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The Bunya in Queensland's Forests

  • Ian R. Smith and Don Butler
Extract

Much publicity has been given over the past decade to the discovery of the Wollemi pine (Wollemia nobilis) north of Sydney and its status as a ‘living fossil’. It is not generally realised that the bunya (Araucaria bidwillii), a unique part of Queensland's forests, has a similar status. The tree is the last surviving species of the section Bunya of the genus Araucaria. This section was more diverse and widespread during the Mesozoic, (Table 1), with some species having cone morphology similar to A. bidwillii appearing during the Jurassic with fossils extending into the northern hemisphere.

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Notes

1 Woodford, J., The Wollemi Pine: the Incredible Discovery of a Living Fossil from the Age of the Dinosaurs, (Melbourne: Text Publishing, 2000).

2 Hill, R. S., ‘Conifer origin, evolution and diversification in the southern hemisphere’ in Enright, N. J. Hill, R. S. eds., Ecology of the Southern Conifers, (Melbourne: Melbourne University Press, 1995), 1029.

3 Boland, D. J. et al. , Forest Trees of Australia (Melbourne: Nelson/CSIRO, 1984), 4243.

4 Pers. Comm. McDonald, W. J., Queensland Herbarium, Brisbane, 1999.

5 Pers. Comm. Bowden, J., Pine Rivers Shire Council, 2002.

6 Pers. Comm McDonald, W. J..

7 Nikles, D. G., ‘Realized and potential gains from using and conserving genetic resources of Araucaria’, in Forestry Problems of the Genus Araucaria (Brazil: FUPEF, 1980), 8795.

8 Butler, D. W. (in prep.), Dispersal, growth form and distribution in subtropical rainforest plants, PhD. Thesis, Department of Botany, University of Queensland, Brisbane.

9 Butler, Dispersal, growth form and distribution.

10 Webb, L. J. Tracey, J. G., ‘Australian rainforests: patterns and change’ in Keast, A. ed., Ecological Biogeography of Australia, (The Hague: Junk., 1981), 163297.

11 Bond, W. J., ‘The Tortoise and the hare: ecology of angiosperm dominance and gymnosperm persistence’, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 36 (1989): 227249.

12 Moloney, L., An assessment of the condition of Bunya Pine Araucaria bidwillii in Bunya Mountains National Park, south-east Queensland, G.Dip. project, UNE, Armidale, 1998; A. Ewart and A. Grenfell, Cainozoic volcanic centres in southeastern Queensland, with special reference to the Main Range, Bunya Mountains and the volcanic centres of the northern Brisbane coastal region, Pap. Dep. Geol. Univ. Queensland 11 (3) (1985): 1–57; DME, Gympie Special -1: 100 000 Geological Series, Department of Mines and Energy, Brisbane, 1998; DME Nambour Special -1: 100 000 Geological Series, Department of Mines and Energy, Brisbane, 1998; Geological Survey of Queensland, Gympie-1: 250 000 Geological Series. Department of Mines and Energy: Brisbane, 1975; Geological Survey of Queensland, Caboolture-1: 100 000 Geological Series, Department of Mines and Energy, Brisbane, 1979.

13 Pers. Comm. Goosem, S., Wet Tropics Management Authority, Cairns, 2000.

14 Smith, I. R. (in prep). Ecology and growth of the bunya pine (Araucaria Bidwillii Hook), PhD. Thesis, Department of Botany, University of Queensland, Brisbane.

15 Boland, et al. , Forest Trees of Australia.

16 Boland, et al. , Forest Trees of Australia.

17 Enright, N. J., ‘Conifers of tropical Australasia’ in Ecology of the Southern Conifers, Enright, N. J. Hill, R. S. eds., (Melbourne: Melbourne University Press, 1995), 197222.

18 Hutley, L. B., Doley, D., Yates, D. J., Boonsaner, A., ‘Water balance of an Australian subtropical rainforest at altitude: the ecological and physiological significance of intercepted cloud and fog’, Australian Journal of Botany 45 (1997): 311329.

