Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-684899dbb8-p6h7k Total loading time: 0.371 Render date: 2022-05-27T07:01:08.986Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true }

Article contents

ATMOSPHERIC RADIOCARBON FOR THE PERIOD 1950–2019

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  23 November 2021

Quan Hua*
Affiliation:
Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 2001, KirraweeDC, NSW 2232, Australia
Jocelyn C Turnbull
Affiliation:
Rafter Radiocarbon Laboratory, GNS Science, Lower Hutt, New Zealand CIRES, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA
Guaciara M Santos
Affiliation:
Earth System Science, University of California, Irvine, B321 Croul Hall, Irvine, CA 92697-3100, USA
Andrzej Z Rakowski
Affiliation:
Institute of Physics, Center for Science and Education, Silesian University of Technology, 44–100 Gliwice, Poland
Santiago Ancapichún
Affiliation:
Postgraduate School in Oceanography, Faculty of Natural and Oceanographic Sciences, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile Centro de Investigación GAIA Antártica (CIGA) and Network for Extreme Environment Research (NEXER), Universidad de Magallanes, Punta Arenas, Chile
Ricardo De Pol-Holz
Affiliation:
Centro de Investigación GAIA Antártica (CIGA) and Network for Extreme Environment Research (NEXER), Universidad de Magallanes, Punta Arenas, Chile
Samuel Hammer
Affiliation:
Institut für Umweltphysik, Heidelberg University, INF 229, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
Scott J Lehman
Affiliation:
INSTAAR, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO80309-0450, USA
Ingeborg Levin
Affiliation:
Institut für Umweltphysik, Heidelberg University, INF 229, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
John B Miller
Affiliation:
NOAA Global Monitoring Laboratory, Boulder, CO80305, USA
Jonathan G Palmer
Affiliation:
ARC Centre of Excellence for Australian Biodiversity and Heritage, School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, NSW2052, Australia Chronos 14Carbon-Cycle Facility and the Earth and Sustainability Science Research Centre, University of New South Wales, NSW2052, Australia
Chris S M Turney
Affiliation:
ARC Centre of Excellence for Australian Biodiversity and Heritage, School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, NSW2052, Australia Chronos 14Carbon-Cycle Facility and the Earth and Sustainability Science Research Centre, University of New South Wales, NSW2052, Australia
*
*Corresponding author. Email: qhx@ansto.gov.au

