Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-tn8tq Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-06-20T21:30:42.043Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Tobacco smoking in older people

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  19 October 2009

SC Allen*
Affiliation:
The Royal Bournemouth Hospital and Bournemouth University, Dorset, UK
*
Address for correspondence: Professor SC Allen, The Royal Bournemouth Hospital, Castle Lane East, Bournemouth, Dorset BH7 7DW. Email: Stephen.allen@rbch.nhs.uk

Summary

Smoking remains prevalent in elderly people in the UK and similar countries. The adverse health effects of current smoking continue to accumulate in old age and stopping smoking in old age confers benefits on function, morbidity and mortality. Many elderly people wish to stop smoking and many are successful. Structured support from health and social care workers improves quit rates and nicotine replacement therapy can be an effective aid to smoking cessation in old age. Doctors and other healthcare staff should use the opportunities of patient contact to encourage older smokers to quit. Cognitive impairment is a barrier to successful smoking cessation.

Type
Clinical geriatrics
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2009

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

1Brumley, JH. The cactus flower site in southeastern Alberta 1972–1974. Archaeological Survey of Canada 1975; 46: 1244.Google Scholar
3Chandler, G. Sacred use. The Native American Tobacco Coalition of Montana. http://www.keeptobaccosacred.org/sacred_useGoogle Scholar
4Pomerleau, CS, Pomerleau, OF. Euphoriant effects of nicotine in smokers. Psychopharmacology 1992; 108: 460–65.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
5Wilbert, J. Does pharmacology corroborate the nicotine therapy and practices of South American shamanism? J Ethnopharmacol 1991; 32: 179–86.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
6Bevington, G. Elders. In Hoaxie, FE (ed), Encyclopedia of North American Indians, pp. 180–82. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston, 1996.Google Scholar
7Burns, DM. Cigarette smoking among the elderly: disease consequences and the benefits of cessation. Am J Health Promot 2000; 14: 357–61.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
8Bjartveit, K, Tverdal, A. Health consequences of smoking 1–4 cigarettes per day. Tob Control 2005; 14: 315–20.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
9Doll, R, Peto, R. Cigarette smoking and bronchial carcinoma: dose and time relationships among regular smokers and lifelong non-smokers. J Epidemiol Community Health 1978; 32: 303.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
10Doll, R, Peto, R. Mortality in relation to smoking: 20 years’ observations on male British physicians. BMJ 1976; 2: 1525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
11Cupples, LA, D'Agostino, RB. Some risk factors related to the annual incidence of cardiovascular disease and death using pooled repeated biennial measurements: Framingham Heart Study, 30-year follow-up, section 34. In Kannel, WB, Wolf, PA, Garrison, RJ (eds), The Framingham Study: An Epidemiological Investigation of Cardiovascular Disease, NIH Publications no. NIH 87–2703. Bethesda, National Institutes of Health, 1987.Google Scholar
12Bush, TL, Comstock, GW. Smoking and cardiovascular mortality in women. Am J Epidemiol 1983; 118: 480.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
13Centers for Disease Control. Chronic Disease Reports: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease mortality – United States. MMWR 1989; 38: 549.Google Scholar
14Dudleston, A, Hope, S, Littlewood, A, Martin, C, Ormston, R. Results from the 2001 Scottish Household Survey, volume 5, Annual Report, chapter 4 – How we live. http://www.scotland.gov.uk/library5/society/spv5–32.aspGoogle Scholar
15Office for National Statistics. Living in Britain: Results from the 2000 General Household Survey, The Stationery Office, London, 2001. http://www.statistics.gov.uk/lib2001/resources/fileAttachmants/GHS2001.pdfGoogle Scholar
16Office for National Statistics. Prevalence of adult cigarette smoking. Social Trends 34. http://www.statistics.gov.uk/STATBASE/ssdataset.asp?vlnk=7457Google Scholar
17LaCroix, AZ, Omenn, GS. Older adults and smoking. Clin Geriatr Med 1992; 8: 6987.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
18Last, AR. Review: smoking cessation reduces the risk of death and non-fatal myocardial infarction in coronary heart disease. Evid Based Med 2004; 9: 28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
19Feinleib, M, Rosenberg, HM, Collins, JG. Trends in COPD morbidity and mortality in the United States. Am Rev Respir Dis 1989; 149 (suppl): S9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
20Soriano, JB, Maier, WC, Egger, P et al. Recent trends in physician diagnosed COPD in women and men in the UK. Thorax 2000; 55: 789–94.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
21Peto, R, Chen, ZM, Boreham, J. Tobacco – the growing epidemic. Nature Medicine 1999; 5: 1517.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
22Cook, NR, Evans, DA, Scherr, PA. Peak expiratory flow rate in an elderly population. Am J Epidemiol 1989; 130: 66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
23Burr, ML, Phillips, KM, Hurst, DN. Lung function in the elderly. Thorax 1985; 54: 54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
24US Department of Health and Human Services. The health benefits of smoking cessation. Office of Smoking and Health, DHHS Publication no. CDC 90–8416, 1990.Google Scholar
25Bjartveit, K, Tverdal, A. Health consequences of sustained smoking cessation. Tob Control 2009; doi:10.1136/tc.2008.026898, epub ahead of print.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
26Rapuri, PB, Gallagher, JC, Smith, LM. Smoking is a risk factor for decreased physical activity in elderly women. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2007; 62: 93100.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
27Yates, LB, Djousse, L, Kurth, T et al. Exceptional longevity in men: modifiable risk factors associated with survival and function to age 90 years. Arch Intern Med 2008; 168: 284–90.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
28Kanis, JA, Johnell, O, Oden, A et al. Smoking and fracture risk: a meta-analysis. Osteoporosis Int 2005; 16: 155–62.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
29Vestergaard, P, Mosekilde, L. Fracture risk associated with smoking: a meta-analysis. J Intern Med 2003; 254: 572–83.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
30Reitz, C, den Heijer, T, van Duijn, C, Hofman, A, Breteler, MM. Relation between smoking and risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease: the Rotterdam Study. Neurology 2007; 69: 9981005.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
31Mitchell, BD, Hawthorne, VM, Vinik, AI. Cigarette smoking and neuropathy in diabetic patients. Diabetes Care 1990; 13: 434–37.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
32Zevin, S, Benowitz, NL. Drug interactions with tobacco smoking. Clin Pharmacokinet 1999; 36: 425–38.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
33British National Formulary. London: British Medical Association and the Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain; www.bnf.org.uk (accessed 1 August 2009).Google Scholar
34Ritz, B, Ascherio, A, Checkoway, H et al. Pooled analysis of tobacco use and risk of Parkinson's disease. Arch Neurol 2007; 64: 990–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
35Scott, WK, Zhang, F, Stajich, JM, Scott, BL, Stacy, MA, Vance, JM. Family-based case-control study of cigarette smoking and Parkinson's disease. Neurology 2005; 64: 442–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
36Patkar, AA, Gopalkrishnan, R, Lundy, A, Leone, FT, Certa, KM, Weinstein, SP. Relationship between tobacco smoking and positive and negative symptoms in schizophrenia. J Nervous Mental Dis 2002; 190: 604–10.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
37Parry, O, Thompson, C, Fowkes, G. Cultural context, older age and smoking in Scotland: quantitative interviews with older smokers with arterial disease. Health Promotion International 2002: 17: 309–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
38Critchley, JA, Capewell, S. Mortality risk reduction associated with smoking cessation in patients with coronary heart disease: a systematic review. JAMA 2003; 290: 8697.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
39Critchley, J, Capewell, S. Smoking cessation for the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2003; 4: CD003041.Google Scholar
40Gratziou, C. Respiratory, cardiovascular and other physiological consequences of smoking cessation. Curr Med Res Opin 2009; 25: 535–45.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
41Moller, A, Villebro, N, Pederson, T, Tonnesen, J. Effect of preoperative smoking intervention on postoperative complications: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2002; 359: 1114–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
42Lam, TH, Li, ZB, Ho, SY et al. Smoking, quitting and mortality in an elderly cohort of 56,000 Hong Kong Chinese. Tob Control 2007; 16: 182–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
43Molander, L, Hansson, A, Lunell, E. Pharmacokinetics of nicotine in healthy elderly people. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2001; 69: 5765.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
44Bandyopadhyay, S, O'Mahony, S, Pathy, M. Smoking habits and attitudes of age concern volunteers. Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2002; 35: 2125.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
45Keenan, PS. Smoking and weight change after new health diagnoses in older adults. Arch Intern Med 2009; 169: 237242.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
46Maguire, C, Ryan, J, Kelly, A et al. Do patient age and medical condition influence medical advice to stop smoking? Age Ageing 2000; 29: 264–66.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
47Sachs-Ericsson, N, Schmidt, NB, Zvolensky, MJ, Mitchell, M, Collins, N, Blazer, DG. Smoking cessation behaviour in older adults by race and gender: the role of health and psychological distress. Nicotine Tobacco Res 2009; 11: 433–43.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
48Thomas, LA, Supiano, KP, Chasco, EE, McGowan, J, Beer, MC. Smoking cessation for seniors: a group model that works. Clinical Gerontologist 2009; 32: 118–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
49Hall, SM, Humfleet, GL, Munoz, RF, Reus, VI, Robbins, JA, Prochaska, JJ. Extended treatment of older cigarette smokers. Addiction 2009; epub ahead of print.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
50Brega, AG, Grigsby, J, Kooken, R et al. Influence of executive cognitive functioning on smoking cessation in the San Luis Valley Health and Aging Study. Age Ageing 2008; 37: 521–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar