Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Climate-Volcanism Feedback and the Toba Eruption of ∼74,000 Years Ago

  • Michael R. Rampino (a1) and Stephen Self (a2)
Abstract
Abstract

A general feedback between volcanism and climate at times of transition in the Quaternary climate record is suggested, exemplified by events accompanying the Toba eruption (∼74,000 yr ago), the largest known late Quaternary explosive volcanic eruption. The Toba paroxysm occurred during the δ18O stage 5a-4 transition, a period of rapid ice growth and falling global sea level, which may have been a factor in creating stresses that triggered the volcanic event. Toba is estimated to have produced between 1015 and 1016 g of fine ash and sulfur gases lofted in co-ignimbrite ash clouds to heights of at least 32 ± 5 km, which may have led to dense stratospheric dust and sulfuric acid aerosol clouds. These conditions could have created a brief, dramatic cooling or "volcanic winter," followed by estimated annual Northern Hemisphere surface-temperature decreases of ∼3° to 5°C caused by the longer-lived aerosols. Summer temperature decreases of ⩾10°C at high northern latitudes, adjacent to regions already covered by snow and ice, might have increased snow cover and sea-ice extent, accelerating the global cooling already in progress. Evidence for such climate-volcanic feedback, following Milankovitch periodicities, is found at several climatic transitions.

Copyright
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

J. M. Barnola D. Raynaud Y. S. Korotkevich , and C. Lorius (1987). Vostok ice core provides 160,000 year record of atmospheric CO2. Nature 329, 408414.

R. C. Barry J. T. Andrews , and M. A. Mahaffy (1975). Continental ice sheets: Conditions for growth. Science 190, 979981.

A. L. Berger (1978a). Long-term variations of daily insolation and Quaternary climatic changes. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 35, 23622367.

S. Bjork O. Ingolfsson H. Haflidason M. Hallsdottir , and N. J. Anderson (1992). Lake Torfadalsvatn: A high resolution record of the North Atlantic ash zone I and the last glacial-interglacial environ-mental changes in Iceland. Boreas 21, 1522.

R. S. Bradley , and J. England (1978a). Recent climatic fluctuations of the Canadian high Arctic and their significance for glaciology. Arctic and Alpine Research 10, 715731.

R. S. Bradley , and J. England (1978b). Volcanic dust in influence on glacier mass balances at high latitudes. Nature 271, 736738.

J. R. Bray (1977). Pleistocene volcanism and glacial initiation. Science 197, 251254.

W. S. Broecker , and G. H. Denton (1990). The role of ocean-atmosphere reorganizations in glacial cycles. Quaternary Science Reviews 9, 305341.

A. J. Busacca K. T. Nelstead E. V. McDonald , and M. D. Purser (1992). Correlation of distal tephra layers in loess in the channeled scabland and palouse of Washington state. Quaternary Research 37, 281303.

K. Caldeira , and M. R. Rampino (1992). Mount Etna CO2 may affect climate. Nature 355, 401402.

S. N. Carey H. Sigurdsson , and R. S. J. Sparks (1989). Experimental studies of particle-laden plumes. Journal of Geophysical Research 93, 1531415328.

J. Chappell , and N. J. Shackleton (1986). Oxygen isotopes and sea level. Nature 324, 137140.

C. A. Chesner W. I. Rose A. Deino R. Drake , and J. A. Westgate (1991). Eruptive history of Earth’s largest Quaternary caldera (Toba, Indonesia) clarified. Geology 19, 200203.

M. DeAngelis N. I. Barkov , and V. N. Petrov (1987). Aerosol concentrations over the last climatic cycle (160 ka) from an Antarctic core. Nature 325, 318321.

G. Deblonde , and W. R. Peltier (1990). A model of late Pleistocene ice sheet growth with realistic geography and simplified cryodynamics and geodynamics. Climate Dynamics 5, 103110.

J. D. Devine H. Sigurdsson A. N. Davis , and S. Self (1984). Estimates of sulfur and chlorine yield to the atmosphere from volcanic eruptions and potential climatic effects. Journal of Geophysical Research 89, 63096325.

T. Fichefet C Tricot A. Berger H. Gallee , and I. Marsiat (1989). Climatic studies with a coupled atmosphere-upper-ocean-ice-sheet model. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series A329, 249261.