Abstract

This paper presents a compilation of atmospheric radiocarbon for the period 1950–2019, derived from atmospheric CO2 sampling and tree rings from clean-air sites. Following the approach taken by Hua et al. (2013), our revised and extended compilation consists of zonal, hemispheric and global radiocarbon (14C) data sets, with monthly data sets for 5 zones (Northern Hemisphere zones 1, 2, and 3, and Southern Hemisphere zones 3 and 1–2). Our new compilation includes smooth curves for zonal data sets that are more suitable for dating applications than the previous approach based on simple averaging. Our new radiocarbon dataset is intended to help facilitate the use of atmospheric bomb 14C in carbon cycle studies and to accommodate increasing demand for accurate dating of recent (post-1950) terrestrial samples.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
© The Author(s), 2021. Published by Cambridge University Press for the Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Ancapichún, S, De Pol-Holz, R, Christie, DA, Santos, GM, Collado-Fabbri, S, Garreaud, R, Lambert, F, Orfanoz-Cheuquelaf, A, Rojas, M, Southon, J, Turnbull, JC, Creasman, PP. 2021. Radiocarbon bomb-peak signal in tree-rings from the tropical Andes register low latitude atmospheric dynamics in the Southern Hemisphere. Science of the Total Environment 774:145126. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.145126.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Andrews, AH, Siciliano, D, Potts, DC, DeMartini, EE, Covarrubias, S. 2016. Bomb radiocarbon and the Hawaiian Archipelago: coral, otoliths and seawater. Radiocarbon 58:531548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Andrews, AH, Prouty, NG, Cheriton, OM. 2021. Bomb-produced radiocarbon across the South Pacific Gyre – a new record from American Samoa with utility for fisheries science. Radiocarbon. doi: 10.1017/RDC.2021.51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barton, NP, Ellis, AW. 2009. Variability in wintertime position and strength of the North Pacific jet stream as represented by re-analysis data. International Journal of Climatology 29:851862. doi: 10.1002/joc.1750.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Basu, S, Agrawal, S, Sanyal, P, Mahato, P, Kumar, S, Sarkar, A. 2015. Carbon isotopic ratios of modern C3–C4 plants from the Gangetic Plain, India and its implications to paleovegetational reconstruction. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 440: 2232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Berger, R, Fergusson, GJ, Libby, WF. 1965. UCLA radiocarbon dates IV. Radiocarbon 7:336371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Berger, R, Jackson, TB, Michael, R, Suess, HE. 1987. Radiocarbon content of tropospheric CO2 at China Lake, California 1977–1983. Radiocarbon 29(1):1823.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Berger, R, Libby, WF. 1966. UCLA radiocarbon dates V. Radiocarbon 8:467497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Berger, R, Libby, WF. 1967. UCLA radiocarbon dates VI. Radiocarbon 9:477504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Berger, R, Libby, WF. 1968. UCLA radiocarbon dates VIII. Radiocarbon 10(2):402416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Berger, R, Libby, WF. 1969. UCLA radiocarbon dates IX. Radiocarbon 11(1):194209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Beramendi-Orosco, LE, Johnson, KR, Noronha, AL, González-Hernández, G, Villanueva-Díaz, J. 2018. High precision radiocarbon concentrations in tree rings from Northeastern Mexico: a new record with annual resolution for dating the recent past. Quaternary Geochronology 48:16. doi: 10.1016/j.quageo.2018.07.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cain, WF, Griffin, S, Druffel-Rodriguez, KC, Druffel, ERM. 2018. Uptake of carbon for cellulose production in a white oak from Western Oregon, USA. Radiocarbon 60(1):151158. doi: 10.1017/RDC.2017.82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carbone, M, Czimczik, C, Keenan, T, Murakami, P, Pederson, N, Schaberg, P, Xu, X, Richardson, A. 2013. Age, allocation and availability of nonstructural carbon in mature red maple trees. New Phytologist 200:11451155. doi: 10.1111/nph.12448.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cerling, TE, Harris, JM. 1999. Carbon isotope fractionation between diet and bioapatite in ungulate mammals and implications for ecological and paleoecological studies. Oecologia 120:347363.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Damon, PE, Cheng, S, Linick, TW. 1989. Fine and hyperfine structure in the spectrum of secular variations of atmospheric 14C. Radiocarbon 31(3):704718.