Comper W. D. & Laurent T. C. (1978). Physiological function of connective tissue polysaccharides. Physiol. Reviews 58, 255315.
146Conde O., Teixeira J. & Papon P. (1982). Analysis of sound velocity in supercooled H2O, D2O, and water–ethanol mixtures. J. chem. Phys. 76, 37473753.
147Conway B. E. (1966). Electrolyte solutions: solvation and structural aspects. Ann. Rev. phys. Chem. 17, 481528.
148Conway B. E. (1975). Ion hydration near air/water interfaces and the structure of liquid surfaces. J. Electroanal. Chem. 65, 491504.
149Conway B. E. (1977). The state of water and hydrated ions at interfaces. Adv. in Colloid and Interface Sci. 8, 91212.
150Conway B. E. (1978). The evaluation and use of properties of individual ions in solution. J. Sol. Chem. 7, 721770.
151Conway B. E. (1981). Ionic Hydration in Chemistry and Biophysics. Studies in Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, vol. 12. New York: Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co.
152Conway B. E., Desnoyers J. E. & Smith A. C. (1964). On the hydration of simple ions and polyions. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 256, 389437.
153Conway B. E. & Laliberte L. H. (1968). H2O–D2O isotope effect in partial molal volumes of alkali metal and tetraalkylammonium salts. J. phys. Chem. 72, 43174319.
154Cordeiro R. F. & Savarese T. M. (1984). Reversal by L-cysteine of the growth inhibitory and glutathione-depleting effects of N–Methylformamide and N, N -dimethylformamide. Biochem. biophys. Res. Comm. 122, 798803.
155Costerton J. W., Irvin R. T. & Cheng K.-J. (1981). The bacterial glycocalyx in nature and disease. Ann. Rev. Microbiol. 35, 299324.
156Cotton F. A. & Wilkinson G. (1980). Advanced Inorganic Chemistry. A Comprehensive Text, p. 543. New York: John Wiley.
157Couture A. M. & Laidler K. J. (1956). The partial molal volumes of ions in aqueous solution. I. Dependence on charge and radius. Can. J. Chem. 34, 12091216.
158Couture A. M. & Laidler K. J. (1957). The partial molal volumes of ions in aqueous solution. II. An empirical equation for oxy-anions. Can. J. Chem. 35, 207210.
159Cowie J. M. G. & Toporowski P. M. (1961). Association in the binary liquid system dimethyl sulphoxide–water. Can. J. Chem. 39, 22402243.
160Cowley A. C., Fuller N. L., Rand R. P. & Parsegian V. A. (1978). Measurement of repulsive forces between charged phospholipid bilayers. Biochemistry 17, 31633168.
161Cox B. G. (1973). Free energies, enthalpies, and entropies of transfer of non-electrolytes from water to mixtures of water and dimethyl sulphoxide, water and acetonitrile, and water and dioxan. J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans. II, 607610.
162Cox W. M. & Wolfenden J. H. (1934). The viscosity of strong electrolytes measured by a differential method. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. 145, 475488.
163Creighton T. E. (1980). Role of the environment in the refolding of reduced pancreatic trypsin inhibitor. J. Molec. Biol. 144, 521550.
164Cupane A., Giacomazza D. & Cordone L. (1982). Kinetics of thermal denaturation of met-hemoglobin in perturbed solvent: relevance of bulk-electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. Biopolymers 21, 10811092.
165Cupo P., El-Deiry W., Whitney P. L. & Awad W. M. Jr., (1980). Stabilization of proteins by guanidination. J. bol. Chem. 255, 1082810833.
166Damodaran S. & Kinsella J. E. (1980). Stabilization of proteins by solvents. Effect of pH and anions on the positive cooperativity of 2-nonanone binding to bovine serum albumin. J. biol. Chem. 255, 85038508.
167Damodaran S. & Kinsella J. E. (1981). The effects of neutral salts on the stability of macromolecules. A new approach using a protein-ligand binding system. J. biol. Chem. 256, 33943398.
168Damodaran S. & Kinsella J. E. (1983). Dissociation of nucleoprotein complexes by chaotropic salts. FEBS Lett. 158, 5357.
169Da Silva J. J. J. R. F. & Williams R. J. P. (1976). The uptake of elements by biological systems. Structure and Bonding 29, 67121.
170Davidson D. W. (1973). Clathrate hydrates. In Water. A Comprehensive Treatise, vol. 2: Water in Crystalline Hydrates; Aqueous Solutions of Simple Nonelectrolytes (ed. Franks F.), pp. 115234. New York: Plenum Press.
171Davidson D. W., Garg S. K., Gough S. R., Handa Y. P., Ratcliffe C. L., Tse J. S. & Ripmeester J. A. (1984). Some structural and thermodynamic studies of clathrate hydrates. J. Inclusion Phenomena 2, 231238.
172Davidson S. J. & Jencks W. P. (1969). The effect of concentrated salt solutions on a merocyanine dye, a Vinylogous amide. J. Am. chem. Soc. 91, 225234.
173Davies J., Ormondroyd S. & Symons M. C. R. (1971 a). Solvation spectra. Part 41 – absolute proton magnetic resonance shifts for water protons induced by cations and anions in aqueous solutions. Trans. Faraday Soc. 67, 34653473.
174Davies J., Ormondroyd S. & Symons M. C. R. (1971 b). Proton nuclear magnetic resonance shifts for water containing alkylammonium ions. Chem. Comm. 12041205.
175Davies P. L., Hough C., Scott G. K., Ng N., White B. N. & Hew C. L. (1984). Antifreeze protein genes of the winter flounder. J. biol. Chem. 259, 92419247.
176Davson H. (1940). The influence of the lyotropic series of anions on cation permeability. Biochem. J. 34, 917925.
177De Visser C., Perron G. & Desnoyers J. E. (1977). The heat capacities, volumes, and expansibilities of tert–butyl alcohol–water mixtures from 6 to 65 °C. Can. J. Chem. 55, 856862.
178Debye P. (1954). The electric field of ions and salting-out [Z. Physik. Chem. 130, 5664 (1927)]; The Collected Papers of Peter J. W. Debye, pp. 366373. New York: Interscience.
179Decastel M., Bourrillon R. & Frenoy J.-P. (1981). Cryo-insolubility of peanut agglutinin. Effect of saccharides and neutral salts. J. biol. Chem. 256, 90039008.
180Deguchi T. (1975). Separation of halide anions by gel chromatography. J. Chromat. 108, 409414.
181Deguchi T., Hisanaga A. & Nagai H. (1977). Chromatographic behaviour of inorganic anions on a sephadex G-15 column. J. Chromatog. 133, 173179.
182DePuy C. H., Della E. W., Filley J., Grabowski J. J. & Bier-Baum V. M. (1983). Absence of an α-effect in the gas-phase nucleophilic reactions of HOO. J. Am. chem. Soc. 105, 24812482.
183Desnoyers J. E., Arel M., Perron G. & Jolicoeur C. (1969). Apparent molal volumes of alkali halides in water at 25°. Influence of structural hydration interactions on the concentration dependence. J. phys. Chem. 73, 33463351.
184Desnoyers J. E. & Jolicoeur C. (1969). Hydration effects and thermodyamic properties of ions. In Modern Aspects of Electrochemistry, no. 5 (ed. Bockris J. O'M. and Conway B. E.), pp. 189. New York: Plenum Press.
185Determann H. & Walter I. (1968). Source of aromatic affinity to ‘Sephadex’ dextran gels. Nature 219, 604605.
186DeTrobriand A., Ceccaldi M., Monique H., Marciacq-Rousselot M. M. & Lucas M. (1972). Infrared spectroscopic study of the effect of addition of quaternary ammonium salts to water at different temperatures. C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris Sér. C 274, 919922.
187DeVries A. L. (1983). Antifreeze peptides and glycopeptides in cold-water fishes. Ann. Rev. Physiol. 45, 245260.
188Diamond D. A., Berry S. J., Jewett H. J., Eggleston J. C. & Coffey D. S. (1982). A new method to assesses metastatic potential of human prostate cancer: relative nuclear roundness. J. Urology 128, 729734.
189DiGuiseppi J. & Fridovich I. (1982). Oxygen toxicity in Streptococcus sanguis. The relative importance of Superoxide and hydroxyl radicals. J. biol. Chem. 257, 40464051.
190Dimmling W. & Lange E. (1951). Heats of dilution and solution of n–propyl alcohol and isopropyl alcohol in water at 25°. Z. Elektro-chem. 55, 322327.
191Di Paolo T., Kier L. B. & Hall L. H. (1977). Molecular connectivity and structure–activity relationship of general anesthetics. Molec. Pharmacol. 13, 3137.
192Doan P. E. & Drago R. S. (1984). Requirements and interpretation of linear free energy relations. J. Am. chem. Soc. 106, 27722774.
193Doebbler G. F. & Rinfret A. P. (1962). The influence of protective compounds and cooling and warming conditions on hemolysis of erythrocytes by freezing and thawing. Biochim. biophys. Acta 58, 449458.
194Doebbler G. F. & Rinfret A. P. (1965). Rapid freezing of human blood. Physical and chemical considerations of injury and protection. Cryobiology 1, 205211.
195Donovan J. W. (1977). A study of the baking process by differential scanning calorimetry. J. Sci. Fd. Agric. 28, 571578.
196Duman J. & Horwath K. (1983). The role of hemolymph proteins in the cold tolerance of insects. Ann. Rev. Physiol. 45, 261270.
197Dundee J. W. (1970). Intravenous ethanol anesthesia: a study of dosage and blood levels. Anesth. Analg. 49, 467475.
198Duran N., Baeza J., Freer J., Brunet J. E., Gonzalez G. A., Sotomayor C. P. & Faljoni-Alario A. (1981). Dimethyl sulfoxide as chemical and biological probe: conformational effect on peroxidase systems. Biochem. biophys. Res. Commun. 103, 131138.
199Dwivedi P. C. & Rao C. N. R. (1970). Spectroscopic studies of the charge-transfer interactions of halide ions. Spectrochimica acta 26A, 15351543.
200Merck E., (1985). Fractogel® TSK butyl. In Fractogel® TSK Polymeric Media for Biochromatography, pp. 3135. Darmstadt: E. Merck.
201Eagland D. (1975). Nucleic acids, peptides, and proteins. In Water. A Comprehensive Treatise, vol. 4: Aqueous Solutions of Amphiphiles and Macromolecules (ed. Franks F.), pp. 305518. New York: Plenum Press.
202Eagland D. & Allen A. P. (1977). The influence of hydration upon the potential at the shear plane (zeta potential) of a hydrophobic surface in the presence of various electrolytes. J. Colloid and Interface Sci. 58, 230241.
203Earp H. S., Rubin R. A., Austin K. S. & Dy R. C. (1983). DMSO increases tyrosine residue phosphorylation in membranes from murine erythroleukemia cells. Biochem. biophys. Res. Comm. 112, 413418.
204Ebert G. & Kuroyanagi Y. (1983). Conformational studies of alternating copoly(Leu-Lys) and copoly(Leu-Orn) in alcohol–water solvent mixtures. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 5, 106110.
205Edmond E. & Ogston A. G. (1968). An approach to the study of phase separation in ternary aqueous systems. Biochem. J. 109, 569576.
206Edsall J. T. (1979). The development of the physical chemistry of proteins 1898–1940. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 325, 5374.
207Edsall J. T. (1981). Edwin J. Cohn and the physical chemistry of proteins. Trends Biochem. Sci. 6, 335337.
208Edsall J. T. & Gutfreund H. (1983). Biothermodynamics. The Study of Biochemical Processes at Equilibrium. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
209Edsall J. T. & McKenzie H. A. (1978). Water and proteins. I. The significance and structure of water; its interaction with electrolytes and non-electrolytes. Adv. Biophys. 10, 137207.
210Edsall J. T. & McKenzie H. A. (1983). Water and proteins. II. The location and dynamics of water in protein systems and its relation to their stability and properties. Adv. Biophys. 16, 53183.
211Edsall J. T. & Wyman J. (1958). Biophysical Chemistry, vol. 1: Thermodynamics, Electrostatics, and the Biological Significance of the properties of Matter. New York: Academic Press.
212Edwards J. O. & Pearson R. G. (1962). The factors determining nucleophilic reactivities. J. Am. chem. Soc. 84, 1624.
213Eftink M. R., Anusiem A. C. & Biltonen R. L. (1983). Enthalpy–Entropy compensation and heat capacity changes for protein–ligand interactions: general thermodynamic models and data for the binding of nucleotides to ribonuclease A. Biochemistry 22, 38843896.
214Egan B. Z. (1968). Selectivity of polyacrylamide and dextran gels for simple cations and anions. J. Chromatog. 34, 382388.
215Egan E. P. & Luff B. B. (1966). Heat of solution, heat capacity, and density of aqueous urea solutions at 25 °C. J. Chem. Eng. Data 11, 192194.
216Eger E. I. II, (1974). Anesthetic Uptake and Action. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins Co.
217Eger E. I. II, Lundgren C., Miller S. L. & Stevens W. C. (1969). Anesthetic potencies of sulfur hexafluoride, carbon tetrafluoride, chloroform and ethrane in dogs: correlation with the hydrate and lipid theories of anesthetic action. Anesthesiology 30, 129135.
218Eger E. I., Saidman L. J. & Brandstater B. (1965). Temperature dependence of halothane and cyclopropane anesthesia in dogs: correlation with some theories of anesthetic action. Anesthesiology 26, 764770.
219Ehrenfeld G. M., Francis T. A. & Hecht S. M. (1983). Loss of positional specificity in the aminoacylation of Escherichia coli tRNAGLY*. J. biol. Chem. 258, 1174511750.
220Eigen M. (1952). Theory of heat conductivity of aqueous electrolyte solutions. Z. Elektrochem. 56, 836840.
221Eigen M. & Wicke E. (1951). Hydration of ions and specific heats of aqueous solutions of electrolytes. Z. Elektrochem. 55, 354363.
222Eisenberg D. & Kauzmann W. (1969). The Structure and Properties of Water, p. 218. New York: Oxford University Press.
223Eisenberg H. (1976). Biological Macromolecules and Polyelectrolytes in Solution. Oxford: Clarendon.
224Eisenberg H., Haik Y., Ifft J. B., Leicht W., Mevarech M. & Pundak S. (1978). Interactions of proteins and nucleic acids with solutes in concentrated solutions of monovalent salts, relating to hydration, structural transitions and inactivation of halophilic malate and glutamate dehydrogenase. In Energetics and Structure of Halophilic Microorganisms (ed. Caplan S. R. and Ginzburg M.), pp. 1332. New York: Elsevier/North Holland Biomedical.
225Eisenman G. (1969). Theory of membrane electrode potentials: an examination of the parameters determining the selectivity of solid and liquid ion exchangers and of neutral ion-sequestering molecules. In Ion-Selective Electrodes (ed. Durst R. A.), pp. 156. National Bureau of Standards Special Publication 314. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Govt. Printing Off.
226Eley D. D. & Evans M. G. (1938). Heats and entropy changes accompanying the solution of ions in water. Trans. Faraday Soc. 34, 10931112.
227Ellerton H. D. & Dunlop P. J. (1966). Activity coefficients for the systems water–urea and water–urea–sucrose at 25 °C from isopiestic measurements. J. phys. Chem. 70, 18311837.
228Elworthy P. H. (1961). The adsorption of water vapour by lecithin and lysolecithin, and the hydration of lysolecithin micelles. J. Chem. Soc. 53855389.
229Enderby J. E. & Neilson G. W. (1980). Structural properties of ionic liquids. Adv. Phys. 29, 323365.
230Endom L., Hertz H. G., Thul B. & Zeidler M. D. (1967). A microdynamic model of electrolyte solutions as derived from nuclear relaxation and self-diffusion data. Deutsche Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 71, 10081031.
231Engbersen J. F. J. & Engberts J. B. F. N. (1975). Water structure and its kinetic effects on the neutral hydrolysis of two acyl activated esters. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 97, 15631568.
232Engberts J. B. F. N. (1979). Mixed aqueous solvent effects on kinetics and mechanisms of organic reactions. In Water. A Comprehensive Treatise, vol. 6: Recent Advances (ed. Franks F.), pp. 139237. New York: Plenum Press.
233Engel G. & Hertz H. G. (1968). On the negative hydration. A nuclear magnetic relaxation study. Ber. der Bunsengesellschaft 72, 808834.
234Epton R., Holloway C. & McLaren J. V. (1976). Enzacryl® gel packings. Inorganic salt compatibility, pH stability and ion-exchange derivatives. J. Chromatog. 117, 245255.
235Eucken A. (1948). Ion hydrates in aqueous solution. Z. Elektrochem. 52, 624.
236Evans M. G. & Polanyi M. (1936). Further considerations on the thermodynamics of chemical equilibria and reaction rates. Trans. Faraday Soc. 32, 13331360.
237Exner O. (1964). On the enthalpy–entropy relationship. Collection of Czechoslovak Chem. Comm. 29, 10941113.
238Eyring H. (1935). The activated complex in chemical reactions. J. Chem. Phys. 3, 107115.
239Fabricand B. P. & Goldberg S. (1961). Proton resonance shifts in alkali halide solutions. J. chem. Phys. 34, 16241628.
240Farquhar M. G., Courtoy P. J., Lemkin M. C. & Kanwar Y. S. (1982). Current knowledge of the functional architecture of the glomerular basement membrane. In New Trends in Basement Membrane Research (ed. Kuehn K., Schoene H. and Timpl R.), pp. 929. New York: Raven Press.
241Farrah S. R., Shah D. O. & Ingram L. O. (1981). Effects of chaotropic and antichaotropic agents on elution of poliovirus adsorbed on membrane filters. Proc. natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 78, 12291232.
