Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Latitudinal and Downcore (0–750 ka) Changes in Nalkane Chain Lengths in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific

  • Keiji Horikawa (a1) (a2) (a3), Masafumi Murayama (a2), Masao Minagawa (a1), Yoshihisa Kato (a4) and Takuya Sagawa (a2)...
Abstract

The n-alkane C31/(C29+C31) ratios from surface sediments in the eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP) exhibit higher values to the north and lower values to the south across the southern edge (2–4°N) of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Since plants tend to synthesize longer chain length n-alkanes in response to elevated temperature and/or aridity, the higher C 31/(C29+C31) ratios at northern sites suggest a higher contribution of vegetation under hot and/or dry conditions. This is consistent with the observation that northern sites receive higher levels of plant waxes transported by northeasterly trade winds from northern South America, where hot and dry conditions prevail. Furthermore, from a sediment core covering the past 750 ka (core HY04; 4°N, 95°W) we found that C31/(C29+C31) ratios exhibit a long-term decrease from MIS (marine oxygen isotope stage) 17 to 13. During this period, the zonal SST (sea-surface temperature) gradient in the equatorial Pacific increased, suggesting an increase in Walker circulation. Such intensified Walker circulation may have enhanced moisture advection from the equatorial Atlantic warm pool to the adjacent northern South America, causing arid regions in northern South America to contract, which may explain long-term decrease in n-alkane chain lengths.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author. Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601, Japan. Fax: +81 52 789 3033.E-mail address: horikawa@nagoya-u.jp (K. Horikawa).
References
Hide All
Anderson R.F., Fleisher M.O., Lao Y., (2006). Glacial–interglacial variability in the delivery of dust to the central equatorial Pacific Ocean. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 242, 406414.
Baker P.A., Rigsby C.A., Seltzer G.O., Fritz S.C., Lowenstein T.K., Bacher N.P., Veliz C., (2001). Tropical climate changes at millennial and orbital timescales on the Bolivian Altiplano. Nature 409, 698701.
Becquey S., Gersonde R., (2003). A 0.55-Ma paleotemperature record from the Subantarctic zone: implications for Antarctic Circumpolar Current development. Paleoceanography 18, 1014 .
Berger A., Loutre M.F., (1991). Insolation values for the climate of the last 10 million years. Quaternary Science Reviews 10, 297317.
Boom A., Marchant R., Hooghiemstra H., Sinninghe Damsté J.S., (2002). CO2- and temperature-controlled altitudinal shifts of C4- and C3-dominated grasslands allow reconstruction of palaeoatmospheric pCO2 . Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 177, 151168.
Broccoli A.J., Dahl K.A., Stouffer R.J., (2006). Response of the ITCZ to Northern Hemisphere cooling. Geophysical Research Letters 33, L01702 .
Chiang J.C., Biasutti M., Battisti D.S., (2003). Sensitivity of the Atlantic intertropical convergence zone to last glacial maximum boundary conditions. Paleoceanography 18, 1094 .
Chiang J.C., Bitz C.M., (2005). Influence of high latitude ice cover on the marine Intertropical Convergence Zone. Climate Dynamics 25, 477496..
Clapperton C.M., (1993). Nature of environmental changes in South America at the Last Glacial Maximum. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 101, 189208.
Conte M.H., Weber C.J., (2002). Plant biomarkers in aerosols record isotopic discrimination of terrestrial photosynthesis. Nature 417, 639641.
Cruz F.W., Burns S.J., Karmann I., Sharp W.D., Vuille M., Cardoso A.O., Ferrari J.A., Dias P.L.S., Viana O., (2005). Insolation driven changes in atmospheric circulation over the past 116,000 years in subtropical Brazil. Nature 434, 6366.
de Garidel-Thoron T., Rosenthal Y., Bassinot F., Beaufort L., (2005). Stable sea surface temperatures in the western Pacific warm pool over the past 1.75 million years. Nature 433, 294298.
Dodd R.S., Rafii Z.A., (2000). Habitat-related adaptive properties of plant cuticular lipids. Evolution 54, 14381444.
Dodd R.S., Rafii Z.A., Power A.B., (1998). Ecotypic adaptation in Austrocedrus chilensis in cuticular hydrocarbon composition. New Phytology 138, 699708.
Dupont L.M., Donner B., Schneider R., Wefer G., (2001). Mid-Pleistocene environmental change in tropical Africa began as early as 1.05 Ma. Geology 29, 195198.