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Diefendorf, AF, Mueller, KE, Wing, SL, Koch, PL, Freeman, KH. 2010. Global patterns in leaf 13C discrimination and implications for studies of past and future climate. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107:57385743.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Druffel, EM, Suess, HE. 1983. On the radiocarbon record in banded corals: exchange parameters and net transport of 14CO2 between atmosphere and surface ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research 88(C2):12711280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Emmenegger, L, Leuenberger, M, Steinbacher, M., ICOS RI. 2020. ICOS ATC 14C release, Jungfraujoch (10.0 m), 2016-01-04–2019-08–12. https://hdl.handle.net/11676/X-lXPKZlO4DWX7wncsLQ7akY.Google Scholar
Enting, IG. 1982. Nuclear weapons data for use in carbon cycle modeling. CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Physics Technical Paper No. 44. Melbourne: CSIRO.Google Scholar
Goodsite, ME, Rom, W, Heinemeier, J, Lange, T, Ooi, S, Appleby, PG, Shotyk, W, van der Knaap, WO, Lohse, C, Hansen, TS. 2001. High-resolution AMS 14C dating of post-bomb peat archives of atmospheric pollutants. Radiocarbon 43(2B):495515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goslar, T, van der Knaap, WO, Hicks, S., Andrič, M, Czernik, J, Goslar, E, Räsänen, S, Hyötylä, H., 2005. Radiocarbon dating of modern peat profiles: pre and post-bomb 14C variations in the construction of age-depth models. Radiocarbon 47:115134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Graven, H, Allison, CE, Etheridge, DM, Hammer, S, Keeling, RF, Levin, I, Meijer, HAJ, Rubino, M, Tans, PP, Trudinger, CM, Vaughn, BH, White, JWC. 2017. Compiled records of carbon isotopes in atmospheric CO2 for historical simulations in CMIP6. Geoscientific Model Development 10:44054417. doi: 10.5194/gmd–10–4405–2017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Graven, HD. 2015. Impact of fossil fuel emissions on atmospheric radiocarbon and various applications of radiocarbon over this century. Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences USA 112:95429545. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1504467112.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Graven, HD, Guilderson, TP, Keeling, RF. 2012a. Observations of radiocarbon in CO2 at La Jolla, California, USA 1992–2007: analysis of the long-term trend. Journal of Geophysical Research 117:D02302. doi: 10.1029/2011JD016533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Graven, HD, Guilderson, TP, Keeling, RF. 2012b. Observations of radiocarbon in CO2 at seven global sampling sites in the Scripps flask network: analysis of spatial gradients and seasonal cycles. Journal of Geophysical Research 117:D02303. doi: 10.1029/2011JD016535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grootes, PM, Farwell, GW, Schmidt, FH, Leach, DD, Stuiver, M. 1989. Rapid response of tree cellulose radiocarbon content to changes in atmospheric 14CO2 concentration. Tellus 41B:134148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hammer, S, Levin, I. 2017. Monthly mean atmospheric Δ14CO2 at Jungfraujoch and Schauinsland from 1986 to 2016. doi: 10.11588/data/10100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hertelendi, E, Csongor, E. 1982. Anthropogenic 14C excess in the troposphere between 1951 and 1978 measured in tree rings. Radiochemical and Radioanalytical Letters 56:103110.Google Scholar
Hesshaimer, V. 1997. Tracing the global carbon cycle with bomb radiocarbon [PhD thesis]. Heidelberg, Germany: University of Heidelberg.Google Scholar
Hesshaimer, V, Levin, I. 2000. Revision of the stratospheric bomb 14CO2 inventory. Journal of Geophysical Research 105:11,641–11,658.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hogg, A, Heaton, TJ, Hua, Q, Palmer, JG, Turney, CSM, Southon, J, Bayliss, A, Blackwell, PG, Boswijk, G, Bronk Ramsey, C, Pearson, C, Petchey, F, Reimer, P, Reimer, R, Wacker, L. 2020. SHCal20 Southern Hemisphere calibration, 0–55,000 years cal BP. Radiocarbon 62(4):759778. doi: 10.1017/RDC.2020.59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hua, Q. 2009. Radiocarbon: a chronological tool for the recent past. Quaternary Geochronology 4: 378390. doi: 10.1016/j.quageo.2009.03.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hua, Q, Barbetti, M. 2004. Review of tropospheric bomb radiocarbon data for carbon cycle modeling and age calibration purposes. Radiocarbon 46(3):12731298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hua, Q, Barbetti, M. 2007. Influence of atmospheric circulation on regional 14CO2 differences. Journal of Geophysical Research 112: D19102. doi: 10.1029/2006JD007898.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hua, Q, Barbetti, M, Jacobsen, GE, Zoppi, U, Lawson, EM. 2000. Bomb radiocarbon in annual tree rings from Thailand and Tasmania. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 172(1–4):359365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hua, Q, Barbetti, M, Levchenko, VA, D’Arrigo, RD, Buckley, BM, Smith, AM. 2012. Monsoonal influences on Southern Hemisphere 14CO2 . Geophysical Research Letters 39: L19806. doi: 10.1029/2012GL052971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hua, Q, Barbetti, M, Worbes, M, Head, J, Levchenko, VA. 1999. Review of radiocarbon data from atmospheric and tree ring samples for the period 1945–1997 AD. IAWA Journal 20:261283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hua, Q, Barbetti, M, Zoppi, U. 2004. Radiocarbon in annual tree rings from Thailand during the pre-bomb period, AD 1938–1954. Radiocarbon 46(2):925932.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hua, Q, Barbetti, M, Zoppi, U, Chapman, DM, Thomson, B. 2003. Bomb radiocarbon in tree rings from northern New South Wales, Australia: implications for dendrochronology, atmospheric transport and air-sea exchange of CO2 . Radiocarbon 45(3):431447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hua, Q, Barbetti, M, Rakowski, AZ. 2013. Atmospheric radiocarbon for the period 1950–2010. Radiocarbon 55:20592072. doi: 10.2458/azu_js_rc.v55i2.16177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kalnay, E, Kanamitsu, M, Kistler, R, Collins, W, Deaven, D, Gandin, L, Iredell, M, Saha, S, White, G, Woollen, J, Zhu, Y, Chelliah, M, Ebisuzaki, W, Higgins, W, Janowiak, J, Mo, KC, Ropelewski, C, Wang, J, Leetmaa, A, Reynolds, R, Jenne, R, Joseph, D. 1996. The NCEP/NCAR 40–year reanalysis project. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 77:437471. doi: 10.1175/1520–0477(1996)077<0437:TNYRP>2.0.CO;2.2.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Key, RM, Kozyr, A, Sabine, CL, Lee, K, Wanninkhof, R, Bullister, JL, Feely, RA, Millero, FJ, Mordy, C, Peng, T-H. 2004. A global ocean carbon climatology: results from Global Data Analysis Project (GLODAP). Global Biogeochemical Cycles 18: GB4031. doi: 10.1029/2004gb002247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kikata, Y, Yonenobu, H, Morishita, F, Hattori, Y. 1992. 14C concentrations in tree stems. Bulletin of the Nagoya University Furukawa Museum 8:41–46. In Japanese.Google Scholar
Kikata, Y, Yonenobu, H, Morishita, F, Hattori, Y, Marsoem, SN. 1993. 14C concentrations in tree stems I. Mokuzai Gakkaishi 39(3):333337. In Japanese.Google Scholar
Kohn, MJ. 2010. Carbon isotope compositions of terrestrial C3 plants as indicators of (paleo)ecology and (paleo)climate. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107: 19,691–19,695.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Köhler, P. 2016. Using the Suess effect on the stable carbon isotope to distinguish the future from the past in radiocarbon. Environmental Research Letters 11: 124016. doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/11/12/124016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Krakauer, NY, Randerson, JT, Primeau, FW, Gruber, N, Menemenlis, D. 2006. Carbon isotope evidence for the latitudinal distribution and wind speed dependence of the air-sea gas transfer velocity. Tellus 58B: 390417. doi: 10.1111/j.1600–0889.2006.00223.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kudsk, SGK, Olsen, J, Nielsen, LN, Fogtmann-Schulz, A, Knudsen, MF, Karoff, C. 2018. What is the carbon origin of early-wood? Radiocarbon 60(5):14571464. doi: 10.1017/RDC.2018.97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lehman, SJ, Miller, JB, Wolak, C, Southon, J, Tans, PP, Montzka, SA, Sweeney, C, Andrews, A, LaFranchi, B, Guilderson, TP, Turnbull, JC. 2013. Allocation of terrestrial carbon sources using 14CO2: methods, measurement, and modelling. Radiocarbon 55:14841495. doi: 10.1017/S0033822200048414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lehman, SJ, Miller, JB. 2019. University of Colorado, Institute of Alpine and Arctic Research (INSTAAR), Radiocarbon Composition of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide (14CO2) from the NOAA GML Carbon Cycle Cooperative Global Air Sampling Network, 2003–2018, Version: 2020–03–12.Google Scholar
Levin, I, Hesshaimer, V. 2000. Radiocarbon – a unique tracer of global carbon cycle dynamics. Radiocarbon 42(1):6980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Levin, I, Kromer, B. 1997. Twenty years of atmospheric 14CO2 observations at Schauinsland station, Germany. Radiocarbon 39(2):205218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Levin, I, Kromer, B. 2004. The tropospheric 14CO2 level in mid-latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere (1959–2003). Radiocarbon 46(3):12611272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Levin, I, Kromer, B, Francey, RJ. 1996. Continuous measurements of 14C in atmospheric CO2 at Cape Grim. In: Francey RJ, Dick AL, Derek N, editors. Baseline Atmospheric Program Australia 1994–1995. Melbourne: CSIRO. p 106–107.Google Scholar
Levin, I, Kromer, B, Francey, RJ. 1999. Continuous measurements of 14C in atmospheric CO2 at Cape Grim, 1995–1996. In: Grass JL, Derek N, Tindale NW, Dick AL, editors. Baseline Atmospheric Program Australia 1996. Melbourne: Bureau of Meteorology and CSIRO Atmospheric Research. p. 89–90.Google Scholar
Levin, I, Naegler, T, Kromer, B, Diehl, M, Francey, RJ, Gomez-Pelaez, AJ, Steele, LP, Wagenbach, D, Weller, R, Worthy, DE. 2010. Observations and modelling of the global distribution and long-term trend of atmospheric 14CO2 . Tellus B 62(1):2646.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Levin, I, Kromer, B, Schoch-Fischer, H, Bruns, M, Münnich, M, Berdau, D, Vogel, JC, Münnich, KO. 1985. 25 years of tropospheric 14C observations in central Europe. Radiocarbon. 27:119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Levin, I, Kromer, B, Steele, LP, Porter, LW. 2011. Continuous measurements of 14C in atmospheric CO2 at Cape Grim, 1997–2008. In: Derek N, Krummel PB, editors. Baseline Atmospheric Program Australia 2007–2008. Melbourne: Australian Bureau of Meteorology and CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research. p. 56–59.Google Scholar
Libby, WF. 1952. Radiocarbon dating. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Libby, WF. 1956. Radioactive fallout and radioactive strontium. Science 123(3199):657660. doi: 10.1126/science.123.3199.657.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Manning, MR, Lowe, DC, Melhuish, WH, Sparks, RJ, Wallace, G, Brenninkmeijer, CAM, McGrill, RC. 1990. The use of radiocarbon measurements in atmospheric studies. Radiocarbon 32(1):3758.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marsh, EJ, Bruno, MC, Fritz, SC, Baker, P, Capriles, JM, Hastorf, CA. 2018. IntCal, SHCal, or a mixed curve? Choosing a 14C calibration curve for archaeological and paleoenvironmental records from Tropical South America. Radiocarbon 60:925940.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Meijer, HAJ, Pertuisot, MH, van der Plicht, J. 2006. High accuracy 14C measurements for atmospheric CO2 samples by AMS. Radiocarbon 48(3):355372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Muraki, Y, Kocharov, G, Nishiyama, T, Naruse, Y, Murata, T, Masuda, K, Arslanov, KhA. 1998. The new Nagoya radiocarbon laboratory. Radiocarbon 40(1):177182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Murphy, JO, Lawson, EM, Fink, D, Hotchkis, MAC, Hua, Q, Jacobsen, GE, Smith, AM, Tuniz, C. 1997. 14C AMS measurements of the bomb pulse in N- and S-hemisphere tropical trees. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 123(1–4):447450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Naegler, T. 2009. Reconciliation of excess 14C-constrained global CO2 piston velocity estimates. Tellus B 61(2):372384. doi: 10.1111/j.1600–0889.2008.00408.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Naegler, T, Levin, I. 2006. Closing the global radiocarbon budget 1945–2005. Journal of Geophysical Research 111: D12311. doi: 10.1029/2005JD006758.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nakamura, T, Nakai, N, Ohishi, S. 1987a. Applications of environmental 14C measured by AMS as a carbon tracer. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 29(1–2):355360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nakamura, T, Nakai, N, Kimura, M, Ohishi, S, Hattori, Y, Kikata, Y. 1987b. Variations in 14C concentrations of tree rings (1945–1983). Chikyu-Kagaku (Geochemistry) 21:7–12. In Japanese.Google Scholar
Nydal, R. 1968. Further investigation on the transfer of radiocarbon in nature. Journal of Geophysical Research 73(12):36173635.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nydal, R, Gislefoss, JS. 1996. Further application of bomb 14C as a tracer in the atmosphere and ocean. Radiocarbon 38(3):389406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nydal, R, Lövseth, K. 1996. Carbon-14 measurement in atmospheric CO2 from Northern and Southern Hemisphere sites, 1962–1993. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, World Data Center-A for Atmospheric Trace Gases, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Oeschger, H, Siegenthaler, U, Schotterer, U, Gugelmann, A. 1975. A box diffusion model to study the carbon dioxide exchange in nature. Tellus 27(2):168192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Olsson, IU, Possnert, G. 1992. 14C Activity in different sections and chemical fractions of oak tree rings, AD 1938–1981. Radiocarbon 34(3):757767.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Park, JH, Kim, JC, Cheoun, MK, Kim, IC, Youn, M, Liu, YH, Kim, ES. 2002. 14C level at Mt Chiak and Mt Kyeryong in Korea. Radiocarbon 44(2):559566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pena-Ortiz, C, Gallego, D, Ribera, P, Ordonez, P, Alvarez-Castro, MDC. 2013. Observed trends in the global jet stream characteristics during the second half of the 20th century. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 118:27022713. doi: 10.1002/jgrd.50305.Google Scholar