242Farrant J. (1977). Water transport and cell survival in cryobio-logical procedures. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B278, 191205.
243Fausnaugh J. L., Pfannkoch E., Gupta S. & Regnier F. E. (1984). High-performance hydrophobic interaction chromatography of proteins. Anal. Biochem. 137, 464472.
244Feakins D. & Watson P. (1963). Studies in ion solvation innon-aqueous solvents and their aqueous mixtures. Part II. Properties of ion constituents. J. Chem. Soc. 47344741.
245Featherstone R. M. & Muehlbaecher C. A. (1963). The current role of inert gases in the search for anesthesia mechanisms. Pharmacological Reviews 15, 97121.
246Feeney R. E., Osuga D. T. & Yeh Y. (1979). Anomalous depression of the freezing temperature by blood-serum proteins of fishes. In Proteins at Low Temperatures (ed. Fennema O.), pp. 83107. Advances in Chemistry Series, no. 180. Washington, D.C.: American Chemical Society.
247Feeney R. E. & Yeh Y. (1978). Antifreeze proteins from fish bloods. Adv. in Protein Chem. 32, 191282.
248Feierman D. E. & Cederbaum A. I. (1983). The effect of EDTA and iron on the oxidation of hydroxyl radical scavenging agents and ethanol by rat liver microsomes. Biochem. biophys. Res. Comm. 116, 765770.
249Finer E. G., Franks F. & Tait M. J. (1972). Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of aqueous urea solutions. J. Am. chem. Soc. 94, 44244429.
250Finney J. L. (1977). The organization and function of water in protein crystals. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B278, 332.
251Finney J. L. (1979). The organization and function of water in protein crystals. In Water. A Comprehensive Treatise, vol. 6: Recent Advances (ed. Franks F.), pp. 47122. New York: Plenum Press.
252Fischer L. (1980). Gel Filtration Chromatography. Laboratory Techniques in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (ed. Work T. S. & Burdon R. H.). New York: Elsevier/North Holland Biomedical Press.
253Fishbein W. N. & Winkert J. W. (1979). Parameters of freezing damage to enzymes. In Proteins at Low Temperatures (ed. Fennema O.), pp. 5582, Advances in Chemistry Series, vol. 180. Washington, D.C.: American Chemical Society.
254Fister F. & Hertz H. G. (1967). O17-NMR study of aqueous electrolyte and non-electrolyte solutions. Deutsche Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 71, 10321040.
255Flory P. J. (1949). The configuration of real polymer chains. J. chem. Phys. 17, 303310.
256Flory P. J. (1953). Principles of Polymer Chemistry. Ithaca: Cornell.
257Flory P. J. (1969). Statistical Mechanics of Chain Molecules. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
258Formisano S., Johnson M. L. & Edelhoch H. (1978). Effects of Hofmeister salts on the self-association of Glucagon. Biochemistry 17, 14681473.
259Fox T. G. Jr, & Flory P. J. (1949). Intrinsic viscosity–molecular weight relationships for polyisobutylene. J. phys. and Colloid Chem. 53, 197212.
260Frank H. S. & Evans M. W. (1945). Free volume and entropy in condensed systems. III. Entropy in binary liquid mixtures: partial molal entropy in dilute solutions; structure and thermodynamics in aqueous electrolytes. J. chem. Phys. 13, 507532.
261Frank H. S. & Robinson A. L. (1940). The entropy of dilution of strong electrolytes in aqueous solutions. J chem. Phys. 8, 933938.
262Frank H. S. & Wen W.-Y. (1957). III. Ion-solvent interaction. Structural aspects of ion-solvent interaction in aqueous solutions: a suggested picture of water structure. Discuss. of the Faraday Soc. 24, 133140.
263Franks F. (1975). The hydrophobic interaction. In Water. A Comprehensive Treatise, vol. 4: Aqueous Solutions of Amphiphiles and Macromolecules (ed. Franks F.), pp. 194. New York: Plenum Press.
264Franks F. (1977). Solvation and conformational effects in aqueous solutions of biopolymer analogues. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 278, 3357.
265Franks F. (ed.) (1982 a). Water. A Comprehensive Treatise, vol. 7: Water and Aqueous Solutions at Subzero Temperatures. New York: Plenum Press.
266Franks F. (1982 b). The nucleation of ice in undercooled aqueous solutions. Cryo-Letters 2, 2731.
267Franks F. (1982 c). Apparent osmotic activities of water soluble polymers used as cryoprotectants. Cryo-Letters 3, 115120.
268Franks F. (1985). Biophysics and Biochemistry at Low Temperatures. New York: Cambridge University Press.
269Franks F. & Eagland D. (1975). The role of solvent interactions in protein conformation. CRC Critical Reviews in Biochemistry 3, 165219.
270Franks F. & Ives D. J. G. (1960). The adsorption of alcohols at hydrocarbon–water interfaces. J. Chem. Soc. 741754.
271Franks F. & Ives D. J. G. (1966). The structural properties of alcohol–water mixtures. Q. Rev. 20, 144.
272Franks F. & Johnson H. H. (1962). Accurate evaluation of partial molar properties. Trans. Faraday Soc. 58, 656661.
273Franks F., Mathias S. F., Parsonage P. & Tang T. B. (1983). Differential scanning calorimetric study on ice nucleation in water and in aqueous solutions of hydroxyethyl starch. Thermochimica acta 61, 195202.
274Franks F. & Reid D. S. (1973). Thermodynamic properties. In Water. A Comprehensive Treatise, vol. 2: Water in Crystalline Hydrates. Aqueous Solutions of Simple Nonelectrolytes (ed. Franks F.), pp. 323380. New York: Plenum Press.
275Franks F. & Smith H. T. (1968). Volumetric properties of alcohols in dilute aqueous solutions. Trans. Faraday Soc. 64, 29622972.
276Freed K. F. (1985). Polymer excluded volume and the renormalization group. Acc. Chem. Res. 18, 3845.
277Frey P. A. & Sammons R. D. (1985). Bond order and charge localization in nucleoside phosphorothioates. Science 228, 541545.
278Fridovich I. (1963). Inhibition of acetoacetic decarboxylase by anions. J. biol. Chem. 238, 592598.
279Fried M. & Chun P. W. (1971). Water-soluble nonionic polymers in protein purification. Meth. Enzymol. 22, 238248.
280Fried M. G. & Bloomfield V. A. (1984). DNA gelation in concentrated solutions. Biopolymers 23, 21412155.
281Friedman H. L. & Krishnan C. V. (1973). Thermodynamics of ion hydration. In Water. A Comprehensive Treatise, vol. 3: Aqueous Solutions of Simple Electrolytes (ed. Franks F.), pp. 1118. New York: Plenum Press.
282Friedman M. E. & Scheraga H. A. (1965). Volume changes in hydrocarbon–water systems. Partial molal volumes of alcohol–water solutions. J. phys. Chem. 69, 37953800.
283Frumkin A. (1924). Phase-boundary forces and adsorption at the interface air: solutions of inorganic salts. Z. physik. Chem. 109, 3448.
284Frumkin A., Reichstein S. & Kulvarskaja R. (1926). Ion absorption in the water surface. Kolloid-Z, 40, 911.
285Frumkin A. N., Yofa Z. A. & Gerovich M. A. (1956). On the potential difference at the water–air interface. Zh. Fiz. Khim. 30, 14551468.
286Fujio M., McLver R. T. Jr, & Taft R. W. (1981). Effects on the acidities of phenols from specific substituent–solvent interactions. Inherent substituent parameters from gas-phase acidities. J. Am. chem. Soc. 103, 40174029.
287Fuller R. S., Kaguni J. M. & Kornberg A. (1981). Enzymatic replication of the origin of the Escherichia coli chromosome. Proc. Natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 78, 73707374.
288Fulton A.B. (1982). How crowded is the cytoplasm? Cell 30, 345347.
289Geiger A., Rahman A. & Stillinger F. H. (1979). Molecular dynamics study of the hydration of Lennard–Jones solutes. J. chem. Phys. 70, 263276.
290Geigert J., DeWitt S. K., Neidleman S. L., Lee G., Dalietos D. J. & Moreland M. (1983). DMSO is a substrate for chloro-peroxidase. Biochem. biophys. Res. Comm. 116, 8285.
291Gekko K. (1982). Mechanism of protein stabilization by polyols:thermodynamics of transfer of amino acids and proteins from water to aqueous polyol solutions. In Ions and Molecules in Solution (ed. Tanaka N., Ohtaki H. and Tamamushi R.), pp. 339358. New York: Elsevier Science Publishers.
292Gekko K. & Morikawa T. (1981 a). Preferential hydration of bovine serum albumin in polyhydric alcohol–water mixtures. J. Biochem. 90, 3950.
293Gekko K. & Morikawa T. (1981 b). Thermodynamics of polyol-induced thermal stabilization of chymotrypsinogen. J. Biochem. 90, 5160.
294Gekko K. & Timasheff S. N. (1981 a). Mechanism of protein stabilization by glycerol: preferential hydration in glycerol–water mixtures. Biochem. 20, 46674676.
295Gekko K. & Timasheff S. N. (1981 b). Thermodynamic and kinetic examination of protein stabilization by glycerol. Biochem. 20, 46774686.
296George H., McMahan J., Bowler K. & Elliott M. (1969). Stabilization of lactate and malate dehydrogenase by organic solvents. Biochim. biophys. Acta 191, 466468.
297George M. F. & Burke M. J. (1984). Supercooling of tissue water to extreme low temperature in overwintering plants. Trends in Biochemical Sciences 7, 211214.
298Gerlsma S. Y. (1968). Reversible denaturation of ribonuclease in aqueous solutions as influenced by polyhydric alcohols and some other additives. J. biol. Chem. 243, 957961.
299Gerlsma S. Y. (1970). The effects of polyhydric and monohydric alcohols on the heat-induced reversible denaturation of chymotryp-sinogen A. Eur. J. Biochem. 14, 150153.
300Gerlsma S. Y. & Stuur E. R. (1972). The effect of polyhydric and monohydric alcohols on the heat-induced reversible denaturation of lysozyme and ribonuclease. Int. J. Peptide Protein Res. 4, 377383.
301Gerlsma S. Y. & Stuur E. R. (1974). The effects of combining two different alcohols on the heat-induced reversible denaturation of ribonuclease. Int. J. Peptide Protein Res. 6, 6574.
302Gershon N. D., Porter K. R. & Trus B. L. (1985). The cyto-plasmic matrix: its volume and surface area and the diffusion of molecules through it. Proc. Natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 82, 50305034.
303Gibbs J. W. (1928). The Collected Works of J. Willard Gibbs, Ph.D., LL.D., vol. 1: Thermodynamics. New York: Longmans, Green.
304Giese K., Kaatze U. & Pottel R. (1970). Permittivity and dielectric and proton magnetic relaxation of aqueous solutions of the alkali halides. J. phys. Chem. 74, 37183725.
305Gill S. J., Dec S. F., Olofsson G. & Wadso I. (1985). Anomalous heat capacity of hydrophobic solvation. J. phys. Chem. 89, 37583761.
306Gill S. J., Nichols N. F. & Wadso I. (1976). Calorimetric determination of enthalpies of solution of slightly soluble liquids. II. Enthalpy of solution of some hydrocarbons in water and their use in establishing the temperature dependence of their solubilities. J. Chem. Thermodynamics 8, 445452.
307Gilliland G. L. & Davies D. R. (1984). Protein crystallization: the growth of large-scale single crystals. Meth. Enzymol. 104, 370381.
308Gjerde D. T. & Fritz J. S. (1981). Sodium and potassium benzoate and benzoic acid as eluents for ion chromatography. Anal. Chem. 53, 23242327.
309Gjerde D. T., Fritz J. S. & Schmuckler G. (1979). Anion chromatography with low-conductivity eluents. J. Chromatog. 186, 509519.
310Gjerde D. T., Schmuckler G. & Fritz J. S. (1980). Anion chromatography with low-conductivity eluents. II. J. Chromatog. 187, 3545.
311Glasel J. A. (1972). Nuclear magnetic resonance studies on water and ice. In Water. A Comprehensive Treatise, vol. 1: The Physics and Physical Chemistry of Water (ed. Franks F.), pp. 215254. New York: Plenum Press.
312Glew D. N., Mak H. D. & Rath N. S. (1968). Aqueous non-electrolyte solutions. Part VII. Water shell stabilization by interstitial nonelectrolytes. In Hydrogen-Bonded Solvent Systems (ed. Covington A. K. and Jones P.), pp. 195210. London: Taylor & Francis.
313Click R. E., Stewart W. E. & Tewari K. C. (1966). Proton nuclear magnetic resonance solvent shifts in aqueous solutions of alkali halides. J. chem. Phys. 45, 40494052.
314Goard A. K. (1925). Negative adsorption. The surface tensions and activities of some aqueous salt solutions. J. Chem. Soc. 127, 24512458.
315Goldammer E. V. & Hertz H. G. (1970). Molecular motion and structure of aqueous mixtures with nonelectrolytes as studied by nuclear magnetic relaxation methods. J. phys. Chem. 74, 37343755.
316Gomez-Puyou M. T., De, Ayala G., Darszon A. & Gomez-Puyou A. (1984). Oxidative phosphorylation and the Pi-ATP exchange reaction of submitochondrial particles under the influence of organic solvents. J. biol. Chem. 259, 94729478.
317Gonzalez R. G., Barnett P., Aguayo J., Cheng H.-M. & Chylack L. T. Jr., (1984). Direct measurement of polyol pathway activity in the ocular lens. Diabetes 33, 196199.
318Good W. (1961 b). The haemolysis of human erythrocytes in relation to the lattice structure of water. III. The effect of non-electrolytes on malonamide-induced haemolysis. Biochim. biophys. Acta 50, 485493.
319Good W. (1961 c). The haemolysis of human erythrocytes in relation to the lattice structure of water. IV. Rapid haemolysis in solutions of erythrocyte-permeable substances. Biochim. biophys. Acta 52, 545551.
320Good W. (1962). The haemolysis of human erythrocytes in relation to the lattice structure of water. VI. Osmotic haemolysis in solution of non-electrolytes. Biochim. biophys. Acta 57, 104110.
321Gooding D., Schmuck M. & Gooding K. (1984). Analysis of proteins with new, mildly hydrophobic high-performance liquid chromatography packing materials. J. Chromatog. 296, 107114.
322Gorbunoff M. J. (1984). The interaction of proteins with hydroxyapatite. 1. Role of protein charge and structure. Analyt. Biochem. 136, 425432.
323Gordon J. E. (1975). The Organic Chemistry of Electrolyte Solutions. New York: Wiley-Interscience.
324Gordon J. E. & Thorne R. L. (1969). Proton nuclear magnetic resonance solvent shifts in aqeuous electrolyte solutions. II. Mixtures of two salts, additivity and nonlinearity of shifts. J. phys. Chem. 73, 36523660.
325Gorevic P. D. & Franklin E. C. (1981). Amyloidosis. Ann. Rev. Med. 32, 261271.
326Gould G. W. & Measures J. C. (1977). Water relations in single cells. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 6278, 151166.
327Grady S. R., Wang J. K. & Dekker E. E. (1981). Steady-state kinetics and inhibition studies of the aldol condensation reaction catalyzed by bovine liver and Escherichia coli 2-keto-4-hydroxy-glutarate aldolase. Biochemistry 20, 24972502.
328Gratzer W. B. & Beaven G. H. (1969). Effect of protein denaturation on micelle stability. J. phys. Chem. 73, 22702273.
329Graves D. J., Sealock R. W. & Wang J. H. (1965). Cold inactivation of glycogen phosphorylase. Biochemistry 4, 290296.
330Greaney G. S. & Somero G. N. (1979). Effects of anions on the activation thermodynamics and fluorescence emission spectrum of alkaline phosphatase: evidence for enzyme hydration changes during catalysis. Biochemistry 18, 53225332.
331Greaney G. S. & Somero G. N. (1980). Contributions of binding and catalytic rate constants to evolutionary modifications in Km of NADH for muscle-type (M4) lactate dehydrogenases. J. comp. Physiol. 137, 115121.
332Gregor H. P., Belle J. & Marcus R. A. (1955). Studies on ion-exchange resins. XIII. Selectivity coefficients of quaternary base anion-exchange resins toward univalent anions. J. Am. chem. Soc. 77, 27132719.
333Greyson J. (1967). The influence of the alkali halides on the structure of water. J. phys. Chem. 71, 22102213.
334Gross P. & Schwarz K. (1930). The salting-out action. Monatsh. 55, 287306.
335Gruen D. W. R., Marcelja S. & Parsegian V. A. (1984). Water structure near the membrane surface. In Cell Surface Dynamics. Concepts and Models (ed. Perelson A. S., DeLisi C. and Wiegel F. W.), pp. 5991. New York: Dekker.
336Grunwald E., Baughman G. & Kohnstam G. (1960). The solvation of electrolytes in dioxane–water mixtures, as deduced from the effect of solvent change on the standard partial molar free energy. J. Am. chem. Soc. 82, 58015811.
337Gucker F. T. Jr., Gage F. W. & Moser C. E. (1938). The densities of aqueous solutions of urea at 25 and 30° and the apparent molal volume of urea. J. Am. chem. Soc. 60, 25822588.
338Gucker F. T. Jr., & Moser C. E. (1939). The coefficient of expansibility of aqueous solutions of urea at 27·5° calculated from the densities at 25 and 30°. J. Am. chem. Soc. 61, 15581559.
339Gucker F. T. Jr., & Pickard H. B. (1940). The heats of dilution, heat capacities, and activities of urea in aqueous solutions from the freezing points to 40°. J. Am. chem. Soc. 62, 14641472.