Eglinton J.R., Hamilton R.J., (1967). Leaf epicuticular waxes. Science 156, 13221335.
Gagosian R.B., Peltzer E.T., Merrill J.T., (1987). Long-range transport of terrestrially derived lipids in aerosols from the South Pacific. Nature 325, 800803.
Gonzàlez C., Dupon L.M., Behling H., Wefer G., (2008). Neotropical vegetation response to rapid climate changes during the last glacial period: palynological evidence from the Cariaco Basin. Quaternary Research 69, 217230.
Gregory G.L., Westberg D.J., Shipham M.C., Blake D.R., Newell R.E., Fuelberg H., Talbot E.R.W., Heikes B.G., Atlas E.L., Sachse G.W., Anderson B.A., Thornton D.C., (1999). Chemical characteristics of Pacific tropospheric air in the region of the Intertropical Convergence Zone and South Pacific Convergence Zone. Journal of Geophysical Research 104, D5, 56775696.
Griffin J.J., Windom H., Goldberg E.D., (1968). The distribution of clay minerals in the world ocean. Deep-Sea Research 15, 433459.
Guo Z.T., Biscaye P., Wei L.Y., Chen X.F., Peng S.Z., Liu T.S., (2000). Summer monsoon variations over the last 1.2 Ma from the weathering of loess-soil sequences in China. Geophysical Research Letters 27, 17511754.
Guo Z.T., Berger A., Yin Q.Z., Qin L., (2009). Strong asymmetry of hemispheric climates during MIS-13 inferred from correlating China loess and Antarctic ice records. Climate of Past 5, 2131.
Harris S.E., Mix A.C., King T., (1997). Biogenic and terrigenous sedimentation at Ceara Rise, western tropical Atlantic, supports Pliocene–Pleistocene deep-water linkage between hemispheres. Proceedings ODP, Scientific Results 154, 331345.
Hayakawa K., Handa N., Ikuta N., Fukuchi M., (1996). Downward fluxes of fatty acids and hydrocarbons during a phytoplankton bloom in the austral summer in Breid Bay, Antarctica. Organic Geochemistry 24, 511521.
Herbert T.D., (2003). Alkenone paleotemperature determinations. Elderfield H., The Oceans and Marine Geochemistry, Treatise on Geochemistry 6, Elsevier-Pergamon, Oxford., 391432.
Horikawa K., Minagawa M., Murayama M., Kato Y., Asahi H., (2006). Spatial and temporal sea-surface temperatures in the eastern equatorial Pacific over the past 150 kyr. Geophysical Research Letters 33, 13605 .
Huang Y., Street-Perrott F.A., Perrott F.A., Metzger P., Eglinton G., (1999). Glacial–interglacial environmental changes inferred from the molecular and compound-specific δ13C analyses of sediments from Sacred Lake, Mt. Kenya. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 63, 13831404.
Huang Y., Dupont L., Sarnthein M., Hayes J.M., Eglinton G., (2000). Mapping of C4 plant input from North West Africa into North East Atlantic sediments. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 64, 35053513.
Huang Y., Street-Perrott F.A., Metcalfe S.E., Brenner M., Moreland M., Freeman K.H., (2001). Climate change as the dominant control on glacial–interglacial variations in C3 and C4 plant abundance. Science 293, 16471651.
Hughen K., Eglinton T., Xu L., Makou M., (2004). Abrupt tropical vegetation response to rapid climate changes. Science 304, 19551959.
Jacob J., Huang Y., Disnar J.-R., Sifeddine A., Boussafir M., Albuquerque A.L.S., Turcq B., (2007). Paleohydrological changes during the last deglaciation in Northern Brazil. Quaternary Science Reviews 26, 10041015.
Jones C.E., Halliday A.N., Rea D.K., Owen R.M., (1994). Neodymium isotopic variations in North Pacific modern silicate sediment and the insignificance of detrital REE contributions to seawater. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 127, 5566.
Jones C.E., Halliday A.N., Rea D.K., Owen R.M., (2000). Eolian inputs of lead to the North Pacific. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 64, 14051416.
Kukla G., Cilek V., (1996). Plio-Pleistocene megacycles: record of climate and tectonics. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 120, 171194.
Li T., Philander S.G.H., (1996). On the annual cycle of the eastern equatorial Pacific. Journal of Climate 9, 29862998.
Li Q., Wang P., Zhao Q., Tian J., Cheng X., Jian Z., Zhong G., Chen M., (2008). Paleoceanography of the mid-Pleistocene South China Sea. Quaternary Science Reviews 27, 12171233..
Lichtfouse E., Derenne S., Mariotti A., Largeau C., (1994). Possible algal origin of long chain odd n-alkanes in immature sediments as revealed by distributions and carbon isotope ratios. Organic Geochemistry 22, 10231027.
Lichtfouse E., Eglinton T., (1995). 13C and 14C evidence of pollution of a soil by fossil fuel and reconstruction of the composition of the pollutant. Organic Geochemistry 23, 969973.
Lisiecki E.L., Raymo E.M., (2005). A Pliocene–Pleistocene stack of 57 globally distributed benthic δ18O records. Paleoceanography 20, PA1003 .
Liu Z., Herbert T.D., (2004). High-latitude influence on the eastern equatorial Pacific climate in the early Pleistocene epoch. Nature 427, 720723.
Luo C., Mahowald N.M., del Corral J., (2003). Sensitivity study of meteorological parameters on mineral aerosol mobilization, transport, and distribution. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmosphere 108, 4447 .
Lüthi D., Le Floch M., Bereiter B., Blunier T., Barnola J.-M., Siegenthaler U., Raynaud D., Jouzel J., Fischer H., Kawamura K., Stocker T.F., (2008). High-resolution carbon dioxide concentration record 650,000–800,000 years before present. Nature 453 .
Marlowe I.T., Brassell S.C., Eglinton G., Green J.C., (1990). Long-chain alkenones and alkyl alkenoates and the fossil coccolith record of marine sediments. Chemical Geology 88, 349375.
McGee D., Marcantonio F., Lynch-Stieglitz J., (2007). Deglacial changes in dust flux in the eastern equatorial Pacific. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 257, 215230.
Medina-Elizalde M., Lea D.W., (2005). The Mid-Pleistocene Transition in the tropical Pacific. Science 310, 10091012.
Mohtadi M., Hebbeln D., Nunez Ricardo S., Lange C.B., (2006). El Ninõ-like pattern in the Pacific during marine isotope stages (MIS) 13 and 11?. Paleoceanography 21, PA1015 .
Mora G., Pratt L.M., (2002). Carbon isotopic evidence from paleosols for mixed C3/C4 vegetation in the Bogota Basin, Colombia. Quaternary Science Reviews 21, 985995.
Mudelsee M., Schulz M., (1997). The Mid-Pleistocene climate transition: onset of 100 ka cycle lags ice volume build-up by 280 ka. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 151, 117123.
Ohkouchi N., Kawamura K., Kawahata H., Taira A., (1997). Latitudinal distributions of terrestrial biomarkers in the sediments from the Central Pacific. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 61, 19111918.
Poynter J.G., Farrimond P., Robinson N., Eglinton G., (1989). Aeolian-derived higher plant lipids in the marine sedimentary record: links with palaeoclimate, in Paleoclimatology and Paleometeorology. Leine M., Sarnthein M., Modern and Past Patterns of Global Atmospheric Transport Kluwer Academic Publishers, Norwell., 435462.
Prahl F.G., Mix A.C., Sparrow M.A., (2006). Alkenone paleothermometry: biological lessons from marine sediment records off western South America. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 70, 101117.
Prospero J.M., Bonatti E., (1969). Continental dust in the atmosphere of the eastern equatorial Pacific. Journal of Geophysical Research 74, 33623371.
Raymo M.E., Oppo D.W., Curry W.B., (1997). The mid-Pleistocene climate transition: a deep sea carbon isotopic perspective. Paleoceanography 12, 546559.
Rommerskirchen F., Eglinton G., Dupont L., Guntner U., Wenzel C., Rullkotter J., (2003). A north to south transect of Holocene southeast Atlantic continental margin sediments: relationship between aerosol transport and compound-specific ?13C land plant biomarker and pollen records. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 4, 12, 1101 .
Rommerskirchen F., Eglinton G., Dupont L., Rullkotter J., (2006). Glacial/interglacial changes in southern Africa: compound-specific δ13C land plant biomarker and pollen records from southeast Atlantic continental margin sediments. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 7, Q08010 .
Schefu E., Schouten S., Fred Jansen J.H., Sinninghe Damsté J.S., (2003a). African vegetation controlled by tropical sea surface temperatures in the mid-Pleistocene period. Nature 422, 418421.
Schefu E., Ratmeyer V., Stuut J.-B.W., Jansen J.H.F., Sinninghe Damsté J.S., (2003b). Carbon isotope analyses of n-alkanes in dust from the lower atmosphere over the central eastern Atlantic. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 67, 17571767.
Schefu E., Sinninghe Damsté J.S., Jansen J.H.F., (2004). Forcing of tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures during the mid-Pleistocene transition. Paleoceanography 19, PA4029 .
Shackleton N.J., Berger A., Peltier W.R., (1990). An alternative astronomical calibration of the lower Pleistocene timescale based on ODP Site 677. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, Earth Sciences 81, 251261.
