Skip to main content
×
Home

Carbon Reservoir Effects in Eastern Oyster from Apalachicola Bay, USA

  • Carla S Hadden (a1) and Alexander Cherkinsky (a1)
Abstract
Abstract

Eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) is an ubiquitous estuarine shellfish taxon in eastern North America and one of the most abundant materials available for radiocarbon (14C) dating. We examine spatiotemporal variability in carbon reservoir effects among pre-bomb oysters from Apalachicola Bay, USA, a river-influenced estuary on the northern Gulf of Mexico. Shells were sampled at multiple points along the valve to produce time-series records of 14C variation during the lives of the mollusks. Conventional ages within shells differed by as little as 36 14C yr to as much as 295 14C yr. Reservoir offsets varied sub-regionally within the estuary, increasing from 92±37 yr in the eastern edge of study region to 227±110 yr in the west, reflecting the influence of 14C-depleted dissolved inorganic carbon from the Apalachicola River. Dynamic carbon reservoirs can pose problems for the estimation of ΔR and for building coastal chronologies. Estimating sub-regional ΔR values can be useful for assessing the range of variability in reservoir offsets within an estuary, and for correcting sample ages if the shell origin is known. Greater variability and/or uncertainty in ΔR lead to greater uncertainty in the calibrated age.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author. Email: hadden@uga.edu.
Footnotes
Hide All

Selected Papers from the 8th Radiocarbon & Archaeology Symposium, Edinburgh, UK, 27 June–1 July 2016

Footnotes
References
Hide All
Andrus CFT, Thompson VD. 2012. Determining the habitats of mollusk collection at the Sapelo Island shell ring complex, Georgia, USA using oxygen isotope sclerochronology. Journal of Archaeological Science 39(2):215228.
Ascough PL, Cook GT, Dugmore AJ, Scott EM. 2007. The North Atlantic marine reservoir effect in the Early Holocene: implications for defining and understanding MRE values. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 259(1):438447.
Berger R, Taylor RE, Libby WF. 1966. Radiocarbon content of marine shells from the California and Mexican west coast. Science 153(3738):864866.
Bronk Ramsey C. 2009a. Bayesian analysis of radiocarbon dates. Radiocarbon 51(1):337360.
Bronk Ramsey C. 2009b. Dealing with outliers and offsets in radiocarbon dating. Radiocarbon 51(3):10231045.
Bronk Ramsey C, Lee S. 2013. Recent and planned developments of the program OxCal. Radiocarbon 55(2–3):720730.
Buroker NE. 1983. Population genetics of the American oyster Crassostrea virginica along the Atlantic coast and Gulf of Mexico. Marine Biology 75:99112.
Carriker MR, Palmer RE, Prezant RS. 1980. Functional ultramorphology of the dissoconch valves of oyster Crassostrea virginica . Proceedings of the National Shellfisheries Association 70:139182.
Cherkinsky A, Culp RA, Dvoracek DK, Noakes JE. 2010. Status of the AMS facility at the University of Georgia. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 268:867870.
Cherkinsky A, Pluckhahn TJ, Thompson VD. 2014. Variation in radiocarbon age determinations from the Crystal River archaeological site, Florida. Radiocarbon 56(2):801810.
Chanton JP, Lewis FG. 1999. Plankton and dissolved inorganic carbon isotopic composition in a river-dominated estuary: Apalachicola Bay, Florida. Estuaries 22(3A):575583.
Culleton BJ, Kennett DJ, Ingram LB, Erlandson JM. 2006. Intrashell radiocarbon variability in marine mollusks. Radiocarbon 48(3):387400.
Deo JN, Stone JO, Stein JK. 2004. Building confidence in shell: variations in the marine radiocarbon reservoir correction for the Northwest Coast over the past 3,000 years. American Antiquity 69(4):771786.
Forman SL, Polyak L. 1997. Radiocarbon content of pre-bomb marine mollusks and variations in the 14C reservoir age for the coastal areas of the Barents and Kara Seas, Russia. Geophysical Research Letters 24(8):885888.
Hadden CS, Cherkinsky A. 2015. 14C variations in pre-bomb nearshore habitats of the Florida Panhandle, USA. Radiocarbon 57(3):469477.
Hadden CS, Cherkinsky A. 2016. Spatiotemporal variability in ΔR in the northern Gulf of Mexico, USA. Radiocarbon DOI:10.1017/RDC 2016.65.
Higham T. 2011. European Middle and Upper Palaeolithic radiocarbon dates are often older than they look: problems with previous dates and some remedies. Antiquity 85(327):235249.
Huang W, Jones WK. 1997. Three-dimensional modeling of circulation and salinity for the low river flow season in Apalachicola Bay, FL. Northwest Florida Water Management District. Water Resources Special Report 97-1.
Huang W, Jones WK. 2001. Characteristics of long-term freshwater transport in Apalachicola Bay. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 37(3):605615.
Ingram BL, Southon JR. 1996. Reservoir ages in eastern Pacific coastal and estuarine waters. Radiocarbon 38(3):573582.
Jones KB, Hodgins GWL, Dettman DL, Andrus CFT, Nelson A, Etayo-Cadavid MF. 2007. Seasonal variations in Peruvian marine reservoir age from pre-bomb Argopecten purpuratus shell carbonate. Radiocarbon 49(2):877888.
Jones KB, Hodgins GWL, Etayo-Cadavid MF, Andrus CFT, Sandweiss DH. 2010. Centuries of marine radiocarbon reservoir age variation within archaeological Mesodesma donacium shells from southern Peru. Radiocarbon 52(2–3):12071214.
Jones M, Nicholls G. 2001. Reservoir offset models for radiocarbon calibration. Radiocarbon 43(1):119124.
Kennett DJ, Ingram BL, Erlandson JM, Walker P. 1997. Evidence for temporal fluctuations in marine radiocarbon reservoir ages in the Santa Barbara Channel, southern California. Journal of Archaeological Science 24:10511059.
Kennett DJ, Ingram BL, Southon JR, Wise K. 2002. Differences in 14C age between stratigraphically associated charcoal and marine shell from the Archaic period site of Kilometer 4, southern Peru: old wood or old water? Radiocarbon 44(1):5358.
Livingston RJ. 1984. The Ecology of the Apalachicola Bay System: An Estuarine Profile. FWS/OBS 82/05. Washington, DC: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
Lougheed BC, Filipsson HL, Snowball I. 2013. Large spatial variations in coastal 14C reservoir age: a case study from the Baltic Sea. Climate of the Past 9(3):10151028.
Michczyòski M. 2007. Is it possible to find a good point estimate of a calibrated radiocarbon date? Radiocarbon 49(2):393401.
Mook WGA, Tan FC. 1991. Stable carbon isotopes in rivers and estuaries. In: Degens ET, Kempe S, Richey JE, editors. Biogeochemistry of Major World Rivers. SCOPE Report 42. New York: SCOPE. p 245–64.
Reimer PJ, Bard E, Bayliss A, Beck JW, Blackwell PJ, Bronk Ramsey C, Buck CE, Cheng H, Edwards RL, Friedrich M, Grootes PM, Guilderson TP, Haflidason H, Hajda I, Hatté C, Heaton TJ, Hoffmann DL, Hogg AG, Hughen KA, Kaiser KF, Kromer B, Manning SW, Niu M, Reimer RW, Richards DA, Scott EM, Southon SR, Staff RA, Turney CSM, van der Plicht J. 2013. IntCal13 and Marine13 radiocarbon age calibration curves 0–50,000 years cal BP. Radiocarbon 55(4):18691887.
Rick TC, Henkes GA. 2014. Radiocarbon variability in Crassostrea virginica shells from the Chesapeake Bay, USA. Radiocarbon 56(1):305311.
Rick TC, Henkes GA, Lowery DL, Colman SM, Culleton BJ. 2012. Marine radiocarbon reservoir corrections (ΔR) for Chesapeake Bay and the Middle Atlantic coast of North America. Quaternary Research 77(1):205210.
Schiffer MB. 1986. Radiocarbon dating and the “old wood” problem: the case of the Hohokam chronology. Journal of Archaeological Science 13(1):1330.
Schnable JE, Goodell HG. 1968. Pleistocene-Recent stratigraphy, evolution, and development of the Apalachicola coast, Florida. Geological Society of America Special Papers 112:1–66.
Scott TM, Campbell KM, Rupert FR, Arthur JD, Missimer TM, Lloyd JM, Yon WJ, Duncan JG. 2001. Geological map of the State of Florida. Produced by the Florida Geological Survey in cooperation with the Florida Department of Environmental Protection.
Stewart RA, Gorsline DS. 1962. Recent sedimentary history of St. Joseph Bay, Florida. Sedimentology 1:256286.
Stuiver M, Pearson GW, Braziunas TF. 1986. Radiocarbon calibration of marine samples back to 9000 cal yr BP. Radiocarbon 28(2B):9801021.
Thomas DH. 2008. Radiocarbon dating on St. Catherines Island. In: Native American Landscapes of St Catherines Island, Georgia II: The Data. American Museum of Natural History Anthropological Papers, Number 88. p 345–71.
Ward GK, Wilson SR. 1978. Procedures for comparing and combining radiocarbon age determinations: a critique. Archaeometry 20(1):1931.
White NM. 2014. Apalachicola Valley riverine, estuarine, bayshore, and saltwater shell middens. The Florida Anthropologist 67(2–3):77104.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Radiocarbon
  • ISSN: 0033-8222
  • EISSN: 1945-5755
  • URL: /core/journals/radiocarbon
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 1
Total number of PDF views: 29 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 104 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 12th May 2017 - 22nd November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.