340Gucker F. T. Jr., Pickard H. B. & Planck R. W. (1939). A new micro-calorimeter: the heats of dilution of aqueous solutions of sucrose at 20 and 30° and their heat capacities at 25°. J. Am. chem. Soc. 61, 459470.
341Gurney R. W. (1953). Ionic Processes in Solution. New York: McGraw-Hill.
342Gusarsky E. & Treinin A. (1965). The relation between electrochemical and spectroscopic properties of the halide and pseudohalide ions in solution. J. phys. Chem. 69, 31763177.
343Gutmann V. (1978). The Donor-Acceptor Approach to Molecular Interactions. New York: Plenum Press.
344Haas D. J. (1964). Interactions between lithium salts and a model peptide: crystal structure of lithium chloride-N-methylacetamide complex. Nature 201, 6465.
345Haberland H., Langosch H., Schindler H.-G. & Worsnop D. R. (1984). Negatively charged water clusters: mass spectra of (H2O)n and (D2O)n. J. phys. Chem. 88, 39033904.
346Hade E. P. K. (1972). The isopiestic method. Meth. Enzymol. 26, 177181.
347Hade E. P. K. & Tanford C. (1967). Isopiestic compositions as a measure of preferential interactions of macromolecules in two-component solvents. Application to proteins in concentrated aqueous cesium chloride and guanidine hydrochloride. J. Am. chem. Soc. 89, 50345040.
348Haggis G. H., Hasted J. B. & Buchanan T. J. (1952). The dielectric properties of water in solutions. J. chem. Phys. 20, 14521465.
349Haglund A. C. & Marsden N. V. B. (1980). Hydrophobie and polar contributions to solute affinity for a highly crosslinked water-swollen (Sephadex) gel. J. Polymer Sci. (Polymer Lett. ed.) 18, 271279.
350Haglund A. C. & Marsden N. V. B. (1984 a). The partitioning of 1-alkanols and other compounds in Sephadex G-10 when eluted with formamide or aqueous solutions of urea, guanidinium salts and some simple electrolytes. J. Chromatog. 301, 365376.
351Haglund A. C. & Marsden N. V. B. (1984 b). Partitioning of aliphatic alcohols in Sephadex G-15 at 25°C with water as solvent. J. Chromatog. 301, 4755.
352Hahne G. & Hoffmann F. (1984). Dimethyl sulfoxide can initiate cell divisions of arrested callus protoplasts by promoting cortical microtubule assembly. Proc. natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 81, 54495453.
353Haire R. N. & Hedlund B. E. (1983). Hemoglobin function in the water–ethylene glycol cosolvent system: linkage between oxygen binding and hydration. Biochem. 22, 327334.
354Haldane J. B. S. (1930). Enzymes, p. 182. New York: Longmans, Green.
355Halfpap B. F. & Sorensen C. M. (1982). The viscosity of supercooled aqueous solutions of ethanol and hydrazine. J. chem. Phys. 77, 466471.
356Hallenga K., Grigera J. R. & Berendsen H. J. C. (1980). Influence of hydrophobic solutes on the dynamic behavior of water. J. phys. Chem. 84, 23812390.
357Halliwell H. F. & Nyburg S. C. (1960). The reaction of the benzenediazonium ion with certain anions in aqueous acid solution. J. Chem. Soc. 46034608.
358Halliwell H. F. & Nyburg S. C. (1963). Enthalpy of hydration of the proton. Trans. Faraday Soc. 59, 11261140.
359Halsey M. J. (1974). Mechanisms of general anesthesia. In Anesthetic Uptake and Action (ed. Eger E. I., II), pp. 4576, Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.
360Halsey M. J. & Smith E. B. (1970). Effects of anesthetics on luminous bacteria. Nature 227, 13631365.
361Hamabata A., Chang S. & Von Hippel P. H. (1973 a). Model studies on the effects of neutral salts on the conformational stability of biological macromolecules. III. Solubility of fatty acid amides in ionic solutions. Biochemistry 12, 12711278.
362Hamabata A., Chang S. & Von Hippel P. H. (1973 b). Model studies on the effects of neutral salts on the conformational stability of biological macromolecules. IV. Properties of fatty acid amide micelles. Biochemistry 12, 12781282.
363Hamabata A. & Von Hippel P. H. (1973). Model studies on the effects of neutral salts on the conformational stability of biological macromolecules. II. Effects of vicinal hydrophobic groups on the specificity of binding of ions to amide groups. Biochemistry 12, 12641271.
364Hamaguchi K. & Geiduschek E. P. (1962). The effect of electrolytes on the stability of the deoxyribonucleate helix. J. Am. chem. Soc. 84, 13291338.
365Hamer W. J. (1959). The Structure of Electrolytic Solutions. New York: John Wiley & Sons Inc.; London: Chapman & Hall Limited.
366Hammes G. G. & Schimmel P. R. (1967). An investigation of water–urea and water–urea–polyethylene glycol interactions. J. Am. chem. Soc. 89, 442446.
367Hammett L. P. (1970). Physical Organic Chemistry. Reaction Rates, Equilibria, and Mechanisms, 2nd ed.New York: McGraw-Hill.
368Han C.-C., Dodd J. A. & Brauman J. I. (1986). Structure and reactivity in ionic reactions. J. phys. Chem. 90, 471477.
369Hand S. C. & Somero G. N. (1982). Urea and methylamine effects on rabbit muscle phosphofructokinase. Catalytic stability and aggregation state as a function of pH and temperature. J. biol. Chem. 257, 734741.
370Hansch C., Vittoria A., Silipo C. & Jow P. Y. C. (1975). Partition coefficients and the structure-activity relationship of the anesthetic gases. J. med. Chem. 18, 546548.
371Hardingham T. E. (1984). Structure and associations of proteoglycans in cartilage. In Molecular Biophysics of the Extracellular Matrix (ed. Arnott S., Rees D. A. & Morris E. R.), pp. 119, Clifton, N.J.: Humana Press.
372Hardt C. R., Huddleson I. F. & Ball C. D. (1946). An electro-phoretic analysis of changes produced in blood serum and plasma proteins by heat in the presence of sugars. J. biol. Chem. 163, 211220.
373Harkins W. D. & Gilbert E. C. (1926). The structure of films of water on salt solutions. II. The surface tension of calcium chloride solutions at 25°. J. Am. chem. Soc. 48, 604607.
374Harkins W. D. & McLaughlin H. M. (1925). The structure of films of water on salt solutions. I. Surface tension and adsorption for aqueous solutions of sodium chloride. J. Chem. Soc. 47, 20832089.
375Harned H. S. & Owen B. B. (1958). Physical Chemistry of Electrolyte Solutions, 3rd ed.New York: Reinhold Publishing Corp.
376Harris F. E. & O'Konski C. T. (1957). Dielectric properties of aqueous ionic: solutions at microwave frequencies. J. phys. Chem. 61, 310319.
377Harrison P. R. (1976). Analysis of erythropoeisis at the molecular level. Nature 262, 353356.
378Hart G. W. (1982 a). Corneal proteoglycans. In Cell Biology of the Eye (ed. McDevitt D. S.), pp. 152. New York: Academic Press.
379Hartman K. A. Jr., (1966). The structure of water and the stability of the secondary structure in biological molecules. An infrared and proton magnetic resonance study. J. phys. Chem. 70, 270276.
380Harvey A. M., Johns R. J., McKusick V. A., Owens A. H. & Ross R. S. (1984). The Principles and Practice of Medicine, 21st ed.Norwalk: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
381Harvey J. M., Jackson S. E. & Symons M. C. R. (1977). Interactions in water-alcohol mixtures studied by NMR and infrared spectroscopy. Chem. Phys. Lett. 47, 440441.
382Hascall V. C. (1981). Proteoglycans: structure and function. In Biology of Carbohydrates, vol. 1 (ed. Ginsburg V., and Robbins P.), pp. 149. New York: Wiley-Interscience.
383Hasted J. B. (1972). Liquid water: dielectric properties. In Water. A Comprehensive Treatise, vol. 1: The Physics and Physical Chemistry of Water (ed. Franks F.), pp. 255332. New York: Plenum Press.
384Hatefi Y. & Hanstein W. G. (1969). Solubilization of particulate proteins and nonelectrolytes by chaotropic agents. Proc. Natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 62, 11291136.
385Hauser H. (1975). Lipids. In Water. A Comprehensive Treatise, vol. 4: Aqueous Solutions of Amphiphiles and Macromolecules (ed. Franks F.), pp. 209303. New York: Plenum Press.
386Hawkes R., Grutter M. G. & Schellman J. (184). Thermodynamic stability and point mutations of bacteriophage T4 lysozyme. J. molec. Biol. 175, 195212.
387Hawkes S. & Wang J. L. (eds) (1982). Extracellular Matrix. New York: Academic Press.
388Hay E. D. (ed.) (1981). Cell Biology of Extracellular Matrix. New York: Plenum Press.
389Hendry E. B. (1952). Delayed hemolysis of human erythrocytes in solutions of glucose. J. gen. Physiol. 35, 605616.
390Hepler L. G. (1963). Effects of substituents on acidities of organic acids in water: thermodynamic theory of the Hammett equation. J. Am. chem. Soc. 85, 30893092.
391Hepler L. G. & O'hara W. F. (1961). Thermodynamic theory of acid dissociation of methyl substituted phenols in aqueous solution. J. phys. Chem. 65, 811814.
392Herskovits T. T., Carberry S. E. & San George R. C. (1983). Subunit structure and dissociation of Homarus americanus hemocyanin. Effects of salts and ureas on the acetylated and unmodified hexamers. Biochemistry 22, 41074112.
393Herskovits T. T., Cavanagh S. M. & San George R. C. (1977). Light-scattering investigations of the subunit dissociation of human hemoglobin A. Effects of various salts. Biochemistry 16, 57955801.
394Herskovits T. T., Gadegbeku B. & Jaillet H. (1970). On the structural stability and solvent denaturation of proteins. I. Denaturation by the alcohols and glycols. J. biol. Chem. 245, 25882598.
395Herskovits T. T. & Russell M. W. (1984). Light-scattering investigation of the subunit structure and dissociation of Helix pomatia hemocyanin. Effects of salts and ureas. Biochemistry 23, 28122819.
396Herskovits T. T., San George R. C. & Erhunmwunsee L. J. (1981). Light-scattering investigation of the subunit dissociation of Homarus americanus hemocyanin. Effects of salts and ureas. Biochemistry 20, 25802587.
397Herskovits T. T. & Solli N. J. (1975). Studies of the conformation of apomyoglobin in aqueous solutions and denaturing organic solvents. Biopolymers 14, 319334.
398Hertz H. G. (1963). Kernresonanzuntersuchungen and Elektrolytlosungen. Ber. Bunsenges. physik. Chem. 67, 311327.
399Hertz H. G. (1967). Microdynamic behaviour of liquids as studied by NMR relaxation times. Prog. Nuclear Magn. Reson. Spectrosc. 3, 159230.
400Hertz H. G. (1973 a). Nuclear magnetic relaxation spectroscopy. In Water. A Comprehensive Treatise, vol. 3: Aqueous Solutions of Simple Electrolytes (ed. Franks F.), pp. 301399. New York: Plenum Press.
401Hertz H. G. (1974). N.M.R. methods, aqueous electrolyte solutions. In Structure of Water and Aqueous Solutions (ed. Luck W. A. P.), pp. 339460. New York: Verlag Chemie.
402Hertz H. G. & Radle C. (1973). The orientation of the water molecules in the hydration sphere of F and in the hydrophobic hydration sphere. Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 77, 521531.
403Hertz H. G. & Radle C. (1974). Fluoride–fluoride association in aqueous solution from F19 nuclear magnetic relaxation data. Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 78, 509514.
404Hertz H. G. & Spalthoff W. (1959). Chemical shifts of proton resonances of water in electrolyte solutions. Z. Elektrochem. 63, 10961110.
405Hertz H. G., Tutsch R. & Versmold H. (1971). Molecular motion and structure around the hydrated ions Li+ and Al3+. Deutsche Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 75, 11771191.
406Hertz H. G., Versmold H. & Yoon C. (1983). The effect of added salts on the proton exchange rate of water as studied by 17O-NMR. Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 87, 577582.
407Hertz H. G. & Zeidler M. D. (1963). Elementary processes in the hydrated shells of ions from proton-relaxation and deuteron-relaxation times. Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 67, 774786.
408Hertz H. G. & Zeidler M. D. (1976). Nuclear magnetic relaxation in hydrogen bonded liquids. In Hydrogen Bond: Recent Developments in Theory and Experiments, vol. 3 (ed. Schuster P., Zundel G. and Sandorfy C.), pp. 10271061. New York: North Holland.
409Hey M. J., Clough J. M. & Taylor D. J. (1976). Ion effects on macromolecules in aqueous solution. Nature 262, 807809.
410Hibbard L. S. & Tulinsky A. (1978). Expression of functionality of α-chymotrypsin. Effects of guanidine hydrochloride and urea in the onset of denaturation. Biochemistry 17, 54605468.
411Hildebrand J. H. (1979). Is there a ‘hydrophobic effect’? Proc. natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 76, 194.
412Hindman J. C. (1962). Nuclear magnetic resonance effects in aqueous solutions of 1–1 electrolytes. J. chem. Phys. 36, 10001015.
413Hirtz D. G. & Nelson K. B. (1983). The natural history of febrile seizures. Ann. Rev. Med. 34, 453471.
414Hjerten S. (1981 a). Hydrophobic interaction chromatography of proteins, nucleic acids, viruses, and cells on noncharged amphiphilic gels. Meth. Biochem. Anal. 27, 89110.
415Hjerten S. (1981 b). Hydrophobic interaction chromatography. Adv. in Chromatography 19, 111123.
416Hodgkinson S. C. & Lowry P. J. (1981). Hydrophobic-interaction chromatography and anion-exchange chromatography in the presence of acetonitrile. Biochem. J. 199, 619627.
417Hofmeister F. (1888). On the understanding of the effect of salts. Second report. On regularities in the precipitating effect of salts and their relationship to their physiological behavior. Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Archiv fuer Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie (Leipzig) 24, 247260.
418Hollander W. (1976). Unified concept on the role of acid muco-polysaccharides and connective tissue proteins in the accumulation of lipids, lipoproteins, and calcium in the atheroschlerotic plaque. Expl. Mol. Path. 25, 106120.
419Holmberg L. (1983). Structural investigation of epichlorohydrin crosslinked polysaccharide gels. Ph.D. thesis, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
420Holmes W. M., Hurd R. E., Reid B. R., Rimerman R. A. & Hatfield G. W. (1975). Separation of transfer ribonucleic acid by Sepharose chromatography using reverse salt gradients. Proc. natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 72, 10681071.
421Hook M., Kjellen L., Johansson S. & Robinson J. (1984). Cell-surface glycosaminoglycans. Ann. Rev. Biochem. 53, 847869.
422Hopfinger A. J. (1977). Intermodular Interactions and Biomolecular Organization, pp. 251277. New York: Wiley-Interscience.
423Horne R. A. (1972). Water and Aqueous Solutions. Structure, Thermodynamics, and Transport Processes. New York: Wiley-Interscience.
424Hsu D. K., Huang Y. Y. & Kimura T. (1984). Thermodynamic properties of the cholesterol transfer reaction from liposomes to cytochrome P450scc: an enthalpy–entropy compensation effect. Biochem. biophys. Res. Comm. 118, 877884.
425Hupe D. J. & Jencks W. P. (1977). Nonlinear structure–reactivity correlations. Acyl transfer between sulfur and oxygen nucleophiles. J. Am. chem. Soc. 99, 451464.
426Hupe D. J. & Pohl E. R. (1984). On the magnitude of primary isotope effects for proton abstraction from carbon. J. Am. chem. Soc. 106, 56345640.
427Hupe D. J. & Wu D. (1977). The effect of solvation on Bronsted β values for proton transfer reactions. J. Am. chem. Soc. 99, 76537659.
428Hupe D. J., Wu D. & Shepperd P. (1977). The effect of solvation on β values for nucleophilic reactions. J. Am. chem. Soc. 99, 76597662.
429Hvidt A., Moss R. & Nielsen G. (1978). Volume properties of aqueous solutions of tert–butyl alcohol at temperatures between 5 and 25°C. Acta chem. scand. 832, 274280.
430Hyne J. B. (1960). Specific solvation in binary solvent mixtures. Part I. Variations in activation energy of reactions in mixed solvents. J. Am. chem. Soc. 82, 51295135.
431Hyne J. B., Wills R. & Wonka R. E. (1962). Specific solvation in binary solvent mixtures. Part II. The dependence of activation energy of solvolysis of benzyl chloride in ethanol–water mixtures on temperature and ring substitution. J. Am. chem. Soc. 84, 29142919.
432Imai Y. & Sato R. (1967). Conversion of P-450 to P-420 by neutral salts and some other reagents. Eur. J. Biochem. 1, 419426.
433Ingham K. (1978). Precipitation of proteins with polyethylene glycol: characterization of albumin. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 186, 106113.
434Ingham K. C. (1984). Protein precipitation with polyethylene glycol. Meth. Enzymol. 104, 351356.
435Irias J. J., Olmsted M. R. & Utter M. F. (1969). Pyruvate carboxylase. Reversible inactivation by cold. Biochemistry 8, 51365148.
436Irving R. J., Nelander L. & Wadso I. (1964). Thermodynamics of the ionization of some thiols in aqueous solution. Acta chem. scand. 18, 769787.
437Iskandarani Z. & Pietrzyk D. J. (1982 a). Ion interaction chromatography of organic anions on a poly(styrene-divinylbenzene) adsorbent in the presence of tetraalkylammonium salts. Analyt. Chem. 54, 10651071.
438Iskandarani Z. & Pietrzyk J. (1982 b). Ion interaction chromatography of inorganic anions on a poly(styrene-divinylbenzene) adsorbent in the presence of tetraalkylammonium salts. Anal. Chem. 54, 2427–2431.
439Ives D. J. G. & Marsden P. D. (1965). The ionisation functions of diisopropylcyanoacetic acid in relation to hydration equilibria and the compensation law. J. Chem. Soc. 649676.
440Janoff A. S. & Miller K. W. (1982). A critical assessment of the lipid theories of general anaesthetic action. In Biological Membranes, vol. 4 (ed. Chapman D.), pp. 417476. New York: Academic Press.
441Janson J.-C. (1967). Adsorption phenomena on Sephadex®. J. Chromatogr. 28, 1220.
442Jarabak J., Seeds A. E. Jr., & Talalay P. (1966). Reversible cold inactivation of a 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase of human placenta: protective effect of glycerol. Biochemistry 5, 12691279.
443Jarvis N. L. & Scheiman M. A. (1968). Surface potentials of aqueous electrolyte solutions. J. phys. Chem. 72, 7478.
444Jasra R. V. & Ahluwalia J. C. (1983). Enthalpies and heat capacities of transfer of some sugars from water to aqueous urea solutions. J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans, I 79, 13031309.
445Jeffrey G. A. (1969). Water structure in organic hydrates. Accts. Chem. Res. 2, 344352.
446Jellinek H. H. G. (1972). The ice interface. In Water and Aqueous Solutions (ed. Horne R. A.), pp. 65107. New York: Wiley-Interscience.
447Jencks W. P., Brant S. R., Gandler J. R., Fendrich G. & Nakamura C. (1982). Nonlinear Bronsted correlations: the roles of resonance, solvation, and changing transition-state structure. J. Am. chem. Soc. 104, 70457051.
448Jencks W. P. & Gilchrist M. (1962). The nucleophilic reactivity of alcoholate anions toward p–nitrophenyl acetate. J. Am. chem. Soc. 84, 29102913.
449Jendrasiak G. L. & Hasty J. H. (1974). The hydration of phospholipids. Biochim. biophys. Acta 337, 7991.
450Jensen W. B. (1980). The Lewis Acid-Base Concepts. An Overview. New York: John Wiley.
451Jezorek J. R. & Mark H. B. Jr., (1970). The effect of water as a proton donor on the decay of anthracene and naphthalene anion radicals in aqueous mixtures of acetonitrile, dimethylformamide, and dimethyl sulfoxide. J. phys. Chem. 74, 16271633.
452Johansson K. & Eriksson J. C. (1974). γ and dγ/dT measurements on aqueous solutions of 1,1-electrolytes. J. Colloid and Interface Sci. 49, 469480.
453Johnson F. H. & Flagler E. A. (1950). Hydrostatic pressure reversal of narcosis in tadpoles. Science 112, 9192.
454Johnson K. J. & Ward P. A. (1984). Newer concepts in the pathogenesis of immune complex-induced tissue injury. Adv. Biol. Dis. 1, 104112.
455Jones D. & Symons M. C. R. (1971). Solvation spectra. Part 38. – E.s.r. spectra of m–dinitrobenzene anions in water + t–butyl alcohol mixtures: asymmetric hydration. Trans. Faraday Soc. 67, 961965.
456Jones G. & Dole M. (1929). The viscosity of aqueous solutions of strong electrolytes with special reference to barium chloride. J. Am. chem. Soc. 51, 29502964.
457Jones G. & Ray W. A. (1941). The surface tension of solutions of electrolytes as a function of concentration II. J. Am. chem. Soc. 63, 288294.
458Jorgensen W. L., Gao J. & Ravimohan C. (1985). Monte Carlo simulations of alkanes in water: hydration numbers and the hydrophobic effect. J. phys. Chem. 89, 34703473.
459Jorgensen W. L. & Swenson C. J. (1985 a). Optimized intermolecular potential functions for amides and peptides. Structure and properties of liquid amides. J. Am. chem. Soc. 107, 569578.
460Jorgensen W. L. & Swenson C. J. (1985 b). Optimized intermolecular potential functions for amides and peptides. Hydration of amides. J. Am. chem. Soc. 107, 14891496.
461Kador P. F., Robison W. G. Jr., & Kinoshita J. H. (1985). The pharmacology of aldose reductase inhibitors. Ann. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 25, 691714.
462Kaminsky M. (1957). Ion-solvent interaction and the viscosity of strong-electrolyte solutions. Discuss. of the Faraday Soc. 24, 171179.
463Karplus M. & Rossky P. J. (1980). Solvation: a molecular dynamics study of a dipeptide in water. In Water in Polymers (ed. Rowland S. P.), pp. 2342. ACS Symposium Series, vol. 127. Washington, D.C.: American Chemical Society.
464Karplus M. & Rossky P. J. (1981). Solvation of a dipeptide by water. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 367, 151161.
465Kasahara M. & Penefsky H. S. (1978). High affinity binding of monovalent P1 by beef heart mitochondrial adenosine triphosphatase. J. biol. Chem. 253, 41804187.
466Katagiri M., Takemori S., Nakazawa K., Suzuki H. & Akagi K. (1967). Benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase, a new alcohol dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas sp. Biochim. biophys. Acta 139, 173176.
467Katz J. R. & Muschter F. J. F. Jr., (1933). The lyotropic series in swelling and its extension to organic, non-ionizable substances. I. Influence of inorganic salts with different anions on the swelling of potato starch. Biochem. Z. 257, 385396.
468Kaufman R. D. (1977). Biophysical mechanisms of anesthetic action: historical perspective and review of current concepts. Anesthesiology 46, 4962.
469Kay R. L. (1968). The effect of water structure on the transport properties of electrolytes. In Trace Inorganics in Water (ed. Baker R. A.), Advances in Chemistry Series 73, pp. 117. Washington, D.C.: American Chemical Society.
470Kay R. L. (1973). Ionic transport in water and mixed aqueous solvents. In Water. A Comprehensive Treatise, vol. 3: Aqueous Solutions of Simple Electrolytes (ed. Franks F.), pp. 173209. New York: Plenum Press.
471Kay R. L., Cunningham G. P. & Evans D. F. (1968). The effect of solvent structure on ionic mobilities in aqueous solvent mixtures. In Hydrogen-Bonded Solvent Systems (ed. Covington A. K. and Jones P.), p. 255. London: Taylor and Francis Ltd.
472Kay R. L. & Evans D. F. (1965). The conductance of the tetraalkylammonium halides in deuterium oxide solutions at 25°. J. phys. Chem. 69, 42164221.
473Kella N. K. D. & Poola I. (1985). Sugars decrease the thermal denaturation and aggregation of arachin. Int. J. Peptide Protein Res. 26, 390399.
474Kenttamaa J. & Lindberg J. J. (1960 a). Volumes and heats of mixing of dimethyl sulphoxide–water solutions. Suomen Kemistilehti B33, 3235.
475Kenttamaa J. & Lindberg J. J. (1960 b). Thermodynamic excess functions of the system dimethyl sulfoxide–water. Suomen Kemistilehti 833, 98100.
476Kenttamaa J., Tommila E. & Martti M. (1959). Some thermodynamic properties of the system t–butanol + water. Suomal. Tiedeakat. Toim. Annales Academie Scientiarum Fennicae, Series AII. Chemica 93, 320.
477Kerekes M. (1963). Protective action of certain sugars against heat denaturation of serum proteins. Acad. Rep. Populare Romine, Studii Cercetari Biochim. 6, 245–9; Chem. Abstr. 59, 142194 (1963).
478Kingston B. & Symons M. C. R. (1973). Solvation spectra. Part 44 – Nuclear magnetic resonance study of binary solvent mixtures: water structural effects. J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. II, 69, 978992.
479Kinoshita J. H. (1974). Mechanisms initiating cataract formation. Invest. Ophthalmol. 13, 713724.
480Kleeberg H., Kocack O. & Luck W. A. P. (1982). Comparison of calorimetrie and IR-spectroscopic data for alcohols and alcoholic solutions. J. Solution Chem. 11, 611624.
481Kleeberg H. & Luck W. A. P. (1983). Infrared study of anionwater interactions in dichloromethane. J. Sol. Chem. 12, 369381.
482Klein D. J. & Seitz W. A. (1983). Self-similar self-avoiding structures: Models for polymers. Proc. natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 80, 31253128.
483Klein S. M., Cohen G. & Cederbaum A. I. (1981). Production of formaldehyde during metabolism of dimethyl sulfoxide by hydroxyl radical generating systems. Biochemistry 20, 60066012.
484Kleinman H. K., McGarvey M. L., Hassell J. R., Star V. L., Cannon F. B., Laurie G. W. & Martin G. R. (1986). Basement membrane complexes with biological activity. Biochemistry 25, 312318.
485Klibanov A. M. (1979). Enzyme stabilization by immobilization. Anal. Biochem. 93, 125.
486Klotz I. M. (1965). Role of water structure in macromolecules. Fedn. Proc. 24, 824833.
487Knoll D. & Hermans J. (1983). Polymer-protein interactions. Comparison of experiment and excluded volume theory. J. biol. Chem. 258, 5710–5715.
488Ko H. C., O'Hara W. F., Hu T. & Hepler L. G. (1964). lonization of substituted phenols in aqueous solution. J. Am. chem. Soc. 86, 10031004.
489Kohno T. & Roth J. (1979). Electrolyte effects on the activity of mutant enzymes in vivo and in vitro. Biochem. 18, 13861392.
490Kono N. & Uyeda K. (1973). Chicken liver phosphofructokinase II. Cold inactivation. J. biol. Chem. 248, 86038609.
491Korber C. & Scheiwe M. W. (1980). The cryoprotective properties of hydroxyethyl starch investigated by means of differential thermal analysis. Cryobiology 17, 5465.
492Kozloff L. M., Lute M. & Westaway D. (1984). Phosphatidyl-inositol as a component of the ice nucleating site of Pseudomonas syringae and Erwinia hersicola. Science 226, 845846.
493Kremmer T. & Boross L. (1979). Gel Chromatography. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
494Kresheck G. C. (1969). An alternate interpretation of the mechanism of self-association of urea in dilute aqueous solution. J. phys. Chem. 73, 24412443.
495Kresheck G. G. & Scheraga H. A. (1965). The temperature dependence of the enthalpy of formation of the amide hydrogen bond; the urea model. J. phys. Chem. 69, 17041706.
496Krestov G. A. (1962 a). The thermodynamic characteristics of structural changes in water accompanying the hydration of ions. J. struct. Chem. 3, 125130.
497Krestov G. A. (1962 b). The thermodynamic characteristics of structural changes in water connected with the hydration of polyatomic and complex ions. J. Struct. Chem. 3, 391398.
498Krestov G. A. (1965 a). Entropy changes in the hydration of monatomic ions. Theor. Expl. Chem. 1, 313318.
499Krestov G. A. (1965 b). Entropy characteristics of small and large ionic hydration spheres. Bulletin of the institutions of higher education, chemistry, and chemical technology 8, 734740; Chem. Abstr. 64, 10478a (1966).
500Krishnan C. V. & Friedman H. L. (1970). Solvation enthalpies of various ions in water and heavy water. J. phys. Chem. 74, 23562362.
501Krishnan C. V. & Friedman H. L. (1971). Solvation enthalpies of electrolytes in methanol and dimethylformamide. J. phys. Chem. 75, 36063612.
502Kruyt H. R. & Robinson C. (1926). Lyotropy. Verslag Akad. Wetenschappen Amsterdam 35, 812818.
503Kuehn K., Schoene H. & Timpl R. (1981). New Trends in Basement Membrane Research. New York: Raven Press.
504Kura G., Koyama A. & Tarutani T. (1977). Chromatographic study of some inorganic ions on Sephadex gel in thiocyanate media. J. Chromatog. 144, 245252.
505Kurtz J. & Harrington W. F. (1966). Interaction of poly-L-proline with lithium bromide. J. molec. Biol. 17, 440455.
506Kurz J. L. (1963). Transition state characterized for catalyzed reactions. J. Am. chem. Soc. 85, 987991.
507Laidler K. J. (1959). Thermodynamics of ionization processes in aqueous solution. Part 1.– general theory of substituent effects. Trans. Faraday Soc. 55, 17251730.
508Lakshmi T. S. & Nandi P. K. (1976 a). Effects of sugar solutions on the activity coefficients of aromatic amino acids and their N–acetyl ethyl esters. J. phys. Chem. 80, 249252.
509Lakshmi T. S. & Nandi P. K. (1976 b). Hydrophobie interaction in sugar solutions. Results from gel interaction study. J. Chromat. 116, 177179.
510Landis B. H., Koehler K. A. & Fenton J. W. II., (1981). Human thrombins. Group IA and IIA salt-dependent properties of α-thrombin. J. biol. Chem. 256, 46044610.
511Lange E. (1959). In The Structure of Electrolytic Solutions (ed. Hamper W. J.), p. 144. New York: John Wiley & Sons; London: Chapman & Hall.
512Lange E. & Markgraf H. G. (1950). Heats of dilution of non-electrolytes in aqueous solution up to great dilution. Z. Elektrochem. 54, 7376.
513Lange E. & Mohring K. (1953). The integral heat of dilution of some nonelectrolytes in water and octamethyltetrasiloxane at small concentration. Z. Elektrochem. 57, 660662.
514Langer L. J. & Engel L. L. (1958). Human placental estradiol 17β dehydrogenase. I. Concentration, characterization and assay. J. biol. Chem. 233, 583588.
515Langmuir I. (1917). The constitution and fundamental properties of solids and liquids. II. Liquids. J. Am. chem. Soc. 39, 18481906.
516Lanyi J. K. (1974). Salt-dependent properties of proteins from extremely halophilic bacteria. Bad. Rev. 38, 272290.
517Lanyi J. K. & Stevenson J. (1970). Studies of the electron transport chain of extremely halophilic bacteria. IV. Role of hydrophobic forces in the structure of menadione reductase. J. biol. Chem. 245, 40744080.
518Lapanje S. (1978). Physicochemical Aspects of Protein Denaturation. New York: John Wiley.
519Lapanje S., Lunder M., Vlachy V. & Skerjanc J. (1977). Thermodynamics of the isothermal interaction of βlactoglobulin with guanidiniurn chloride and urea. Biochim. biophys. Acta 491, 482490.
520Larson J. W. & Hepler L. G. (1969). Heats and entropies of ionization. In Solute-Solvent Interactions (ed. Coetzee J. F. and Ritchie C. D.), pp. 144. New York: Dekker.
521Lash J. W. & Vasan N. S. (1983). Glycosaminoglycans of cartilage. In Cartilage, vol. 1: Structure, Function, and Biochemistry (ed. Hall B. K.), pp. 215251. New York: Academic Press.
522Latimer W. M., Pitzer K. S. & Slansky C. M. (1939). The free energy of hydration of gaseous ions, and the absolute potential of the normal calomel electrode. J. chem. Phys. 7, 108111.
523Lauffer M. A. (1964). Polymerization-depolymerization of tobacco mosaic virus protein. II. Theory of protein hydration. Biochemistry 3, 731736.
524Lauffer M. A. (1975). Entropy-Driven Processes in Biology. Polymerization of Tobacco Mosaic Virus Protein and Similar Reactions. Molecular Biology, Biochemistry and Biophysics, vol. 20. New York: Springer-Verlag.
525Laurent T. C. (1963 a). The interaction between polysaccharides and other macromolecules VI. Further studies on the solubility of proteins in dextran solutions. Acta chem. scand. 17, 26642668.
526Laurent T. C. (1963 b). The interaction between polysaccharides and other macromolecules 5. The solubility of proteins in the presence of dextran. Biochem. J. 89, 253257.
527Laurent T. C. & Ogston A. G. (1963). The interaction between polysaccharides and other macromolecules 4. The osmotic pressure of mixtures of serum albumin and hyaluronic acid. Biochem. J. 89, 249253.
528Lee J. C., Frigon R. P. & Timasheff S. N. (1975). Structural stability of calf brain microtubule protein. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 253, 284291.
529Lee J. C., Gekko K. & Timasheff S. N. (1979). Measurements of preferential solvent interactions by densimetric techniques. Meth. Enzymol. 61, 2649.
530Lee J. C. & Lee L. L. Y. (1981). Preferential solvent interactions between proteins and polyethylene glycols. J. biol. Chem. 256, 625631.
531Lee J. C. & Timasheff S. N. (1974). Partial specific volumes and interactions with solvent components of proteins in guanidine hydrochloride. Biochemistry 13, 257265.
532Lee J. C. & Timasheff S. N. (1979). The calculation of partial specific volumes of proteins in 6 M guanidine hydrochloride. Meth. Enzmol. 61, 4957.
533Lee J. C. & Timasheff S. N. (1981). The stabilization of proteins by sucrose. J. biol. Chem. 256, 71937201.
534Leffler J. E. (1955). The enthalpy–entropy relationship and its implications for organic chemistry. J. Org. Chem. 20, 12021231.
535Lehmann M. S., Mason S. A. & McIntyre G. J. (1985). Study of ethanol–lysozyme interactions using neutron diffraction. Biochemistry 24, 58625869.
536Lehmann M. S. & Zaccai G. (1984). Neutron small-angle scattaring studies of ribonuclease in mixed aqueous solutions and determination of the preferentially bound water. Biochemistry 23, 19391942.
537Lehrer S. S. & Leavis P. C. (1978). Solute quenching of protein fluorescence. Meth. Enzymol. 49, 222236.
538Leneveu D. M., Parsegian V. A. & Gingell D. (1977). Measurement and modification of forces between lecithin bilayers. Biophs. J. 18, 209230.