Pickers, PA, Manning, AC. 2015. Investigating bias in the application of curve fitting programs to atmospheric time series. Atmospheric Measurement Techniques. 8(3):14691489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rafter, TA, Ferguson, GJ. 1957. “Atom bomb effect” – Recent increase of carbon-14 content of the atmosphere and biosphere. Science 126(3273):557558. doi: 10.1126/science.126.3273.557.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rakowski, AZ, Nadeau, M-J, Nakamura, T, Pazdur, A, Paweczyk, S, Piotrowska, N. 2013. Radiocarbon method in environmental monitoring of CO2 emission. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 294:503507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Randerson, JT, Enting, IG, Schuur, EAG, Caldeira, K, Fung, IY. 2002. Seasonal and latitudinal variability of troposphere Δ14CO2: post bomb contributions from fossil fuels, oceans, the stratosphere, and the terrestrial biosphere. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 16(4):1112. doi: 10.1029/2002GB001876.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reimer, PJ, Brown, TA, Reimer, RW. 2004. Discussion: reporting and calibration of post-bomb 14C data. Radiocarbon 46(3):12991304.Google Scholar
Reimer, PJ, Austin, WEN, Bard, E, Bayliss, A, Blackwell, PG, Bronk Ramsey, CB, Butzin, M, Cheng, H, Edwards, RL, Friedrich, M, Grootes, PM, Guilderson, TP, Hajdas, I, Heaton, TJ, Hogg, AG, Hughen, KA, Kromer, B, Manning, SW, Muscheler, R, Palmer, JG, Pearson, C, van der Plicht, J, Reimer, RW, Richards, DA, Scott, EM, Southon, JR, Turney, CSM, Wacker, L, Adolphi, F, Büntgen, U, Capano, M, Fahrni, SM, Fogtmann-Schulz, A, Friedrich, R, Köhler, P, Kudsk, S, Miyake, F, Olsen, J, Reinig, F, Sakamoto, M, Sookdeo, A, Talamo, S. 2020. The IntCal20 Northern Hemisphere radiocarbon age calibration curve (0–55 cal kBP). Radiocarbon 62(4):725757.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Santini, NS, Hua, Q, Schmitz, N, Lovelock, CE. 2013. Radiocarbon dating and wood density chronologies of mangrove trees in arid Western Australia. PloS ONE 8(11):e80116. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0080116.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Santos, GM, Linares, R, Lisi, CS, Tomazello Filho, M. 2015. Annual growth rings in a sample of Paran a pine (Araucaria angustifolia): toward improving the 14C calibration curve for the Southern Hemisphere. Quaternary Geochronology 25:96103. doi: 10.1016/j.quageo.2014.10.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sierra, CA. 2018. Forecasting atmospheric radiocarbon decline to pre-bomb values. Radiocarbon 60(4):10551066. doi: 10.1017/RDC.2018.33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Speer, JH. 2010. Fundamentals of tree-ring research. Tucson (AZ): University of Arizona Press. 368 p. ISBN 978-0-8165-2684-0.Google Scholar
Stuiver, M, Polach, HA. 1977. Discussion: reporting of 14C data. Radiocarbon 19(3):353363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stuiver, M, Reimer, PJ, Braziunas, TF. 1998. Radiocarbon age calibration for terrestrial and marine samples. Radiocarbon 40(3):11271151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Suess, HE. 1955. Radiocarbon concentration in modern wood. Science 122:415417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Svarva, H, Grootes, P, Seiler, M, Stene, S, Thun, T, Værnes, E, Nadeau, M-J. 2019. The 1953–1965 rise in atmospheric bomb 14C in central Norway. Radiocarbon 61(6):17651774. doi: 10.1017/RDC.2019.98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tans, P. 1981. A compilation of bomb 14C data for use in global carbon model calculations. In: Bolin B, editor. Carbon cycle modeling (Scope 16). New York: John Wiley and Sons. p. 131–157.Google Scholar
Telegadas, K. 1971. The seasonal atmospheric distribution and inventories of excess carbon-14 from March 1955 to July 1969. U.S. Atomic Energy Commission Report HASL-243.Google Scholar
