1Hogan, DB, MacKnight, C, Bergman, H. Models, definitions, and criteria of frailty. Aging Clin Exp Res 2003; 151–29.
2Lally, F, Crome, P. Understanding frailty. Postgrad Med J 2007; 83: 16–20.
3Walston, J, Hadley, EC, Ferrucci, L et al. Research agenda for frailty in older adults: toward a better understanding of physiology and etiology: summary from the American Geriatrics Society/National Institute on Aging Research Conference on Frailty in Older Adults. J Am Geriatric Soc 2006; 54: 991–1001.
4Ferrucci, L, Mahallati, A, Simonsick, EM. Frailty and foolishness of Eos. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2006; 61: 260–261.
5Fried, LP, Tangen, CM, Walston, J et al. Frailty in older adults: evidence for a phenotype. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2001; 56: M146–56.
6Hardy, SE, Gill, TM. Recovery from disability among community-dwelling older persons. JAMA 2004; 291: 1596–602.
7Boockvar, KS, Meier, DE. Palliative care for frail older adults: ‘there are things I can't do any more that I wish I could . . .’. JAMA 2006; 8; 296: 2245–53.
8Purser, JL, Kuchibhatla, MN, Fillenbaum, GG, Harding, T, Peterson, ED, Alexander, KP. Identifying frailty in hospitalized older adults with significant coronary artery disease. J Am Geriatr Soc 2006; 54: 1674–81.
9Ble, A, Cherubini, A, Volpato, S et al. Lower plasma vitamin E levels are associated with the frailty syndrome: the InCHIANTI study. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2006; 61: 278–83.
10Balducci, L. Aging, frailty, and chemotherapy. Cancer Control. 2007; 14: 7–12.
11Mitnitski, AB, Mogilner, AJ, Rockwood, K. Accumulation of deficits as a proxy measure of aging. Sci World J 2001; 8;1: 323–36.
12Goggins, WB, Woo, J, Sham, A, Ho, SC. Frailty index as a measure of biological age in a Chinese population. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2005; 60: 1046–51.
13Woo, J, Goggins, W, Sham, A, Ho, SC. Public health significance of the frailty index. Disabil Rehabil 2006; 30;28:515–21.
14Kulminski, AM, Ukraintseva, SV, Akushevich, IV, Arbeev, KG, Yashin, AI. Cumulative index of health deficiencies as a characteristic of long life. J Am Geriatr Soc 2007; 55: 935–40.
15Kulminski, A, Yashin, A, Arbeev, K, Arbeev, KG, Yashin, AI. Cumulative index of health disorders as an indicator of aging-associated processes in the elderly: results from analyses of the National Long-Term Care Survey. Mech Ageing Dev 2007; 128: 250–58.
16Gompertz, B.Philos Trans R Soc London 1825; 115: 513–585.
17Vaupel, JW, Manton, KG, Stallard, E. The impact of heterogeneity in individual frailty on the dynamics of mortality. Demography 1979; 9: 439–454.
18Gavrilov, LA, Gavrilova, NS. The reliability theory of aging and longevity. J Theor Biol 2001; 213: 527–45.
19Kirkwood, TB. Understanding the odd science of aging. Cell 2005; 120: 437–47.
20Rockwood, K, Mitnitski, AB. Frailty in relation to the accumulation of deficits: a review. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2007; 62: 722–27.
21Mitnitski, A, Song, X, Skoog, I et al. Relative fitness and frailty of elderly men and women in developed countries, in relation to mortality. J Am Geriatr Soc 2005; 53: 2184–89.
22Jones, DM, Song, X, Rockwood, K. Operationalizing a frailty index from standardized comprehensive geriatric assessment. J Am Geriatr Soc 2004; 52: 1929–33.
23Jones, D, Song, X, Mitnitski, A, Rockwood, K. Evaluation of a frailty index based on a comprehensive geriatric assessment in a population-based study of elderly Canadians. Aging Clin Exp Res 2005; 17: 465–471.
24Schnohr, P, Nyboe, J, Lange, P, Jensen, G. Longevity and gray hair, baldness, facial wrinkles, and arcus senilis in 13 000 men and women: the Copenhagen City Heart Study. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 1998; 53: 347–50.
25Helps, EP. Physiological effects of ageing. Proc R Soc Med 1973; 66: 815–18.
26Rockwood, K, Jones, D, Wang, Y, Carver, D, Mitnitski, A. Failure to complete performance-based measures is associated with poor health status and an increased risk of death. Age Ageing 2007; 36: 225–28.
27Johnson, M, Griffiths, R, Piper, M, Langdon, R. Risk factors for an untoward medication event among elders in community-based nursing caseloads in Australia. Pub Health Nurs 2005; 22: 36–44.
28Rockwood, K, Song, X, MacKnight, C et al. A global clinical measure of fitness and frailty in elderly people. CMAJ 2006; 31;174: 352–53.
29Mitnitski, AB, Mogilner, AJ, MacKnight, C, Rockwood, K. The mortality rate as a function of accumulated deficits in a frailty index. Mech Ageing Dev 2002; 123: 1457–60.
30Rockwood, K, Mitnitski, A, Song, X, Steen, B, Skoog, I. Long-term risks of death and institutionalization of elderly people in relation to deficit accumulation at age 70. J Am Geriatr Soc 2006; 54: 975–79.
31Mitnitski, A, Bao, L, Skoog, I, Rockwood, K. A cross-national study of transitions in deficit counts in two birth cohorts: implications for modeling ageing. Exp Gerontol 2007; 42: 241–46.
32Mitnitski, AB, Bao, L, Rockwood, K. Going from bad to worse: a stochastic model of transitions in deficit accumulation, in relation to mortality. Mech Ageing Dev 2006; 127: 490–493.
33Song, X, Mitnitski, A, Cox, J, Rockwood, K. Comparison of machine-learning techniques with classical statistical models in predicting health outcomes. Medinfo 2004; 11: 736–40.
34Song, X, MacKnight, C, Latta, R, Mitnitski, AB, Rockwood, K. Frailty and survival of rural and urban seniors: results from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging. Aging Clin Exp Res 2007; 19: 145–53.
35Andrew, MK, Rockwood, K. Psychiatric illness in relation to frailty in community-dwelling elderly people without dementia: a report from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging. Can J Aging 2007; 26: 33–88.
36Rockwood, K, Silvius, J, Fox, R. Comprehensive geriatric assessment: helping your elderly patients maintain functional well-being. Postgrad Med 1998; 103: 241–64.
37Ebly, EM, Hogan, DB, Parhad, IM. Cognitive impairment in the non-demented elderly. Results from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging. Arch Neurol 1995; 52: 612–19.
38Jarrett, PG, Rockwood, K, Carver, D, Stolee, P, Cosway, S. Illness presentation in elderly patients. Arch Intern Med 1995; 22; 155: 1060–64.
39MacKnight, C, Rockwood, K. Rasch analysis of the hierarchical assessment of balance and mobility (HABAM). J Clin Epidemiol 2000; 53: 1242–47.