539LeNeveu D. M., Rand R. P. & Parsegian V. A. (1976). Measurement of forces between lecithin bilayers. Nature 259, 601603.
540Le Rudulier D., Strom A. R., Dandekar A. M., Smith L. T. & Valentine R. C. (1984). Molecular biology of osmoregulation. Science 224, 10641068.
541Leung P. S. & Safford G. J. (1970). A neutron inelastic scattering investigation of the concentration and anion dependence of low frequency motions of H2O molecules in ionic solutions. J. phys. Chem. 74, 36963709.
542Lever M. J., Miller K. W., Paton W. D. M. & Smith E. B. (1971). Pressure reversal of anesthesia. Nature 231, 368371.
543Levine A. S., Hasegawa F. & Murayama M. (1975). The influence of solutes and solvent structure on gelation and aggregation of deoxy-sickle cell hemoglobin. J. Molecular Med. 1, 1926.
544Li Z. Q., Giege R., Jacrot B., Oberthur R., Thierry J.-C. & Zaccai G. (1983). Structure of phenylalanine-accepting transfer ribonucleic acid and of its environment in aqueous solvents with different salts. Biochemistry 22, 43804388.
545Liang S.-M. & Liu T.-Y. (1982). Studies on the limulus coagulation system: inhibition of activation of the proclotting enzyme by dimethyl sulfoxide. Biochem. biophys. Res. Comm. 105, 553559.
546Lienhard G. E. (1973). Enzymatic catalysis and transition-state theory. Science 180, 149154.
547Lienhard G. E., Secemski I. I., Koehler K. A. & Lindquist R. N. (1972). Enzymatic catalysis and the transition state theory of reaction rates: transition state analogs. Cold Spring Harbor symp. quant. Biol. 36, 4561.
548Lilley T. H. (1973). Raman spectroscopy of aqueous electrolyte solutions. In Water. A Comprehensive Treatise, vol. 3: Aqueous Solutions of Simple Electrolytes (ed. Franks F.), pp. 265299. New York: Plenum Press.
549Lindqvist B. (1962). The separation of buffer salts at gel filtration. Acta chem. scand. 16, 17941798.
550Lis L. J., Parsegian V. A. & Rand R. P. (1981 a). Binding of divalent cations to dipalmitoylphosphatidylchloline bilayers and its effect on bilayer interaction. Biochemistry 20, 17611770.
551Lis L. J., Lis W. T., Parsegian V. A. & Rand R. P. (1981 b). Adsorption of divalent cations to a variety of phosphatidylcholine bilayers. Biochemistry 20, 17711777.
552Loewus F. A. & Loewus M. W. (1983). Myo-inositol: its biosynthesis and metabolism. Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol. 34, 137161.
553Loftfield R. B., Eigner E. A., Pastuszyn A., Lovgren T. N. E. & Jakubowski H. (1980). Conformational changes during enzyme catalysis: role of water in the transition state. Proc. natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77, 33743378.
554Long F. A. & McDevit W. F. (1952). Activity coefficients of nonelectrolyte solutes in aqueous salt solutions. Chem. Rev. 51, 119169.
555Lonsdale K. (1958). The structure of ice. Proc. R. Soc. Land. A.247, 424434.
556Loosley-Millman M. E., Rand R. P. & Parsegian V. A. (1982). Effects of monovalent ion binding and screening on measured electrostatic forces between charged phospholipid bilayers. Biophys. J. 40, 221232.
557Lovelock J. E. (1953 a). The mechanism of the protective action of glycerol against haemolysis by freezing and thawing. Biochim. biophys. Acta 11, 2836.
558Lovelock J. E. (1953 b). The haemolysis of human red blood-cells by freezing and thawing. Biochim. biophys. Acta 10, 414426.
559Low P. S. & Somero G. N. (1975 a). Activation volumes in enzymatic catalysis: their sources and modification by low-molecular-weight solutes. Proc. natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 72, 30143018.
560Low P. S. & Somero G. N. (1975 b). Protein hydration changes during catalysis: a new mechanism of enzymic rate-enhancement and ion activation/inhibition of catalysis. Proc. natn. Acad. Sci. 72, 33053309.
561Low R. L., Kaguni J. M. & Kornberg A. (1984). Potent catenation of supercoiled and gapped DNA circles by topoisomerase I in the presence of a hydrophilic polymer. J. biol. Chem. 259, 45764581.
562Luck W. A. P. (1974 a). Infrared fundamental region. In Structure of Water and Aqueous Solutions (ed. Luck W. A. P.), pp. 221245. New York: Verlag Chemie.
563Luck W. A. P. (1974 b). Infrared overtone region. In Structure of Water and Aqueous Solutions (ed. Luck W. A. P.), pp. 247284. New York: Verlag Chemie.
564Luck W. A. P. (1976 a). Water in biological systems. Topics in Current Chemistry 64, 115180.
565Luck W. A. P. (1976 b). The angle dependence of hydrogen bond interactions. In The Hydrogen Bond. Recent Developments in Theory and Experiments, vol. 11: Structure and Spectroscopy (ed. Schuster P., Zundel G. and Sandorfy C.), pp. 527562. New York: North-Holland.
566Luck W. A. P. (1980 a). The structure of aqueous systems and the influence of electrolytes. In Water in Polymers (ed. Rowland S. P.), pp. 4371. Washington, D.C.: American Chemical Society.
567Luck W. A. P. (1980 b). A model of hydrogen-bonded liquids. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 19, 2841.
568Luck W. A. P. (1985). The influence of ions on water structure and on aqueous systems. In Water and Ions in Biological Systems (ed. Pullman A., Vasilescu V. & Packer L.), pp. 95126. New York: Plenum Press.
569Luck W. A. P. & Ditter W. (1970). Approximate methods for determining the structure of H2O and HOD using near-infrared spectroscopy. J. phys. Chem. 74, 36873695.
570Lumry R. & Rajender S. (1970). Enthalpy–entropy compensation phenomena in water solutions of proteins and small molecules: a ubiquitous property of water. Biopolymers 9, 11251227.
571Lusena C. V. (1955). Ice propagation in systems of biological interest III. Effect of solutes on nucleation and growth of ice crystals. Arch. biochem. Biophys. 57, 277284.
572Lusena C. V. & Rose D. (1956). Effect of rate of ice-crystal on hemolysis of erythocytes. Arch. biochem. Biophys. 65, 534544.
573Luyet B. & Rapatz G. (1970). A review of basic researches on the cryopreservation of red blood cells. Cryobiology 6, 425482.
574Luzar A., Svetina S. & Zeks B. (1983). The contribution of hydrogen bonds to the surface tension of water. Chem. phys. Lett. 96, 485490.
575Lyons M. S. & Thomas J. V. (1950). Diffusion studies on dilute aqueous glycine solutions at 1 and 25°with the Gouy interference method. J. Am. chem. Soc. 72, 45064511.
576Ma R. J. & Wang C. H. (1983). Studies of the protein–protein interaction of lysozyme in dimethyl sulfoxide-water solutions by quasielastic light scattering. J. phys. Chem. 87, 679682.
577MacDonald J. C., Serphillips J. & Guerrera J. J. (1973). Effect of urea concentration upon the activation parameters for fluidity of water. J. phys. Chem. 77, 370372.
578MacKenzie A. P. (1977). Non-equilibrium freezing behaviour of aqueous systems. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Land. B 278, 167189.
579MacKenzie A. P. (1981). Modelling the ultra-rapid freezing of cells and tissues. In Microprobe Analysis of Biological Systems (ed. Hutchinson T. E. and Somlyo A. P.), pp. 397421. New York: Academic Press.
580Magnera T. F., Caldwell G., Sunner J., Ikuta S. & Kebarle P. (1984). Solvation of the halide anions in dimethyl sulfoxide. Factors involved in enhanced reactivity of negative ions in dipolar aprotic solvents. J. Amer. chem. Soc. 106, 61406146.
581Makinen M. W. & Fink A. L. (1977). Reactivity and Cryoenzymology of enzymes in the crystalline state. Ann. Rev. biophys. Bioeng. 6, 301343.
582Marcus Y. (1977). Enthalpy of mixing of water-aprotic solvent mixtures at 298 K as a function of the composition. In Introduction to Liquid State Chemistry, p. 203. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
583Marra J. & Israelachvili J. (1985). Direct measurements of forces between phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine bilayers in aqueous electrolyte solutions. Biochemistry 24, 46084618.
584Marsden N. V. B. (1973). Anionic dominance in ionic interactions with aqueous dextran gel systems. Naturwissenschaften 60, 257.
585Marsden N. V. B. & Haglund A. C. (1984). Inclusion phenemona in a system designed for exclusion – a cavitary problem and a model. J. Inclusion Phenom. 2, 2134.
586Marsh K. N. & Richards A. E. (1980). Excess volumes for ethanol + water mixtures at 10-K intervals from 278·15 to 338·15 K. Aust. J. Chem. 33, 21212132.
587Martin D. & Hauthal H. G. (1971). Dimethyl Sulphoxide. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
588Martin G. J. & Martin M. L. (1964). Nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared absorption spectra of pure and dissolved vinyl bromides. J. chim. Phys. 61, 12221230.
589Martin G. R., Rohrbach D. H., Terranova V. P. & Liotta L. A. (1983). Structure, function, and pathology of basement membranes. In Connective Tissue Diseases (ed. Wagner B. M., Fleischmajer R. and Kaufman N.), pp. 1630. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.
590Martin M. (1962). Study of complexes by nuclear magnetic resonance. Chemical shift and basicities. Ann. Phys. 7, 3555.
591Martinez-Harnandez A. & Amenta P. S. (1984). The basement membrane in pathology. Adv. Biol. Dis. 1, 5273.
592Mason L. S., Offutt W. F. & Robinson A. L. (1949). The heats of dilution of aqueous solutions of four amino acids at 25°. J. Am. chem. Soc. 71, 14631468.
593Masterson W. L. (1954). Partial molai volumes of hydrocarbons in water solution. J. chem. Phys. 22, 18301833.
594Mastroianni M. J., Pikal M. J. & Lindenbaum S. (1972). Effect of dimethyl sulfoxide, urea, guanidine hydrochloride, and sodium chloride on hydrophobic interactions. Heats of dilution of tetrabutylammonium bromide and lithium bromide in mixed aqueous solvent systems. J. phys. Chem. 76, 30503057.
595Mathias S. F., Franks F. & Trafford K. (1984). Nucleation and growth of ice in deeply undercooled erythrocytes. Cryobiology 21, 123132.
596Mathieson J. G. & Conway B. E. (1974). Partial molai compressibilities of salts in aqueous solution and assignment of ionic contributions. J. Sol. Chem. 3, 455477.
597Matsumoto J. J. (1979). Denaturation of fish muscle proteins during frozen storage. In Proteins at Low Temperatures (ed. Fennema O.), pp. 205224. Washington, D.C.: American Chemical Society.
598McBain J. W. (1950). The lyotropic series of ions. In Colloid Science, pp. 131140. Boston: D. C. Heath and Company.
599McCabe W. C. & Fisher H. F. (1970). A near-infrared spectroscopic method for investigating the hydration of a solute in aqueous solution. J. phys. Chem. 74, 29902998.
600McCall D. W. & Douglass D. C. (1965). The effect of ions on the self-diffusion of water. I. Concentration dependence. J. phys. Chem. 69, 20012011.
601McCreery M. J. & Hunt W. A. (1978). Physico-chemical correlates of alcohol intoxication. Neuropharmacology 17, 451461.
602McDevit W. F. & Long F. A. (1952). The activity coefficient of benzene in aqueous salt solutions. J. Amer. chem. Soc. 74, 17731777.
603McGann L. E. (1978). Differing actions of penetrating and nonpenetrating cryoprotective agents. Cryobiology 15, 382390.
604McPherson A. Jr., (1976). Crystallization of proteins from polyethylene glycol. J. biol. Chem. 251, 63006303.
605McPherson A. (1982). Preparation and Analysis of Protein Crystals. New York: John Wiley.
606McQuarrie I. & Peeler D. B. (1931). The effects of sustained pituitary antidiuresis and forced water drinking in epileptic children. A diagnostic and etiologic study. J. Clin. Invest, 10, 915940.
607Meis L. De & Inesi G. (1982). ATP synthesis by sarcoplasmic reticulum ATPase following Ca+2, pH, temperature, and water activity jumps. J. biol. Chem. 257, 12891294.
608Melander W. & Horvath C. (1977). Salt effects on hydrophobic interactions in precipitation and chromatography of proteins: an interpretation of the lyotropic series. Arch. biochem. Biophys. 183, 200215.
609Merkler D. J., Farrington G. K. & Wedler F. C. (1981). Protein thermostability. Int. J. Peptide Protein Res. 18, 430442.
610Meryman H. T. (1956). Mechanics of freezing in living cells and tissues. Science 124, 515521.
611Meryman H. T. (1970). The exceeding of a minimum tolerable cell volume in hypertonic suspension as a cause of freezing injury. In The Frozen Cell (ed. Wolstenholme G. E. and O'Connor M.), pp. 5167. London: J. & A. Churchill.
612Meryman H. T. (1977). The influence of the solute environment on membrane properties. In Mammalian Cell Membranes, vol. 5: Responses of Plasma Membrames (ed. Jamieson G. A. and Robinson D. M.), pp. 2946. London: Butterworths.
613Mevarech M., Leicht W. & Werber M. M. (1976). Hydrophobic chromatography and fractionation of enzymes from extremely halophilic bacteria using decreasing concentration gradients of ammonium sulfate. Biochemistry 15, 23832387.
614Meyerstein D. & Treinin A. (1962). The relation between lyotropic and spectroscopic properties of anions in solution. J. phys. Chem. 66, 446450.
615Mhatre S. S., Chetty K. G. & Pradhan D. S. (1983). Uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation in rat liver mitochondria following the administration of dimethyl sulphoxide. Biochem. biophys. Res. Comm. 110, 325331.
616Michelmore R. W. & Franks F. (1982). Nucleation rates of ice in undercooled water and aqueous solutions of polyethylene glycol. Cryobiology 19, 163171.
617Middaugh C. R., Tisel W. A., Haire R. N. & Rosenberg A. (1979). Determination of the apparent thermodynamic activities of saturated protein solutions. J. biol. Chem. 254, 367370.
618Mikhailov V. A. (1961). Changes of structure in aqueous solutions of nonelectrolytes. J. struct. Chemistry 2, 625628.
619Miller J. & Parker A. J. (1961). Dipolar aprotic solvents in bimolecular aromatic nucleophilic substitution reactions. J. Am. chem. Soc. 83, 117123.
620Miller J. C. & Miller K. W. (1975). Approaches to the mechanisms of action of general anaesthetics. In Physiological and Pharmacological Biochemistry (ed. Blaschko H. K. F.), pp. 3376. MTP International Review of Science, Biochemistry series i, vol. 12. London: Butterworths and Baltimore: University Park Press.
621Miller K. W. (1969). How do anesthetics work? Anesthesiology 30, 127128.
622Miller K. W., Paton W. D. M. & Smith E. B. (1965). Site of action of general anaesthetics. Nature 206, 574577.
623Miller K. W., Paton W. D. M., Smith E. B. & Smith R. A. (1972). Physicochemical approaches to the mode of action of general anesthetics. Anesthesiology 36, 339351.
624Miller K. W., Paton W. D. M., Smith R. A. & Smith E. B. (1973). The pressure reversal of general anesthesia and the critical volume hypothesis. Molec. Pharmacol. 9, 131143.
625Miller K. W. & Smith E. B. (1973). Intermolecular forces and the pharmacology of simple molecules. In A Guide to Molecular Pharmacology-Toxicology, part 2 (ed. Featherstone R. M.), pp. 427475. New York: Dekker.
626Miller S. L. (1961). A theory of gaseous anesthetics. Proc. natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 47, 15151524.
627Minotani N., Sekiguchi T., Bautista J. G. & Nosoh Y. (1979). Basis of thermostability in pig heart lactate dehydrogenase treated with O–methylisourea. Biochim. biophys. Acta 581, 334341.
628Minton A. P. (1981). Excluded volume as a determinant of macromolecular structure and reactivity. Biopolymers 20, 20932120.
629Minton A. P. (1983). The effect of volume occupancy upon the thermodynamic activity of proteins: some biochemical consequences. Molec. Cell. Biochem. 55, 119140.
630Minton A. P. & Wilf J. (1981). Effect of macromolecular crowding upon the structure and function of an enzyme: glyceralde-hyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Biochemistry 20, 48214826.
631Mishra A. K. & Ahluwalia J. C. (1981). Enthalpies, heat ca pacities and apparent molai volumes of transfer of some amino acids from water to aqueous t–butanol. J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans., I 77, 14691483.
632Mishra A. K. & Ahluwalia J. C. (1983). Alcohol induced conformational transitions of proteins and polypeptides. Thermodynamic studies of some model compounds. Internat. J. Peptide Protein Res. 21, 322330.
633Mitchell A. G. & Wynne-Jones W. F. K. (1953). Thermodynamic and other properties of solutions involving hydrogen bonding. Discuss. of the Faraday Soc. 15, 161168.
634Mollenhauer A., Schmitt J. M., Coughlan S. & Heber U. (1983). Loss of membrane proteins from thylakoids during freezing. Biochimica et biophysica acta 728, 331338.
635Molyneux P. (1983). Water-Soluble Synthetic Polymers: Properties and behavior, vol. 1. Boca Raton: CRC Press, Inc.
636Molyneux P. (1984). Water-Soluble Synthetic Polymers: Properties and behavior, vol. 2. Boca Raton: CRC Press, Inc.
637Monsan P. & Combes D. (1984). Effect of water activity on enzyme action and stability. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 434, 4860.