J. Fierstein , and M. Nathanson (1992). Another look at the calculation of fallout tephra volumes. Bulletin of Volcanology 54, 233254.

I. Gilmour W. S. Wolbach , and E. Anders (1990). Early environmental effects of the terminal Cretaceous impact. Geological Society of America Special Paper 247, 383390.

J. Guiot (1990). Methodology of the last climatic cycle reconstruction in France from pollen data. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimateology, Palaeoecology 80, 4969.

J. Guiot A. Pons J. L. de Beaulieu , and M. Reille (1989). A 140,000-year continental climate reconstruction from two European pollen records. Nature 338, 309313.

D. J. Hofmann (1987). Perturbations of the global atmosphere associated with El Chichón volcanic eruption of 1982. Reviews of Geophysics 25, 743759.

J. D. Ives J. T. Andrews , and R. G. Barry (1975). Growth and decay of the Laurentide Ice Sheet and comparisons with Fenno-Scandinavia. Naturwissenschaften 62, 118125.

G. C. Jacoby I. S. Ivanciu , and L. D. Ulan (1988). A 263-year record of summer temperature for northern Quebec reconstructed from tree-ring data and evidence of a major climatic shift in the early 1800’s. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecolology 64, 6978.

C Jaupart and C. J. Allégre (1991). Gas content, eruption rate and instabilities of eruption regime in silicic volcanoes. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 102, 413429.

J. Jouzel , et at. (1987). Vostok ice core: A continuous isotope temperature record over the last climatic cycle (160,000 years). Nature 329, 403418.

J. P. Kennett , and R. C. Thunell (1975). Global increase in Quaternary explosive volcanism. Science 187, 497503.

M. T. Ledbetter , and R. S. J. Sparks (1979). Duration of large-magnitude explosive eruptions deduced from graded bedding in deep-sea ash layers. Geology 7, 240244.

M. R. Legrand R. J. Delmas , and R. J. Charlson (1988). Climate forcing implications from Vostok ice-core sulphate data. Nature 334, 418420.

F. Loewe (1971). Considerations of the origin of the Quaternary Ice Sheet of North America. Arctic and Alpine Research 3, 331334.

S. Manabe , and K. Bryan Jr. (1985). CO2-induced change in a coupled ocean atmosphere model and its paleoclimatic implications. Journal of Geophysical Research 90, 1168911707.

G. Matteucci (1989). Orbital forcing in a stochastic resonance model of the Late-Pleistocene climatic variations. Climate Dynamics 3, 179190.

R. K. Matthews (1969). Tectonic implication of glacio-eustatic sea level fluctuations. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 5, 459462.

M. Nakada , and H. Yokose (1992). Ice age as a trigger of active Quaternary volcanism and tectonism. Tectonophysics 212, 321329.

D. Ninkovich , and N. J. Shackleton (1975). Distribution, stratigraphic position, and age of ash layer “L”, in the Panama Basin. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 27, 2034.

D. Ninkovich N. J. Shackleton A. A. Abdel-Monem J. A. Obradovich , and G. Izett (1978). K-Ar age of the late Pleistocene eruption of Toba, north Sumatra. Nature 276, 574577.

H. Norddahl , and H. Haflidason (1992). The Skógar Tephra, a Younger Dryas marker in North Iceland. Boreas 21, 2341.

J. Oerlemans (1988). Simulation of historic glacier variations with a simple climate-glacier model. Journal of Glaciology 34, 333.

J. S. Pallister R. P. Hoblitt , and A. G. Reyes (1992). A basalt trigger for the 1991 eruptions of Pinatubo volcano? Nature 356, 426428.

M. Paterae , and F. Guichard (1993). Triggering of volcanic pulses in the Campanian area, South Italy, by periodic deep magma influx. Journal of Geophysical Research 98, 18611873.

M. Paterne J. Labeyrie F. Guichard A. Mazaud , and F. Maitre (1990). Fluctuations of the Campanian explosive volcanic activity (South Italy) during the past 190,000 years as determined by marine tephrochronology. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 98, 166174.

J. P. Pinto R. P. Turco , and O. B. Toon (1989). Self-limiting physical and chemical effects in volcanic eruption clouds. Journal of Geophysical Research 94, 1116511174.