19 Smith, , Ecology and growth of the bunya pine.

20 Hill, R. S., Jordan, G. J. McPhail, M. K., ‘History and paleoecology of Australian Nothofagus Forests’ in Veblen, T. T., Hill, R. S. , and Read, J. eds., The Ecology and Biogeography of Nothofagus Forests (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1996); Hopkins M. S., HeadJ. et al, ‘Evidence of a Holocene and continuing recent expansion of lowland rain forest in humid tropical North Queensland’, Journal of Biogeography 23 (1996): 737–745; M. K. McPhail, N. F. Alley, E. M. Truswell and I. R. K. Sluiter, ‘Early Tertiary vegetation: evidence from spores and pollen’ in R. S. Hill ed., History of the Australian Vegetation: Cretaceous to Recent, (Melbourne: Cambridge University Press 1994), 189–261; H. A. Martin, ‘Australian tertiary phytogeography: evidence from palynology’, in R. S. Hill ed., History of the Australian Vegetation: Cretaceous to Recent, (Melbourne: Cambridge University Press 1994), 104–142.

21 Hill ‘Conifer origin, evolution and diversification’.

22 Read, J., ‘Ecology of Australian Nothofagus forests’ in Veblen, T. T., Hill, R. S. Read, J. eds., The Ecology and Biogeography of Nothofagus Forests, (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1996).

23 Pers. Comm. A. Gardener, retired Forest Manager; Bribie Island, 2000.

24 Owens, internal memo, Dept. of Forestry, Queensland, 1948.

25 Pers. Comm. P. I. Forster, Queensland Herbarium, Brisbane, 2000.

26 Pers. Comm. R. Kooyman, Alstonville, NSW, 2000.

27 Forget, P., ‘Seed dispersal of Voucapoua america by cavimorph rodents in French Guiana’, J. Tropical Ecology 6 (1990): 459.

28 Sullivan, H., Aboriginal gatherings in south east Queensland, BA Honours Thesis, Dept. of Prehistory and Anthropology, ANU, Canberra, 1977.

29 Huth, J., The bunya pine: the romantic Araucaria of Queensland, International Araucariaceae Symposium, Auckland, 2002.

30 Sanguinetti, J., Maresca, L. et al. , Estimation of gross production of pinons by the araucaria-(Araucaria araucana) in the forests of Lanin National Park-Argentin, International Araucariaceae Symposium, Auckland, 2002.

31 Burrows, G. E. Stockey, R. A., ‘The developmental anatomy of cryptogeal germination in Bunya Pine (Araucaria bidwillii)’, Int. J. Plant Science 155 5 (1994): 519537; DoleyD., ‘Utilisation of intrinsic water in the germination of Araucaria bidwillii seeds’, Seed Sci. Technol. 18 (1990): 33–42; R. J. Haines, ‘Embryo development and anatomy in Araucaria Juss’, Australian Journal of Botany 31 (1983): 125–140; R. J. Haines, ‘Seed development in Araucaria Juss’, Australian Journal of Botany 31 (1983): 255–267.

32 Burrows, Stockey, , ‘The developmental anatomy of cryptogeal germination’.

33 Pers. Comm., Gardner.

34 Forster, P. I., Bostock, P. D., Bird, L. H. Bean, A. R., Vineforest Plant Atlas for South-East Queensland, (Brisbane: Queensland Herbarium, 1991).

35 Butler, Dispersal, growth form and distribution.

36 Ebbett, R. L. Ogden, J., ‘Comparative seedling growth of five endemic New Zealand podocarp species under different light regimes’, New Zealand Journal of Botany 36 (1998): 189201; Ebbett, R. L. Ogden, J., ‘The Southern conifers – a synthesis’ in Enright, N. J. Hill, R. S. eds., Ecology of the Southern Conifers, (Melbourne: Melbourne University Press, 1995): 271–287; T. T. Veblen, ‘Regeneration patterns in Aracauria araucana forests in Chile’, Journal of Biogeography 9 (1982): 11–28.

37 Petrie, C. C., Tom Petrie's Reminiscences of Early Queensland, (St Lucia: University of Queensland Press, 1904, 1992 reprint): 247259.

38 Pers. comm., Gardner.

39 Fensham, R. J. Fairfax, R. J., ‘The grassy balds of the Bunya Mountains, south-eastern Queensland. Floristics and conservation’, Cunninghamia 4 (1996): 511523; L. J. Webb, ‘An historical interpretation of the grass balds of the Bunya Mountains, south Queensland’, Ecology 45 (1964): 159–162.

40 Moloney, L., An assessment of the condition of Bunya Pine; Pers. Comm. G. Pegg, Queensland Department of Primary Industries, Brisbane, 2002.

41 Kuschel, G., ‘Weevils (Curculionidea) in male strobili of Araucariaceae’, International Araucariaceae Symposium, Auckland, 2002.

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Queensland Review
  • ISSN: 1321-8166
  • EISSN: 2049-7792
  • URL: /core/journals/queensland-review
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