638Morris D. F. C. (1959). Lyotropic numbers of the formate and acetate ions and related thermodynamic properties. Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas 78, 150160.
639Morris D. F. C. (1968). Ionic radii and enthalpies of hydration of ions. Structure and Bonding 4, 6382.
640Moss J., Stanley S. J. & Osborne J. C. (1981). Effect of Self-association on activity of an ADP-ribosyltransferase from turkey erythrocytes. Conversion of inactive oligomers to active protomers by chaotropic salts. J. biol. Chem. 256, 1145211456.
641Murthy A. S. N. & Rao C. N. R. (1968). Spectroscopic studies of the hydrogen bond. Applied Spectroscopy Reviews 2, 69191.
642Myers E. R. & Mow V. C. (1983). Biomechanics of cartilage and its response to biomechanical stimuli. In Cartilage, vol. 1: Structure, Function and Biochemistry (ed. Hall B. K.), pp. 313341. New York: Academic Press.
643Na G. C. & Timasheff S. N. (1981). Interaction of calf brain tubulin with glycerol. J. molec. Biol. 151, 165178.
644Nagy B. & Jencks W. P. (1965). Depolymerization of F-actin by concentrated solution of salts and denaturing agents. J. Am. chem. Soc. 87, 24802488.
645Nakanishi K. (1960). Partal molal volumes of butyl alcohols and of related compounds in aqueous solution. Bull. chem. Soc. Jap. 33, 793797.
646Nandi P. K. & Edelhoch H. (1984). The effects of lyotropic (Hofmeister) salts on the stability of clathrin coat structure in coated vesicles and baskets. J. biol. Chem. 259, 1129011296.
647Nandi P. K. & Robinson D. R. (1972 a). The effects of salts on the free energy of the peptide group. J. Am. chem. Soc. 94, 12991308.
648Nandi P. K. & Robinson D. R. (1972 b). The effects of salts on the free energies of nonpolar groups in model peptides. J. Am. chem. Soc. 94, 13081315.
649Narten A. H. (1970). Diffraction pattern and structure of aqueous ammonium halide solutions. J. phys. Chem. 74, 765768.
650Narten A. H. & Lindenbaum S. (1969). Diffraction pattern and structure of the system tetra-n–butylammonium fluoride-water at 25 °C. J. chem. Phys. 51, 11081114.
651Neddermeyer P. A. & Rogers L. B. (1968). Gel filtration behavior of inorganic salts. Analyt. Chem., 40, 755762.
652Neddermeyer P. A. & Rogers L. B. (1969). Column efficiency and electrolyte effects of inorganic salts in aqueous gel chromatography. Analyt. Chem. 41, 94102.
653Neujahr H. Y. (1983). Effect of anions, chaotropes, and phenol on the attachment of flavin adenine dinucleotide to phenol hydroxylase. Biochemistry 22, 580584.
654Nightingale E. R. Jr., (1959). Phenomenological theory of ion solvation. Effective radii of hydrated ions. J. phys. Chem. 63, 13811387.
655Northrop J. H. & Kunitz M. (1926). The swelling and osmotic pressure of gelatin in salt solutions. J. gen. Physiology 8, 317337.
656Noyes R. M. (1964). Assignment of individual ionic contributions to properties of aqueous ions. J. Amer. chem. Soc. 86, 971979.
657Nyns E. J. & Wiaux A. L. (1969). Stabilization with organic solvents of alcohol dehydrogenase from Candida lipolytica grown on n–hexadecane. Arch. Internat. physiol. Biochim. 77, 393395.
658Oguni M. & Angell C. A. (1983). Hydrophobic and hydrophilic solute effects on the homogeneous nucleation temperature of ice from aqueous solutions. J. phys. Chem. 87, 18481851.
659O'Hara W. F. & Hepler L. G. (1961). Thermodynamics of lonization of aqueous meta-chlorophenol. J. phys. Chem. 65, 21072108.
660Olmstead W. N. & Brauman J. I. (1977). Gas-phase nucleophilic displacement reactions. J. Am. chem. Soc. 99, 42194228.
661Onsager L. & Samaras N. N. T. (1934). The surface tension of Debye-Huckel electrolytes. J. chem. Phys. 2, 528536.
662Out D. J. P. & Los J. M. (1980). Viscosity of aqueous solutions of univalent electrolytes from 5 to 95 °C. J. Sol. Chem. 9, 1935.
663Pace N. C. (1975). The stability of globular proteins. Crit. Rev. Biochem. 3, 143.
664Page M. I. & Jencks W. P. (1971). Entropic contributions to rate accelerations in enzymic and intramolecular reactions and the chelate effect. Proc. natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 68, 16781683.
665Pahlman S., Rosengren J. & Hjerten S. (1977). Hydrophobic interaction chromatography on uncharged sepharose derivatives. Effects of neutral salts on the adsorption of proteins. J. Chromat. 131, 99108.
666Paquette J. & Jolicoeur C. (1977). A near-infrared study of the hydration of various ions and nonelectrolytes. J. Sol. Chem. 6, 403428.
667Parker A. J. (1962). The effects of solvation on the properties of anions in dipolar aprotic solvents. Quarterly Reviews 16, 163187.
668Parker A. J. (1969). Protic-dipolar aprotic solvent effects on rates of bimolecular reactions. Chem. Rev. 69, 132.
669Parodi R. M., Bianchi E. & Ciferri A. (1973). Thermodynamics of unfolding of lysozyme in aqueous alcohol solutions. J. biol. Chem. 248, 40474051.
670Parsegian V. A., Fuller N. & Rand R. P. (1979). Measured work of deformation and repulsion of lecithin bilayers. Proc. natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 76, 27502754.
671Parsegian V. A. & Rand R. P. (1983). Membrane interaction and deformation. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 416, 112.
672Pater A. & Pater M. M. (1977). Simultaneous separation of halo-philic proteins and nucleic acids after adsorption onto agarose gels. Can. J. Biochem. 55, 904907.
673Pauling L. (1946). Molecular architecture and biological reactions. Chem. Eng. News 24, 13751377.
674Pauling L. (1948). Nature of forces between large molecules of biological interest. Nature 161, 707709.
675Pauling L. (1960). The Nature of the Chemical Bond, 3rd ed., p. 90. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press.
676Pauling L. (1961). A molecular theory of general anesthesia. Science 134, 1521.
677Pauling L. (1964). The hydrate microcrystal theory of general anesthesia. Anest. Analg. curr. Res. 43, 110.
678Payzant J. D., Yamdagni R. & Kebarle P. (1971). Hydration of CN, NO2, NO3 and OH in the gas phase. Can. J. Chem. 49, 33083314.
679Peacock C. K. & Nickless G. (1969). The dissociation constants of some phosphorus (V) acids. Z. Naturfosch. Ser. A 24, 245.
680Pecsok R. L. & Saunders D. (1968). On the mechanism of gel chromatography of inorganic salts. Separation Science 3, 325355.
681Pedley T. J. (1983). Calculation of unstirred layer thickness in membrane transport experiments: a survey. Q. Rev. Biophys 16, 115150.
682Penefsky H. S. & Warner R. C. (1965). Partial resolution of the enzymes catalyzing oxidative phosphorylation. VI. Studies on the mechanism of cold inactivation of mitochondrial adenosine tri-phosphatase. J. biol. Chem. 240, 46944702.
683Persidsky M. & Richards V. (1962). Mode of protection with polyvinylpyrrolidone in freezing of bone marrow. Nature 196, 585586.
684Person W. B. (1962). Thermodynamic properties of donor-acceptor complexes. J. Am. chem. Soc. 84, 536540.
685Petersdorf R. G., Adams R. D., Braunwald E., Isselbacher K. J., Martin J. B. & Wilson J. D. (1983). Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 10th ed.New York: McGraw-Hill.
686Petsko G. A. (1975). Protein crystallography at sub-zero temperatures: cryoprotective mother liquors for protein crystals. J. molec. Biol. 96, 381392.
687Pharmacia (1970). Sephadex, Gel Filtration in Theory and Practice. Uppsala: Pharmacia Fine Chemicals AB.
688Philip P. R. & Jolicoeur C. (1973). Near-infrared study of the state of water in aqueous solutions of tetraalkylammonium and -phosphonium bromides and alkali halides at 10, 25 and 40°. J. phys. Chem. 77, 30713077.
689Philip P. R., Perron G. & Desnoyers J. E. (1974). Apparent molal volumes and heat capacities of urea and methyl-substituted ureas in H2O and D2O at 25 °C. Can. J. Chem. 52, 17091713.
690Piez K. A. & Reddi A. H. (eds) (1984). Extracellular Matrix Biochemistry. New York: Elsevier.
691Pittz E. P. & Timasheff S. N. (1978). Interaction of ribonuclease A with aqueous 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol at pH 5·8. Biochemistry 17, 615623.
692Plyler E. K. & Barr E. S. (1938). The change in absorption of water at 4·7 μ due to solutions. J. chem. Phys. 6, 316318.
693Pohl E. R., Wu D. & Hupe D. J. (1980). Effect of solvation on β values for formyl, acetyl, and pivaloyl transfer between sulfur and oxygen nucleophiles. J. Am. chem. Soc. 102, 27592768.
694Pohl F. M. (1968). Kinetics of reversible denaturation of trypsin in water and water–ethanol mixtures. Eur. J. Biochem. 7, 146152.
695Poillon W. N. & Bertles J. F. (1979). Deoxygenated sickle hemoglobin. Effects of lyotropic salts on its solubility. J. Biol. Chem. 254, 34623467.
696Polge C., Smith A. U. & Parkes A. S. (1949). Revival of spermatozoa after vitrification and dehydration at low temperatures. Nature 164, 666.
697Pollard A. & Wyn Jones R. G. (1979). Enzyme activities in concentrated solutions of glycinebetaine and other solutes. Planta 144, 291298.
698Porath J., Sundberg L., Fornstedt N. & Olsson I. (1973). Salting-out in amphiphilic gels as a new approach to hydrophobic adsorption. Nature 245, 465466.
699Pottel R. (1973). Dielectric properties. In Water. A Comprehensive Treatise, vol. 3: Aqueous Solutions of Simple Electrolytes (ed. Franks F.), pp. 401455. New York: Plenum Press.
700Pottel R., Giese K. & Kaatze U. (1974). Dielectric relaxation of water in aqueous solutions. In Structure of Water and Aqueous Solutions (ed. Luck W. A. P.), pp. 391407. New York: Verlag Chemie.
701Pozner R. I., Shepard M. L. & Cocks F. H. (1977). The equilibrium and non-equilibrium thermal behaviour of aqueous ternary Solutions based on complex physiological support media, containing NaCl, and dimethyl sulphoxide or glycerol. J. materials Sci. 12, 299304.
702Prakash V., Loucheux C., Scheufele S., Gorbunoff M. J. & Timasheff S. N. (1981). Interactions of proteins with solvent components in 8 M urea. Arch. biochem. Biophys. 210, 455464.
703Prakash V. & Nandi P. K. (1977). Association–dissociation behavior of sesame α-globulin in electrolyte solutions. J. biol. Chem. 252, 240243.
704Prakash V. & Timasheff S. N. (1981). The calculation of partial specific volumes of proteins in 8 M urea solution. Analyt. Biochem. 117, 330335.
705Prakash V. & Timasheff S. N. (1985). Calculation of partial specific volumes of proteins in 8 M urea solution. Meth. Enzymol. 117, 5360.
706Preisler H. D. & Lyman G. (1975). Differentiation of erythroleukemia cells in vitro: properties of chemical inducers. Cell Differentiation 4, 179185.
707Pulito V. L., Miller D. L., Sassa S. & Yamane T. (1983). DNA fragments in friend erythroleukemia cells induced by dimethylsulfoxide. Proc. natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 80, 59125915.
708Pundak S., Aloni H. & Eisenberg H. (1981). Structure and activity of malate dehydrogenase from the extreme halophilic bacteria of the Dead Sea. 2. Inactivation, dissociation and unfolding at NaCl concentrations below 2 M. Salt, salt concentration and temperature dependence of enzyme stability. Eur. J. Biochem. 118, 471477.
709Radnai T., Palinkas G., Szasz Gy. I. & Heinzinger K. (1981). The second hydration shell of Li+ in aqueous Lil from X-ray and MD studies. Z. Naturforsch. 36A, 10761081.
710Rahmann H. (1978). Gangliosides and thermal adaption in vertebrates. Japan J. Exp. Med. 48, 8596.
711Rahmann H. (1979). The possible functional role for gangliosides in synaptic transmission and memory formation. In Biological Aspects of Learning, Memory Formation and Ontogeny of the CNS (ed. Matthies H., Krug M. and Popov N.), pp. 83110. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.
712Rallo F., Rodante F. & Silvestroni P. (1970). Calorimetric determination of partial molar enthalpies of solution of water and dimethylsulfoxide in their mixtures. Thermochimica acta 1, 311316.
713Ramshaw J. A. M., Bateman J. F. & Cole W. G. (1984). Precipitation of collagens by polyethylene glycols. Analyt. Biochem. 141, 361365.
714Rand R. P. (1981). Interacting phospholipid bilayers: measured forces and induced structural changes. Ann. Rev. biophys. Bioeng. 10, 277314.
715Rand R. P., Parsegian V. A., Henry J. A. C., Lis L. J. & McAlister M. (1980). The effect of cholesterol on measured interaction and compressibility of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine bilayers. Can. J. Biochem. 58, 959968.
716Randles J. E. B. (1957). Ionic hydration and the surface potential of aqueous electrolytes. Discuss. Faraday Soc. 24, 194199.
717Handles J. E. B. (1963). The interface between aqueous electrolyte solutions and the gas phase. In Advances in Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Engineering, vol. 3: Electrochemistry (ed. Delahay P.), pp. 130. New York: Wiley-Interscience.
718Randles J. E. B. & Schiffrin D. J. (1965). The temperature-dependence of the surface potential of aqueous electrolytes. J. Electroanal. Chem. 10, 480484.
719Rasmussen D. H. & Mackenzie A. P. (1972). Effect of solute on ice-solution interfacial free energy: calculation from measured homogeneous nucleation temperatures. In Water Structure at the Water–Polymer Interface (ed. Jellinek H. H. G.), pp. 126145. New York: Plenum Press.
720Rau D. C., Lee B. & Parsegian V. A. (1984). Measurement of the repulsive force between polyelectrolyte molecules in ionic solution: hydration forces between parallel DNA double helices. Proc. natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 81, 26212625.
721Ray A. & Nemethy G. (1971). Effects of ionic protein denaturants on micelle formation by nonionic detergents. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 93, 67876793.
722Rees D. C., Lewis M. & Lipscomb W. N. (1983). Refined crystal structure of carboxypeptidase A at 1·54 Å resolution. J. molec. Biol. 168, 367387.
723Reiners G., Lorenz W. J. & Hertz H. G. (1978). Tracer diffusion coefficients in aqueous electrolyte solutions of various structure forming and breaking ions. Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 82, 738744.
724Reisler E. & Eisenberg H. (1969). Interpretation of Equilibrium sedimentation measurements of proteins in guanidine hydrochloride solutions. Partial volumes, density increments, and the molecular weight of the subunits of rabbit muscle aldolase. Biochemistry 8, 45724578.
725Richards C. D. (1978). Anesthetics and membranes. In Biochemistry of Cell Walls and Membranes, vol. 11 (ed. Metcalfe J. C.), pp. 157220. International Review of Biochemistry, vol. 19. Baltimore: University Park Press.
726Riebesehl W., Tomlinson E. & Grunbauer H. J. M. (1984). Thermodynamics of solute transfer between alkanes and water. J. phys. Chem. 88, 47754779.
727Rill R. L., Hilliard P. R. Jr, & Levy G. C. (1983). Spontaneous ordering of DNA. Effects of intermolecular interactions on DNA motional dynamics monitored by 13C and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. J. biol. Chem. 258, 250256.
728Rimerman R. A. & Hatfield G. W. (1973). Phosphate-induced protein chromatography. Science 182, 12681270.
729Rinfret A. P. (1963). Some aspects of preservation of blood by rapid freeze-thaw procedures. Fedn Proc. 22, 94101.
730Roberts N. K. (1976). Proton diffusion and activity in the presence of electrolytes. J. phys. Chem. 80, 11171120.
731Roberts N. K. & Northey H. L. (1974). Proton and deuteron mobility in normal and heavy water solutions of electrolytes. J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 1, 253262.
732Robinson D. R. (1972). The determination of activity coefficients from distribution measurements. Meth. Enzymol. 26, 365380.
733Robinson D. R. & Grant M. E. (1966). The effects of aqueous salt solutions on the activity coefficients of purine and pyrimidine bases and their relation to the denaturation of deoxyribonucleic acid by salts. J. biol. Chem. 241, 40304042.
734Robinson D. R. & Jencks W. P. (1965). The effect of compounds of the urea-guanidinium class on the activity coefficient of acetyltetraglycine ethyl ester and related compounds. J. Am. chem. Soc. 87, 24622470.
735Robinson J. B., Strottmann J. M. & Stellwagen E. (1981). Prediction of neutral salt elution profiles for affinity chromatography. Proc. natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 78, 22872291.
736Robinson R. A. & Stokes R. H. (1959). Electrolyte Solutions. The Measurement and Interpretation of Conductance, Chemical Potential and Diffusion in Solutions of Simple Electrolytes, 2nd ed.London: Butterworths Scientific Publications.
737Robinson R. A. & Stokes R. H. (1961). Activity coefficients in aqueous solutions of sucrose, mannitol and their mixtures at 25°. J. Phys. Chem. 65, 19541958.
738Roden L. (1980). Structure and metabolism of connective tissue proteoglycans. In The Biochemistry of Glycoproteins andProteoglycans (ed. Lennarz W. J.), pp. 267371. New York: Plenum Press.