Shyu J.-P., Chen M.-P., Shieh Y.-T., Huang C.-K., (2001). A Pleistocene paleoceanographic record from the north slope of the Spratly Islands, southern South China Sea. Marine Micropaleontology 42, 6193.
Shepherd T., Griffiths D.W., (2006). The effects of stress on plant cuticular waxes. New Phytologist 171, 469499..
Simoneit B.R.T., (1984). Organic matter of the troposphere: III. Characterization and sources of petroleum and pyrogenic residues in aerosols over the western United States. Atmospheric Environment 18, 5167.
Srinivasan J., Smith G., (1996). Meridional migration of tropical convergence zones. Journal of Climate 9, 11891202.
Standley L.J., Simoneit B.R.T., (1987). Composition of extractable organic matter in smoke particles from prescribed burns. Environmental Science and Technology 21, 163169.
Still C.J., Berry J.A., Collatz G.J., DeFries R.S., (2003). Global distribution of C3 and C4 vegetation: carbon cycle implications. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 17, 1006 .
Street-Perrott F.A., Huang Y., Perrott R.A., Eglinton G., Barker P., Khelifa L.B., Harkness D.D., Olago D.O., (1997). Impact of lower atmospheric carbon dioxide on tropical mountain ecosystems. Science 278, 14221426.
Suganuma Y., Yamazaki T., Kanamatsu T., (2009). South Asian monsoon variability during the past 800 kyr revealed by rock magnetic proxies. Quaternary Science Reviews 28, 926938.
Sun Y., Chen J., Clemens S.C., Liu Q., Ji J., Tada R., (2006). East Asian monsoon variability over the last seven glacial cycles recorded by a loess sequence from the northwestern Chinese Loess Plateau. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 7, Q12Q02 .
Ternois Y., Sicre M.-A., Boireau A., Beaufort L., Miquel J.-C., Jeandel C., (1998). Hydrocarbons, sterols and alkenones in sinking particles in the Indian Ocean sector of the Southern Ocean. Organic Geochemistry 28, 489501.
Thompson L.G., Thompson E.M., Henderson K.A., (2000). Ice-core palaeoclimate records in tropical South America since the Last Glacial Maximum. Journal of Quaternary Science 15, 377394.
Timmermann A., Lorenz S.J., An S.-I., Clement A., Xie S.-P., (2007). The effect of orbital forcing on the mean climate and variability of the tropical Pacific. Journal of Climate 20, 41474159.
Tulloch A.P., (1976). Chemistry of waxes of higher plants. Kolattukudy P.E., Chemistry and Biochemistry of Natural Waxes Elsevier, Amsterdam., 235287.
Vogts A., Moossen H., Rommerskirchen F., Rullktter J.r., (2009). Distribution patterns and stable carbon isotopic composition of alkanes and alkan-1-ols from plant waxes of African rain forest and savanna C3 species. Organic Geochemistry 40, 10371054.
Wang X., Auler A.S., Edwards R.L., Cheng H., Cristalli P.S., Smart P.L., Richards D.A., Shen C.-C., (2004). Wet periods in northeastern Brazil over the past 210 kyr linked to distant climate anomalies. Nature 432, 740743.
Wang X., Auler A.S., Edwards R.L., Cheng H., Ito E., Wang Y., Kong X., Solheid M., (2007). Millennial-scale precipitation changes in southern Brazil over the past 90,000 years. Geophysical Research Letters 34, L23701 .
Yamamoto M., Yamamuro M., Tada R., (2000). Late Quaternary records of organic carbon, calcium carbonate and biomarkers from Site 1016 off Point Conception, California margin. Proceedings ODP, Scientific Results 167, 183194.
Zender C.S., Bian H.S., Newman D., (2003). Mineral Dust Entrainment and Deposition (DEAD) model: description and 1990s dust climatology. Journal of Geophysical Research 108, D14, 4416 .
Zhang Z., Zhao M., Lu H., Faiia A.M., (2003). Lower temperature as the main cause of C4 plant declines during the glacial periods on the Chinese Loess Plateau. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 214, 467481..
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Quaternary Research
  • ISSN: 0033-5894
  • EISSN: 1096-0287
  • URL: /core/journals/quaternary-research
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Type Description Title
PDF
Supplementary materials

Horikawa et al. Supplementary Material
Supplementary Material

 PDF (59 KB)
59 KB
PDF
Supplementary materials

Horikawa et al. Supplementary Material
Supplementary Material

 PDF (1.6 MB)
1.6 MB

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 9 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 65 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 20th January 2017 - 24th February 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.