M, R. Rampino , and S. Self (1982). Historic eruptions of Tambora (1815), Krakatau (1883), and Agung (1963), their stratospheric aerosols, and climatic impact. Quaternary Research 18, 127143.

M. R. Rampino , and S. Self (1992). Volcanic winter and accelerated glaciation following the Toba super-eruption. Nature 359, 5052.

M. R. Rampino S. Self , and R. W. Fairbridge (1979). Can rapid climatic change cause volcanic eruptions? Science 206, 826829.

M. R. Rampino S. Self , and R. B. Stothers (1988). Volcanic winters. Annual Reviews of Earth and Planetary Science 16, 7399.

D. Rind D. Peteet , and G. Kukla (1989). Can Milankovitch orbital variations initiate the growth of ice sheets in a general circulation model? Journal of Geophysical Research 94, 1285112871.

W. I. Rose , and C. A. Chesner (1987). Dispersal of ash in the great Toba eruption, 75 Ka. Geology 15, 913917.

W. F. Ruddiman (1977a). North Atlantic ice-rafting: A major change at 75,000 years before the present. Science 196, 12081211.

W. F. Ruddiman (1977). Late Quaternary deposition of ice-rafted sand in the subpolar North Atlantic (lat. 40° to 65°N). Geological Society of America Bulletin 88, 18131827.

W. F. Ruddiman , and A. Mclntyre (1979). Warmth of the subpolar North Atlantic Ocean during northern hemisphere ice-sheet growth. Science 204, 173175.

B. Saltzman (1982). Stochastically-driven climatic fluctuations in the sea-ice, ocean temperature, CO2 feedback system. Tellus 34, 97112.

H. P. Sejrup (1989). Quaternary tephrachronology on the Iceland Plateau, north of Iceland. Journal of Quaternary Science 4, 109114.

G. Sigvaldason K. Annerts , and M. Nilsson (1992). Effect of glacier loading/deloading on volcanism: Postglacial volcanic production rate of the Dyngjufjöll area, central Iceland. Bulletin Volcanologique 54, 385392.

R. S. J. Sparks J. G. Moore , and C. J. Rice (1986). The initial giant umbrella cloud of the May 18, 1980, explosive eruption of Mount St. Helens. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 28, 257.

R. S. J. Sparks , and G. P. L. Walker (1977). The significance of vitric-enriched airfall ashes associated with crystal-rich igrumbrites. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 2, 329.

R. B. Stothers (1984a). Mystery cloud of AD 536. Nature 307, 344345.

R. B. Stothers (1984b). The great Tambora eruption in 1815 and its aftermath. Science 224, 11911198.

R. B. Stothers J. A. Wolff S. Self , and M. R. Rampino (1986). Basaltic fissure eruptions, plume heights, and atmospheric aerosols. Geophysical Research Letters 13, 725728.

S. S. Streeter , and N. J. Shackleton (1979). Paleocirculation of the deep North Atlantic: 150,000-year record of benthic foraminifera and oxygen-18. Science 203, 168171.

R. P. Turco O. B. Toon T. P. Ackerman J. B. Pollack , and C. Sagan (1990). Climate and smoke: An appraisal of nuclear winter. Science 247, 166176.

H. R. Westrich , and T. M. Gerlach (1992). Magmatic gas source for the stratospheric SO2 cloud from the June 15, 1991, eruption of Mt. Pinatubo. Geology 20, 867871.

J. Williams (1975). The influence of snowcover on the atmospheric circulation and its role in climatic change: An analysis based on results from the NCAR Global Circulation Model. Journal of Applied Meteorology 14, 137152.

L. D. Williams (1979). An energy balance model of potential glacier-ization of northern Canada. Arctic and Alpine Research 11, 443456.

G. Woillard , and W. G. Mook (1982). Carbon-14 dates of Grande Pile: Correlation of land and sea chronologies. Science 215, 159161.

A. W. Woods (1988). The thermodynamics and fluid dynamics of eruption columns. Bulletin Volcanologique 50, 169191.

A. W. M. Woods , and K. H. Wohletz (1991). Dimensions and dynamics of co-ignimbrite eruption columns. Nature 350, 225227.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Quaternary Research
  • ISSN: 0033-5894
  • EISSN: 1096-0287
  • URL: /core/journals/quaternary-research
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 154 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 20th January 2017 - 23rd July 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.