739Rohdewald P. & Moldner M. (1973). Dielectric constants of amide-water systems. J. phys. Chem. 77, 373377.
740Romer H. & Rahmann H. (1979). Effects of exogenous neuraminidase on unit activity in frog spinal cord and fish optic tectum. Exp. Brain Res. 34, 4958.
741Roseman M. & Jencks W. P. (1975). Interactions of urea and other polar compounds in water. J. Am. chem. Soc. 97, 631640.
742Rosenberg P. H. (1979). Effects of halothane, lidocaine and 5-hydroxytryptamine on fluidity of synaptic plasma membranes, myelin membranes and synaptic mitochondrial membranes. Naynyn-Schmiedeberg's Arch. Pharmacol. 307, 199206.
743Rosenberg P. H. (1980). Synaptosomal studies of fluidity changes caused by anesthetics. In Molecular Mechanisms of Anesthesia (ed. Fink B. R.), pp. 325334. (Progress in Anesthesiology, vol. 2.) New York: Raven Press.
744Rosenberg P. H., Eibl H. & Stier A. (1975). Biphasic effects of halothane on phospholipid and synaptic plasma membranes: a spin label study. Molec. Pharmacol. 11, 879882.
745Rosengren J., Pahlman S., Glad M. & Hjerten S. (1975). Hydrophobic interaction chromatography on non-charged Sepharose® derivatives. Binding of a model protein, related to ionic strength, hydrophobicity of the substituent, and degree of substitution (determined by NMR). Biochim. biophys. Acta 412, 5161.
746Rossky P. J. & Karplus M. (1979). Solvation. A molecular dynamics study of a dipeptide in water. J. Am. chem. Soc. 101, 19131937.
747Rothstein F., Rosenoer V. M. & Hughes W. L. (1977). Current concepts concerning albumin purification. In Albumin Structure, Function and Uses (ed. Rosenoer V. M., Oratz M., and Rothschild M. A.), pp. 725. New York: Pergamon Press.
748Roux G., Roberts D., Perron G. & Desnoyers J. E. (1980). Microheterogeneity in aqueous-organic solutions: heat capacities, volumes and expansibilities of some alcohols, aminoalcohol and tertiary amines in water. J. Solution Chem. 9, 629647.
749Rubin R. A. & Earp H. S. (1983). Solubilization of EGF receptor with trition X-100 alters stimulation of tyrosine residue phos-phorylation by EGF and dimethyl sulfoxide. J. biol. Chem. 258, 51775182.
750Russegger P., Lischka H. & Schuster P. (1972). Model calculations of the solvation of oneatomic ions (LCAO-MO-investigations of molecular structures VIII). Theoret. chim. acta (Beri.) 24, 191200.
751Ruthven D. M. (1984). Principles of adsorption and adsorption processes. New York: Wiley-Interscience.
752Samoilov O. Ya. (1957 a) (1965). Structure of Aqueous Electrolyte Solutions and the Hydration of Ions. New York: Consultants Bureau.
753Samoilov O. Ya. (1957 b). A new approach to the study of hydration of ions in aqueous solutions. Discuss. Faraday Soc. 24, 141146.
754Samoilov O. Ya. (1972). Residence times of ionic hydration. In Water and Aqueous Solutions. Structure, Thermodynamics, and Transport Processes (ed. Home R. A.), pp. 597612. New York: Wiley-Interscience.
755Saunders D. & Pecsok R. L. (1968). Calculation of distribution coefficients in inorganic gel chromatography. Analyt. Chem. 40, 4448.
756Savage J. J. & Wood R. H. (1976). Enthalpy of dilution of aqueous mixtures of amides, sugars, urea, ethylene glycol, and pentaerythritol at 25 °C: enthalpy of interaction of the hydrocarbon, amide, and hydroxyl functional groups in dilute aqueous solutions. J. Sol. Chem. 5, 733750.
757Saylor J. H., Whitten A. I., Claiborne I. & Gross P. M. (1952). The solubilities of benzene, nitrobenzene and ethylene chloride in aqueous salt solutions. J. Am. chem. Soc. 74, 17781781.
758Scatchard G., Hamer W. J. & Wood S. E. (1938). Isotonic solutions. I. The chemical potential of water in aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, potassium chloride, sulfuric acid, sucrose, urea and glycerol at 25°. J. Am. chem. Soc. 60, 30613070.
759Schaffer S. W., Ahmed A. K. & Wetlaufer D. B. (1975). Salt effects in the glutathione-facilitated reactivation of reduced bovine pancreatic ribonuclease. J. biol. Chem. 250, 84838486.
760Schauer R. (1982 a). Chemistry, metabolism, and biological functions of sialic acids. Adv. in Carbohydrate Chem. and Biochem. 40, 131234.
761Schauer R. (ed.) (1982 b). Sialic Acids: Chemistry, Metabolism and function (Cell Biology Monographs, vol. 10). New York: Springer-Verlag.
762Schellman J. A. (1953). The thermodynamics of urea solutions and the heat of formation of the peptide hydrogen bond. C.R. Trav. Lab. Carlsberg 29, 223229.
763Scher W., Preisler H. D. & Friend C. (1973). Hemoglobin synthesis in murine virus-induced leukemic cells in vitro III. Effects of 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine, dimethylformamide and dimethylsul-foxide. J. cell. Physiol. 81, 6370.
764Schleich T., Gentzler R. & Von Hippel P. H. (1968). Proton exchange of N–methylacetamide in concentrated aqueous electrolyte solutions I. Acid catalysis. J. Am. chem. Soc., 90, 59545960.
765Schleich T., Rollefson B. & Von Hippel P. H. (1971). Proton exchange of N–methylacetamide in concentrated aqueous electrolyte solutions. II. Acid catalysis in water-dioxane mixtures and base catalysis. J. Am. chem. Soc. 93, 70707074.
766Schleich T. & Von Hippel P. H. (1969). Specific ion effects on the solution conformation of poly-L-proline. Biopolymers 7, 861877.
767Schobert B. (1982). Evidence for a protein stabilizing mechanism in plant cells under water stress. In Biophysics of Water (ed. Franks F. and Mathias S. F.), pp. 309311. New York: Wiley-Interscience.
768Schoffeniels E. (1976). Adaptions with respect to salinity. Biochem. Soc. Symp. 41, 179204.
769Schott H., Royce A. E. & Han S. K. (1984). Effect of inorganic additives on solutions of nonionic surfactants VII. Cloud point shift values of individual ions. J. Colloid and Interface Sci. 98, 196201.
770Schrier E. E., Ingwall R. T. & Scheraga H. A. (1965). The effect of aqueous alcohol solutions on the thermal transition of ribonuclease. J. phys. Chem. 69, 298303.
771Schrier E. E. & Schrier E. B. (1967). The salting-out behavior of amides and its relation to the denaturation of proteins by salts. J. phys. Chem. 71, 18511860.
772Schryvers A. & Weiner J. H. (1981). The anaerobic sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli. Purification and characterization. J. biol. Chem. 256, 99599965.
773Schultz J. W. & Hornig D. F. (1961). The effect of dissolved alkali halides on the raman spectrum of water. J. phys. Chem., 65, 21312138.
774Seeman P. M. (1972). The membrane actions of anesthetics and tranquilizers. Pharmac. Rev. 24, 583655.
775Seeman P. M. (1966). Membrane stabilization by drugs: tranquilizers, steroids, and anesthetics. Int. Rev. Neurobiol. 9, 145221.
776Sellin S., Aronsson A.-C. & Mannervik B. (1980). A method based on the use of methanol as a stabilizing agent to prepare metal-free glyoxalase I and to reconstitute activity by addition of bivalent metal ions. Acta chem. scand. 634, 541543.
777Sergeeva V. F. (1965). Salting-out and salting-in of non-electrolytes. Russ. chem. Revs 34, 309318.
778Setschenow J. (1889). Über die Konstitution der Salzlosungen auf Grund ihres Verhaltens zu Kohlensaure. Z. phys. Chem. 4, 117125.
779Setschenow J. (1891). Action de l'acide carbonique sur les solutions des sels a acides forts. Annales de Chimie et du Physique 25, 226270.
780Shames S. L. & Byers L. D. (1981 a). Acyl substituent effects on rates of acyl transfer to thiolate, hydroxide, and oxy dianions. J. Am. chem. Soc. 103, 61706177.
781Shaner S. L., Piatt D. M., Wensley C. G., Yu H., Burgess R. R. & Record M. T. Jr., (1982). Aggregation equilibria of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase: evidence for anion-linked conformational transitions in the protomers of core and holoenzyme. Biochemistry 21, 55395551.
782Shibata A., Yamashita S. & Yamashita T. (1982). Specific anion effects on water structure at polypeptide monolayer-water interface. Bull. chem. Soc. Japan 55, 28142819.
783Shin M., Sakihama N., Oshino R. & Sasaki H. (1984). Butyltoyopearl 650 as a new hydrophobic adsorbent for water-soluble enzyme proteins. Analyt. Biochem. 138, 259261.
784Shoolery J. N. & Alder B. J. (1955). Nuclear magnetic resonance in concentrated aqueous electrolytes. J. chem. Phys. 23, 805811.
785Shukuya R. & Schwert G. W. (1960). Glutamic acid decarboxylase III. The inactivation of the enzyme at low temperatures. J. biol. Chem. 235, 16581661.
786Sigel H. & Martin R. B. (1982). Coordinating properties of the amide bond. Stability and structure of metal ion complexes of peptides and related ligands. Chem. Rev. 82, 385426.
787Sihag R. K. & Deutscher M. P. (1983). Perturbation of the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase complex by salts and detergents. Importance of hydrophobic interactions and possible involvement of lipids. J. biol. Chem. 258, 1184611850.
788Silberberg A. (1962 a). The adsorption of flexible macromolecules. Part II. The shape of the adsorbed molecule; the adsorption isotherm surface tension, and pressure. J. phys. Chem. 66, 18841907.
789Silberberg A. (1962 b). The adsorption of flexible macromolecules Part I. The isolated macromolecule at a plane interface. J. phys. Chem. 66, 18721883.
790Simpson R. B. & Kauzmann W. (1953). The kinetics of protein denaturation I. The behavior of the optical rotation of ovalbumin in urea solutions. J. Am. chem. Soc. 75, 51395152.
791Sinibaldi M. & Lederer M. (1975). Adsorption of inorganic anions on Sephadex gels. J. Chromat. 107, 210212.
792Skinner M. & Cohen A. S. (1983). Amyloidosis: clinical, pathologic, and biochemical characteristics. In Connective Tissue Diseases (ed. Wagner B. M., Fleischmajer R. and Kaufman N.), pp. 97119. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.
793Smith M. & Symons M. C. R. (1958). Solvation spectra. Part I – The effect of environmental changes upon the ultra-violet absorption of solvated iodide ions. Trans. Faraday Soc. 54, 338345.
794Smith R. L., Macara I. G., Levenson R., Housman D. & Cantley L. (1982). Evidence that a Na+/Ca2+ antiport system regulates murine erythroleukemia cell differentiation. J. biol. Chem. 257, 773780.
795Sohnel O. & Novotny P. (1985). Densities of Aqueous Solutions of Inorganic Substances. New York: Elsevier.
796Somero G. N., Neubauer M. & Low P. S. (1977). Neutral salt effects on the velocity and activation volume of the lactate dehydrogenase reaction: evidence for enzyme hydration changes during catalysis. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 181, 438446.
797Soupart P. & Clewe T. H. (1965). Sperm penetration of rabbit zona pellucida inhibited by treatment of ova with neuraminidase. Pert. Steril. 16, 677689.
798Span J. & Lapanje S. (1973). Solvation of β-lactoglobulin and chymotrypsinogen A in aqueous urea solutions. Biochim. biophys. Acta 295, 371378.
799Span J., Lenarcic S. & Lapanje S. (1974). Solvation of lysozyme and β-lactoglobulin in aqueous guanidine hydrochloride solutions. Biochim. biophys. Acta 359, 311319.
800Srere P. A. (1980). The infrastructure of the mitochondrial matrix. Trends Biochem. Sci. 5, 120121.
801Srere P. A. (1981). Protein crystals as a model for mitochondrial matrix proteins. Trends Biochem. Sci. 6, 47.
802Srere P. A. (1984). Why are enzymes so big? Trends Biochem. Sci. 9, 387390.
803Srinivasan R. & Ruckenstein E. (1980). Role of physical forces in hydrophobic interaction chromatography. Separation and Purification Methods 9, 267370.
804Stein J. H., Cline M. J., Daly W. J., Easton J. D., Hutton J. J., Kohler P. O., O'Rourke R. A., Sande M. A., Trier J. S. & Zvaifler N. J. (eds.) (1983). Internal Medicine, 1st ed.Boston: Little Brown.
805Stern J. H. & Hubler P. M. (1984). Hydrogen bonding in aqueous solutions of D-ribose and 2-deoxy-D-ribose. J. phys. Chem. 88, 16801681.
806Stewart R. (1985). The Proton: Applications to Organic Chemistry. New York: Academic Press.
807Stillinger F. H. (1980). Water revisited. Science 209, 451456.
808Stokes R. H. (1967). Thermodynamics of aqueous urea solutions. Aust. J. Chem. 20, 20872100.
809Stokes R. H. & Mills R. (1965). Viscosity of Electrolytes and Related Properties. New York: Pergamon Press.
810Storey K. B. & Storey J. M. (1983). Biochemistry of Freeze Tolerance in Terrestrial Insects. Trends Biochem. Sci. 8, 242245.
811St. Pierre T. & Jencks W. P. (1969). Interactions of salts and denaturing agents with a polyacrylamide gel. Arch. biochem. Biophys. 133, 99102.
812Streitwieser A. Jr., (1985). Driving force and nucleophilicity in SN2 displacements. Proc. natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 82, 82888290.
813Subramanian S. & Fisher H. F. (1972). Near-infrared spectral studies on the effects of perchlorate and tetrafluoroborate ions on water structure. J. phys. Chem. 76, 8489.
814Suda S., Enomoto S., Abe E. & Suda T. (1984). Inhibition by 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 of dimethyl sulfoxide-induced differentiation of friend erythroleukemia cells. Biochem. biophys. Res. Comm. 119, 807813.
815Sudholter E. J. R. & Engberts J. B. F. N. (1979). Salt effects on the critical micellar concentration, iodide counterion binding, and surface micropolarity of 1-methyl-4-dodecylpyridinium iodide micelles. J. Phys. Chem. 83, 18541859.
816Sunner J. & Kebarle P. (1984). Ion-solvent molecule interactions in the gas phase. The potassium ion and Me2SO, DMA, DMF and acetone. J. Am. chem. Soc. 106, 61356139.
817Swain C. G. & Bader R. F. W. (1960). The nature of the structure difference between light and heavy water and the origin of the solvent isotope effect-I. Tetrahedron 10, 182199.
818Swain C. G., Swain M. S., Powell A. L. & Alunni S. (1983). Solvent effects on chemical reactivity. Evaluation of anion and cation solvation components. J. Am. chem. Soc. 105, 502513.
819Swann A. C. (1983). Brain (Na+, Ka+)-ATPase. Opposite effects of ethanol and dimethyl sulfoxide on temperature dependence of enzyme conformation and univalent cation binding. J. biol. Chem. 258, 1178011786.
820Swezey R. R. & Somero G. N. (1982). Polymerization thermodynamics and structure stabilities of skeletal muscle actins from vertebrates adapted to different temperatures and hydrostatic pressures. Biochemistry 21, 44964503.
821Symons M. C. R. (1975). Water structure and hydration. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B272 1328.
822Symons M. C. R. (1981). Water structure and reactivity. Accts. Chem. Res. 14, 179187.
823Symons M. C. R. (1983). Structure in solvents and solutions-NMR and vibrational spectroscopic studies. Chem. Soc. Reviews 12, 134.
824Symons M. C. R. & Blandamer M. J. (1968). Spectroscopic and ultrasonic relaxation studies of the water-t–butyl alcohol system. In Hydrogen-Bonded Solvent Systems (ed. Covington A. K. and Jones P.), pp. 211220. London: Taylor and Francis.
825Symons M. C. R., Harvey J. M. & Jackson S. E. (1980 b). Spectroscopic studies of water-aprotic-solvent interactions in the waterrich region. J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. I 76, 256265.
826Szasz Gy. I. & Heinzinger K. (1983). A molecular dynamics study of the translational and rotational motions in an aqueous Lil solution. J. chem. Phys. 79, 34673473.
827Szasz Gy. I., Heinzinger K. & Palinkas G. (1981 a). The structure of the hydration shell of the lithium ion. Chem. phys. Lett. 78, 194196.
828Szasz Gy. I., Heinzinger K. & Riede W. O. (1981 b). Structural properties of an aqueous Lil solution derived from a molecular dynamics simulation. Z. Naturforsch. 36A, 10671075.
829Szasz Gy. I., Heinzinger K. & Riede W. O. (1981 c). Self-diffusion and reorientational motion in an aqueous Lil solution. A molecular dynamics study. Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 85, 10561059.
830Taborsky G. (1979). Protein alterations at low temperatures: an overview. In Proteins at Low Temperatures (ed. Fennema O.), pp. 126. Advances in Chemistry Series, vol. 180. Washington, D.C.: American Chemical Society.
831Tabushi I., Kobuke Y. & Imuta J. (1981). Lipophilic diammonium cation having a rigid structure complementary to pyrophosphate dianions of nucleotides. Selective extraction and transport of nucleotides. J. Am. chem. Soc. 103, 61526157.
832Takemori S., Furuya E., Suzuki H. & Katagiri M. (1967). Stabilization of enzyme activity by an organic solvent. Nature 215, 417419.
833Tamas J. & Ujszaszy K. (1966). The diffusion of H218O molecules in concentrated aqueous solutions of salts II. Acta Chim. Hung. 49, 377393.
834Tan K. H. & Lovrien R. (1972). Enzymology in aqueous-organic cosolvent binary mixtures. J. biol. Chem. 247, 32783285.
835Tanabe K. (1984). Raman spectroscopic study of hydrophobic hydration of organic molecules in aqueous solution. J. Inclusion Phenomena 2, 267273.
836Tanaka H., Nakanishi K. & Nishikawa K. (1984). Clathrate-like structure of water around some nonelectrolytes in dilute solution as revealed by computer simulation and X-ray diffraction studies. J. Inclusion Phenomena 2, 119126.
837Tanaka M., Levy J., Terada M., Breslow R., Rifkind R. A. & Marks P. A. (1975). Induction of erythroid differentiation in murine virus infected erythroleukemia cells by highly polar com pounds. Proc. natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 72, 10031006.
838Tanford C. (1968). Protein denaturation. Adv. Prot. Chem. 23, 121282.
839Tanford C. (1979). Interfacial free energy and the hydrophobic effect. Proc. natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 76, 41754176.
840Taylor J. B. & Rowlinson J. S. (1955). The thermodynamic properties of aqueous solutions of glucose. Trans. Faraday Soc. 51, 11831192.
841Taylor R. P. & Kuntz I. D. Jr., (1972). Proton acceptor abilities of anions and possible relevance to the Hofmeister series. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 94, 79637965.
842Teeter M. M. (1984). Water structure of a hydrophobic protein at atomic resolution: pentagon rings of water molecules in crystals of crambin. Proc. natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 81, 60146018.
843Teissie J., Prats M., Soucaille P. & Tocanne J. F. (1985). Evidence for conduction of protons along the interface between water and a polar lipid monolayer. Proc. natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 82, 32173221.
844Tellam R. L., Sculley M. J., Nichol L. W. & Wills P. R. (1983). The influence of poly(ethylene glycol) 6000 on the properties of skeletal-muscle actin. Biochem. J. 213, 651659.
845Tessman J. R., Kahn A. H. & Shockley W. (1953). Electronic polarizabilities of ions in crystals. Phys. Rev. 92, 890895.
846Tettamanti G., Preti A., Cestaro B., Masserini M., Son-Nino S. & Ghidoni R. (1980). Gangliosides and associated enzymes at the nerve-ending membranes. In Cell Surface Glycolipids (ed. Sweeley C. C.), pp. 321343. Washington, D.C.: American Chemical Society.
847Timasheff S. N. (1970). Protein-solvent interactions and protein conformation. Accts. Chem. Res. 3, 6268.
848Timasheff S. N. & Inoue H. (1968). Preferential binding of solvent components to proteins in mixed water-organic solvent systems. Biochemistry 7, 25012513.
849Timasheff S. N., Lee J. C., Pittz E. P. & Tweedy N. (1976). The interaction of tubulin and other proteins with structure-stabilizing solvents. J. Colloid and Interface Sci. 55, 658663.
850Traube J. (1910). The attraction pressure. J. Physical Chem. 14, 452470.
851Tsopanakis A., Tsopanakis C. & Shall S. (1978). Useof subzero temperatures and aqueous/organic solvent systems to increase the stability of labile enzymes. Biochemical Soc. Trans. 6, 12821285.
852Ueberreiter K. (1980 a). Change of water structure by polyalcohols. Density and viscosity measurements, 1. Water/aliphatic alcohol solutions. Makromol. Chem. Rapid. Commun., 1, 139142.
853Ueberreiter K. (1980 b). Change of water structure by polyalcohols. Density and viscosity measurements, 2. Water/polyalcohol solutions. Makromol. Chem. Rapid. Commun., 1, 143147.
854Ueda M., Katayama A., Kuroki N. & Urahata T. (1976 a). Effect of urea and p–toluenesulfonic acid on the solubility of toluene in water-ethylene glycol mixture. Colloid & Polymer Sci. 254, 417420.
855Ueda M., Katayama A., Kuroki N. & Urahata T. (1976 b). Effect of glycerol on the solubilities of benzene and toluene in water. Colloid & Polymer Sci. 254, 532533.
856Ueda M., Katayama A., Urahata T. & Kuroki N. (1978 a). Effect of sorbitol and inositol on the solubility of toluene in water. Colloid & Polymer Sci. 256, 10321033.
857Ueda M., Katayama A., Kuroki N. & Urahata T. (1978 b). Effect of urea on the solubility of benzene and toluene in water. Progr. in Colloid & Polymer Sci. 63, 116119.
858Ueda M., Lim Y., Urahata T. & Kuroki N. (1980). Effects of ureas on the aqueous solubilities of aromatic hydrocarbons. Kagaku to Kogyo (Osaka) 54, 104108.
859Uedaira H. (1980). Structure and function of water in biological systems. In Water and Metal Cations in Biological Systems (ed. Pullman B. and Yagi K.), pp. 4756. Tokyo: Japan Scientific Societies Press.
860Ueno Y., Yoza N. & Ohashi S. (1970). Gel Chromatographic behavior of some metal ions. J. Chromat. 52, 321327.
861Ujimoto K. & Kurihara H. (1981). Mechanism of separation of aliphatic alcohols in aqueous dextran gel systems. J. Chromat. 208, 183200.
862Varma R., Michos G. A., Mesmer R. E., Varma R. S. & Shirey R. E. (1983). Beta-glucuronidase in sera of patients with epileptic seizure activity, diabetes and some other disease states. Neuroscience Letters 39, 105111.
863Varma R., Michos G. A., Varma R. S., Stolar J., Mesmer R. & Joy C. R. (1982). Serum beta-glucuronidase in epilepsy. Res. Commun. PsychoL., Psychiat. & Behav. 7, 377380.
864Varma S. D. & Kinoshita J. H. (1974). Sorbitol pathway in diabetic and galactosemic rat lens. Biochim. biophys. Acta 338, 632640.
865Varma R. & Varma R. S. (1983). Mucopolysaccharides – Glyco-saminoglycans – of Body Fluids in Health and Disease. New York: Walter de Gruyter.
866Veis A. & Nawrot C. F. (1970). Basicity differences among peptide bonds. J. Am. chem. Soc. 92, 39103914.
867Verkman A. S. & Dix J. A. (1984). Effect of unstirred layers on binding and reaction kinetics at a membrane surface. Anal. Biochem. 142, 109116.
868Verrall R. E. (1973). Infrared spectroscopy of aqueous electrolyte solutions. In Water. A Comprehensive Treatise, vol. 3: Aqueous Solutions of Simple Electrolytes (ed. Franks F.), pp. 211264. New York: Plenum Press.
869Voelkel J. (1981). Salt effect during the swelling and dissolution of poly(vinyl alcohol). Influence on the nature of ions. Polish J. Chem. 55, 445455.
870Voet A. (1936). Ionic radii and heat of hydration. Trans. Faraday Soc. 32, 13011304.
871Voet A. (1937). Quantitative lyotropy. Chem. Rev. 20, 169179.
872Von Der Haar F. (1976). Purification of proteins by fractional interfacial salting out on unsubstituted agarose gels. Biochem. biophys. Res. Comm. 70, 10091013.
873Von Der Haar F. (1978). Interfacial salting out and the ligand induced solubility shift: another affinity technique in purification of proteins. In Theory and Practice in Affinity Techniques (ed. Sundaram P. V. and Eckstein F.), pp. 113. New York: Academic Press.
874Von Hippel P. H. (1975). Neutral salt effects on the conformational stability of biological macromolecules. In Protein–Ligand Interactions (ed. Sund H. and Blauer G.), pp. 452471. New York: Walter de Gruyter.
875Von Hippel P. H. & Hamabata A. (1973). Model studies on the effects of neutral salts on the conformational stability of biological macromolecules. J. Mechanochem. Cell Mobility 2, 127138.
876Von Hippel P. H., Peticolas V., Schack L. & Karlson L. (1973). Model studies on the effects of neutral salts on the conformational stability of biological macromolecules. I. Ion binding to polyacrylamide and polystyrene columns. Biochemistry 12, 12561264.
877Von Hippel P. H. & Schleich T. (1969 a). The effects of neutral salts on the structure and conformational stability of macromolecules in solution. In Structure and Stability of Biological Macromolecules (ed. Timasheff S. N., and Pasman G. D.), pp. 417574. New York: Marcel Dekker.
878Von Hippel P. H. & Schleich T. (1969 b). Ion effects on the solution structure of biological macromolecules. Accts. Chem. Res. 2, 257265.
879Von Hippel P. H. & Wong K.-Y. (1962). The effect of ions on the kinetics of formation and the stability of the collagen-fold. Biochemistry 1, 664674.
880Von Hippel P. H. & Wong K.-Y. (1965). On the conformational stability of globular proteins. The effects of various electrolytes and nonelectrolytes on the thermal ribonuclease transition. J. biol. Chem. 240, 39093923.
881Wagner B. M., Fleischmajer R. & Kaufman N. (eds.) (1983). Connective Tissue Diseases. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.
882Wagner C. (1924). The surface tension of dilute solutions of electrolytes. Physik. Z. 25, 474477.
883Waldron R. D. (1957). Infrared spectra of HDO in water and ionic solutions. J. chem. phys. 26, 809814.
884Walrafen G. E. (1962). Raman spectral studies of the effects of electrolytes on water. J. chem. Phys. 36, 10351042.
885Walrafen G. E. (1966). Raman spectral studies of the effects of urea and sucrose on water structure. J. chem. Phys. 44, 37263727.
886Walrafen G. E. (1970). Raman spectral studies of the effects of perchlorate ion on water structure. J. chem. Phys. 52, 41764198.
887Walrafen G. E. (1971). Raman spectral studies of the effects of solutes and pressure on water structure. J. chem. Phys. 55, 768792.
888Warren J. C. & Cheatum S. G. (1966). Effect of neutral salts on enzyme activity and structure. Biochemistry 5, 17021706.
889Warren J. C., Stowring L. & Morales M. F. (1966). The effect of structure-disrupting ions on the activity of myosin and other enzymes. J. biol. Chem. 241, 309316.
890Warshel A. (1978 a). A microscopic model for calculations of chemical processes in aqueous solutions. Chem. Phys. Lett. 55, 454458.
891Warshel A. (1978 b). Energetics of enzyme catalysis. Proc. natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 75, 52505254.
892Warshel A. (1979). Calculations of chemical processes in solutions. J. Phys. Chem. 83, 16401652.
893Warshel A. (1980). An empirical valence bond approach for comparing reactions in solutions and in enzymes. J. Am. chem. Soc. 102, 62186226.
894Warshel A. (1981). Electrostatic basis of structure-function correlation in proteins. Accts. Chem. Res. 14, 284290.
895Warshel A. & Russell R. T. (1984). Calculations of electrostatic interactions in biological systems and in solutions. Quarterly Rev. Biophys. 17, 283422.
896Washabaugh M. W. & Collins K. D. (1983). Purification of aqueous ethylene glycol. Analyt. Biochem. 134, 144152.
897Washabaugh M. W. & Collins K. D. (1986 a). The systematic characterization by aqueous column chromatography of solutes which affect protein stability. J. Biol. Chem. 261, in press.
898Washabaugh M. W. & Collins K. D. (1986 b). Dihydroorotase from Escherichia coli. Sulfhydryl group – metal ion interactions. J. biol. Chem. 261, 59205929.
899Watenpaugh K. D., Margulis T. N., Sieker L. C. & Jensen L. H. (1978). Water structure in a protein crystal: rubredoxin at 1·2 Å resolution. J. molec. Biol. 122, 175190.
900Weeks J. L., Meaburn G. M. A. C. & Gordon S. (1963). Absorption coefficients of liquid water and aqueous solutions in the far ultraviolet. Radiation Research 19, 559567.
901Weiss L. (1965). Studies on cell deformability. I. Effect of surface charge. J. Cell Biol. 26, 735739.
902Wen W.-Y. (1982). Hydration of some solutes in aqueous solutions. In Ions and Molecules in Solution; Studies in Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, vol. 27 (ed. Tanaka N., Ohtaki H. and Tamamushi R.), pp. 4559. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers.
903Weston R. E. Jr. (1962). Raman spectra of electrolyte solutions in light and heavy water. Spectrochimica acta 18, 12571277.
904Wetlaufer D. B., Malik S. K., Stoller L. & Coffin R. L. (1964). Nonpolar group participation in the denaturation of proteins by urea and guanidinium salts. Model compound studies. J. Am. chem. Soc. 86, 508513.
905Wheaton R. M. & Bauman W. C. (1951). Properties of strongly basic anion exchange resins. Ind. Eng. Chem. 43, 10881093.
906White D. C. & Dundas C. R. (1970). Effect of anaesthetics on emission of light by luminous bacteria. Nature 226, 456458.
907White J. C. (1985). The risks of excessive water drinking in epileptic patients. New Eng. J. Med. 312, 246247.
908White S. H. & King G. I. (1985). Molecular packing and area compressibility of lipid bilayers. Proc. natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 82, 65326536.
909Wilf J. & Minton A. P. (1981). Evidence for protein self-association induced by excluded volume myoglobin in the presence of globular proteins. Biochim. biophys. Acta 670, 316322.
910Wilhelm E., Battino R. & Wilcock R. J. (1977). Low-pressure solubility of gases in liquid water. Chem. Rev. 77, 219262.
911Williams R. J. & Harris D. (1977). The distribution of cryoprotective agents into lipid interfaces. Cryobiology 14, 670680.
912Williams W. J. (1979). Handbook of Anion Determination. London: Butterworths.
913Wilson N. & Greenhouse V. Y. (1976). Chromatography of Na 125I on Sephadex gels. J. Chromat. 118, 7582.
914Winstein S. & Fainberg A. H. (1957). Correlation of solvolysis rates. IV. Solvent effects on enthalpy and entropy of activation for solvolysis of t–butyl chloride. J. Am. chem. Soc. 79, 59375950.
915Winstein S., Savedoff L. G., Smith S., Stevens I. D. R. & Gall J. S. (1960). Ion pairs, nucleophilicity and salt effects in bimolecular nucleophilic substitution. Tetrahedron Lett. 2430.
916Wolfenden R. (1969). Transition state analogues for enzyme catalysis. Nature 223, 704705.
917Wolfenden R. (1976). Transition state analog inhibitors and enzyme catalysis. Ann. Rev. biophys. Bioeng. 5, 271306.
918Wolfenden R. (1978). Interaction of the peptide bond with solvent water: a vapor phase analysis. Biochemistry 17, 201204.
919Wolfenden R. (1983). Waterlogged molecules. Science 222, 10871093.
920Worley J. D. & Klotz I. M. (1966). Near-infrared spectra of H2O-D2O solutions. J. chem. Phys. 45, 28682871.
921Wyn Jones R. G. & Pollard A. (1982). Towards a physical chemical characterization of compatible solutes. In Biophysics of Water (ed. Franks F. and Mathias S. F.), pp. 335339. New York: Wiley-Interscience.
922Wynne-Jones W. F. K. & Eyring H. (1935). The absolute rate of reactions in condensed phases. J. chem. Phys. 3, 492502.
923Yamashita T., Shibata A. & Yamashita S. (1978). Effect of water structure on poly-є-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-lysine monolayers. Chemistry Letters 1112.
924Yancey P. H., Clark M. E., Hand S. C., Bowlus R. D. & Somero G. N. (1982). Living with water stress: evolution of os-molyte systems. Science 217, 12141222.
925Yang C.-H., Brown J. N. & Kopple K. D. (1979). Peptide-water association in peptide crystals. Int. J. Peptide Protein Res. 14, 1220.
926Yano Y. & Janado M. (1980). Hydrophobic interaction chromatography of aliphatic alcohols on unsubstituted Sephadex gels with high dextran concentrations. J. Chromat. 200, 125136.
927Yeh Y. & Feeney R. E. (1978). Anomalous depression of the freezing temperatures in a biological system. Aces. Chem. Res. 11, 129135.
928Yon R. J. & Simmonds R. J. (1975). Protein chromatography on adsorbents with hydrophobic and ionic groups. Some properties of N–(3-carboxypropionyl)aminodecyl-sepharose and its interaction with wheat-germ aspartate transcarbamoylase. Biochem. J. 151, 281290.
929Yoshida T., Mori T. & Ueda I. (1983). Giant planar lipid bilayer. I. Capacitance and its biphasic response to inhalation anesthetics. J. Colloid and Interface Sci. 96, 3947.
930Yoza N., Ogata T., Ueno Y. & Ohashi S. (1971). The application of a thermal detector to the gel chromatography of inorganic compounds. J. Chromat. 61, 295305.
931Yu C. & Levy G. C. (1983). Solvent and intramolecular proton dipolar relaxation of the three phosphates of ATP: a heteronuclear 2D NOE study. J. Am. chem. Soc. 105, 69946996.
932Zeitler H.-J. & Stadler E. (1972). Determination of parameters in dextran gel filtration. J. chromat. 74, 5971.
933Zillig W., Stetter K. O. & Tobien M. (1978). DNA-dependent RNA polymerase from Halobacterium halobium. Eur. J. Biochem. 91, 193199.
934Zimmerman S. B. & Pheiffer B. H. (1983). Macromolecular crowding allows blunt-end ligation by DNA ligases from rat liver or Escherichia coli. Proc. natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 80, 58525856.
935Zwingelstein G., Tapiero H., Portoukalian J. & Fourcade A. (1982). The effect of dimethylsulfoxide on the lipid composition of inducible and non inducible friend leukemia cells. Biochem. biophys. Res. Comm. 108, 437446.