Thoning, KW, Tans, PP, Komhyr, WD. 1989. Atmospheric carbon dioxide at Mauna Loa Observatory 2, Analysis of the NOAA GMCC data, 1974–1985. Journal of Geophysical Research 94:85498563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Turnbull, JC, Lehman, SJ, Miller, JB, Sparks, RJ, Southon, JR, Tans, PP. 2007. A new high precision 14CO2 time series for North American continental air. Journal of Geophysical Research 112:D11310. doi: 10.1029/2006JD008184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Turnbull, JC, Mikaloff Fletcher, SE, Ansell, I, Brailsford, GW, Moss, RC, Norris, MW, Steinkamp, K. 2017. Sixty years of radiocarbon dioxide measurements at Wellington, New Zealand: 1954–2014. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 17:1477114784. doi: 10.5194/acp–17-14771–2017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Turney, CSM, Palmer, J, Hogg, A, Fogwill, CJ, Jones, RT, Bronk Ramsey, C, Fenwick, P, Grierson, P, Wilmshurst, J, O’Donnell, A, Thomas, ZA, Lipson, M. 2016. Multidecadal variations in Southern Hemisphere atmospheric 14C: Evidence against a Southern Ocean sink at the end of the Little Ice Age CO2 anomaly. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 30:211218. doi: 10.1002/2015GB005257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Turney, CSM, Palmer, J, Maslin, M, Hogg, A, Fogwill, CJ, Southon, J, Fenwick, P, Helle, G, Wilmshurst, J, McGlone, M, Bronk Ramsey, C, Thomas, Z, Lipson, M, Beaven, B, Jones, RT, Andrews, O, Hua, Q. 2018. Global peak in atmospheric radiocarbon defines the onset of Anthropocene Epoch in 1965. Scientific Reports 8:3293. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-20970-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
UNSCEAR. 2000. United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation UNSCEAR 2000 Report to the General Assembly, with Scientific Annexes volume I: Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation, https://www.unscear.org/docs/publications/2000/UNSCEAR_2000_Report_Vol.I.pdf Google Scholar
Vogel, JC, Marais, M. 1971. Pretoria radiocarbon dates I. Radiocarbon 13(2):378394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vuille, M, Burns, SJ, Taylor, BL, Cruz, FW, Bird, BW, Abbott, MB, Kanner, LC, Cheng, H, Novello, VF. 2012. A review of the South American monsoon history as recorded in stable isotopic proxies over the past two millennia. Climate of the Past 8: 13091321. doi: 10.5194/cp-8-1309-2012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Willkomm, H, Erlenkeuser, H. 1968. University of Kiel radiocarbon measurements III. Radiocarbon 10(2):328332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Xu, S, Cook, GT, Cresswell, AJ, Dunbar, E, Freeman, SPHT, Hastie, H, Hou, X, Jacobsson, P, Naysmith, P, Sanderson, DCW. 2015. Radiocarbon concentration in modern tree rings from Fukushima, Japan. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 146:6772. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvrad.2015.04.004.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wu, Y, Fallon, S J, Cantin, NE, Lough, J M. 2021. Surface ocean radiocarbon from a Porites coral record in the Great Barrier Reef: 1945–2017. Radiocarbon 63(4):11931203. doi: 10.1017/RDC.2020.141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yamada, Y, Yasuike, K, Komura, K. 2005. Temporal variation of carbon-14 concentration in tree-ring cellulose for the recent 50 years. Journal of Nuclear and Radiochemical Sciences 6(2):135138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yeloff, D, Bennett, KD, Blaauw, M, Mauquoy, D, Sillasoo, Ű, van der Plicht, J, van Geel, B. 2006. High precision 14C dating of Holocene peat deposits: a comparison of Bayesian calibration and wiggle-matching approaches. Quaternary Geochronology 1:222235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zimnoch, M, Jelen, D, Galkowski, M, Kuc, T, Necki, J, Chmura, L, Gorczyca, Z, Jasek, A, Rozanski, K. 2012. Partitioning of atmospheric carbon dioxide over Central Europe: insights from combined measurements of CO2 mixing ratios and their carbon isotope composition. Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies 48(3):421433.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Supplementary material: PDF

Hua et al. supplementary material

Hua et al. supplementary material 1

Download Hua et al. supplementary material(PDF)
PDF 737 KB
Supplementary material: File

Hua et al. supplementary material

Hua et al. supplementary material 2

Download Hua et al. supplementary material(File)
File 569 KB
Supplementary material: File

Hua et al. supplementary material

Hua et al. supplementary material 3

Download Hua et al. supplementary material(File)
File 78 KB
4
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

ATMOSPHERIC RADIOCARBON FOR THE PERIOD 1950–2019
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

ATMOSPHERIC RADIOCARBON FOR THE PERIOD 1950–2019
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

ATMOSPHERIC RADIOCARBON FOR THE PERIOD 1950–2019
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *