Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-59b7f5684b-z9m8x Total loading time: 0.273 Render date: 2022-09-28T22:35:32.614Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "displayNetworkTab": true, "displayNetworkMapGraph": false, "useSa": true } hasContentIssue true

Reform, Reconstruction, Reaction: The Social Vision of Scottish Presbyterianism c. 1830-c. 1930

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  30 January 2009

S. J. Brown
Affiliation:
New College, Mound Place, Edinburgh EH1 2LU

Extract

In 1929, after many years of consultation and compromise, the two largest Presbyterian denominations in Scotland — the established Church of Scotland and the voluntary United Free Church — were united. The Union was an impressive achievement, marking the end of the bitter divisions of eighteenth and nineteenth century Scottish Presbyterianism. In particular, it represented the healing of the wounds of the Disruption of 1843, when the national Church of Scotland had been broken up as a result of conflicts between Church and State over patronage and the Church's spiritual independence. With the Union of 1929, the leaders of Scottish Presbyterianism, and especially John White of Glasgow's Barony Church, succeeded not only in uniting the major Presbyterian Churches, but also in establishing a cooperative relationship between Church and State. The Church of Scotland, itseemed, was again in a position to assert national leadership.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Scottish Journal of Theology Ltd 1991

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

1 Cheyne, A. C., The Transforming of the Kirh Victorian Scotland's Religious Revolution (Edinburgh, 1983), 110156Google Scholar; Smith, D. C., Passive Obedience and Prophetic Protest: Social Criticism in the Scottish Church 1830–1945 (New York, 1987), passim.Google Scholar; Smout, T. C., A Century of the Scottish People 1830–1950 (Glasgow, 1986), 181208Google Scholar; Brown, C., The Social History of Religion in Scotland since 1730 (London, 1987), 169208Google Scholar; see also Withrington's, D. J. seminal article. ‘The Churches in Scotland, c. 1870-C.1900: Towards a New Social Conscience?Records of the Scottish Church History Society, xix (1977), 155168Google Scholar.

2 Brown, S. J., Thomas Chalmers and the Godly Commonwealth in Scotland (Oxford, 1982), esp. 144151, 220–50Google Scholar.

3 Ibid., 250–81, 296–337.

4 Brown, , Social History of Relinon in Scotland, op. cit, 6077, 135–52Google Scholar; Blaikie, W.G., An Autobiography: Recollections of a Busy Life, 2nd edn., (London, 1901), 111Google Scholar.

5 Buchanan, R., The Waste Places of our Great Cities; or the Voice of God in the Cholera (Glasgow, 1853), 1438Google Scholar; Guthrie, T., The Poor, and How to Help Them (London, 1868), 611Google Scholar; Ross, J. M. E., William Ross of Cowcaddens (London, 1905), 103110Google Scholar; Enright, W. G., ‘Preaching and Theology in the Nineteenth Century’ (Edinburgh Univ. Ph.D. Thesis, 1968), 212224Google Scholar; Caird, J., Religion in Common Life (Edinburgh, 1855), 7Google Scholar; Pirie, J., The Lapsed: With Suggestions as to the Best Means of Raising Them (Edinburgh, 1871), 21Google Scholar.

6 Caird, Religion in Common Life, op. cit., 9. For the relationship of nineteenth century Evangelicalism and political economy, see especially Hilton, B., The Age of Atonement: The Influence of Evangelicalism on Social and Economic Thought 17851865 (Oxford, 1988), esp. 3670Google Scholar, and Waterman, A. M. C., ‘The Ideological Alliance of Political Economy and Christian IdeologyJournal ofEcclesiastical History, 34 (1983), 231244CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

7 Brown, , Thomas Chalmers, op. cit, esp. 375379Google Scholar; Walker, N. L., Robert Buchanan (London, 1877), 300338Google Scholar; Cheyne, , The Transforming of the Kirk, op. cit., 112118Google Scholar; Macleod, N., How Can We Best Relieve our Deserving Poor? (London, 1867)Google Scholar; Pirie, J., The Lapsed, op. cit., 21Google Scholar; Bonar, A. R., The Church of Scotland's Duty to the Masses (Edinburgh, 1857)Google Scholar.

8 Macleod, How Can We Best Relieve Our Deserving Poor? op.cit

9 Ross, , William Ross, op. cit, 104187Google Scholar.

10 Jones, P. d'A., The Christian Socialist Revival 1877–1914 (Princeton, 1968)CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Norman, E. R., The Victorian Christian Socialists (Cambridge, 1987), esp. 113CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Wagner, D. O., The Church of England and Social Reform Since 1854 (New York, 1930), esp. chh. 5–6Google Scholar; Inglis, K. S., Churches and the Working Class in Victorian England (London, 1963), 269282Google Scholar.

11 Conway, R. St. John and Glasier, J. Bruce, The Religion of Socialism: Two Aspects (Glasgow, [1890]), 1016Google Scholar; Yeo, S., ‘A New Life: the Religion of Socialism in Britain’, History Workshop, no. 4 (Autumn, 1977), 556CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

12 Brown, , Social History of Religion in Scotland, op. cit, 191Google Scholar.

13 Macleod, D., Non-Church-Going and the Housing of the Poor (Edinburgh, 1888), 13Google Scholar.

14 Reports on the Schemes of the Church of Scotland, 1896, pp. 808, 814.

15 See, for example. Caird, J., ‘Corporate Immortality’, in Scoth Sermons (Edinburgh, 1880), 117Google Scholar; Gibb, C. M., ‘Attitudes of the Prophets to Social Questions’, Forward (Glasgow), 14 August 1909Google Scholar; Smith, , Passive Obedience and Prophetic Protest, op. cit., 254256Google Scholar; Enright, , ‘Preaching and Theology in the Nineteenth Century’, op. cit., 355385Google Scholar.

16 Cited in Smith, Passive Obedience and Prophetic Protest, op. cit., 272.

17 Ross, D. M., ‘Christianity and Socialism’, in Bruce, A. B., op. cit., Christianity and Social Life A Course of Lectures (Edinburgh, 1885), 84Google Scholar; Matheson, A. Scott, The Church and Social Problems (Edinburgh, 1893), 58Google Scholar.

18 Ibid. 97.

19 D. M. Ross, ‘Christianity and Socialism’, op. cit. 76; Lang, J. Marshall, The Church and Its Social Mission (Edinburgh, 1902), 343Google Scholar.

21 Smith, J. M., ‘Commonsense Thought and Working class Consciousness: Some Aspects of the Glasgow and Liverpool Labour Movements in the Early Years of the Twentieth Century’ (Edinburgh Univ. Ph.D. Thesis, 1981), 320330Google Scholar; Forward (Glasgow), 23rd May, 4th July, 12th, 19th September, 3rd, 17th, 31st October, 7th, 14th, 21st November 1908.

21 Wilson, D., ‘Conditions of Employment’, in The Churches' Task in Social Reform: Report of the United Free Church Congress on Social Problems (Edinburgh, 1912), 2229Google Scholar; C. M. Gibb, ‘Unemployment: A Study for Bible Readers’, Forward, 24th July, 7th August 1909.

22 Muir, W., Christianity and Labour (London, 1910), 33, 265Google Scholar.

23 Sjolinder, R., Presbyterian Reunion in Scotland 1907–1921: Its Background and Development (Stockholm, 1962), 83162Google Scholar; Muir, A., John White (London, 1958), 83154Google Scholar. Fleming, J. R., The Story of Church Union in Scotland (London, 1929), 4162Google Scholar.

24 Smith, M., Passive Obedience and Prophetic Protest, op. ciL., 340352Google Scholar.

25 Ibid., 353–6; Forward, 5, 19th February 1910, 15th, 22nd April, 10th June, 18th November, 2nd, 23rd December 1911, 4th May 1912.

26 See, for example, Forward, 3rd October, 7th November 1908, 6th, 20th, 27th February, 13th March, 10th, 24th July, 7th, 14th, 21st, 28th August, 4th, 18th September 1909, 2nd, 9th April, 7th May 1910, 21st, 28th December 1912.

27 MacCallum, M., Religion as Social justice (Glasgow, 1915), 133, 135Google Scholar.

28 Forward, 13th August 1910.

29 Forward, 241h, 31st December 1910, 26th April 1913; Reid, H. M. B., The Cleavage in the Scottish Church (Glasgow, 1914), esp. 79Google Scholar.

30 Matheson, P. C., ‘Scottish War Sermons 1914–1919’, Records of the Scottish Church History Society, xvii (1972), 203213Google Scholar.

31 [T.Johnston], ‘Connolly and the Dublin Insurrection’, Forward, 6th May 1916; [Anon.], ‘Who Fears to Speak of Easter Week?’ Scottish Review, 39 (Autumn, 1916), 354–74.

32 Reports on the Schemes of the Church of Scotland, 1917, pp. 726, 741, 746, 753.

33 Paterson, W. P. and Watson, D. (eds.), Social Evils and Problems (Edinburgh, 1918), 2627Google Scholar.

34 Reports on the Schemes of the Church of Scolland, 1918, pp. 619–25; Ibid., 1919, pp. 631–5.

35 Reports on the Schemes of the Church of Scotland 1918, p. 629.

36 Ibid., 1919, pp. 631–5; Smith, Passive Obedience and Prophetic Protest, op. cit., 360.

37 Watson, D., The Social Expression of Christianity (London, 1919), 177Google Scholar.

38 Reports on the Schemes of the Church of Scotland, 1919, pp. 645, 660; Muir, John White, op. cit. 82–3; Proceedings and Debates of the General Assembly of the United Free Church of Scotland, 1919, pp. 244–7.

39 Paterson, W. P., Recent History and the Call to Brotherhood: Address Delivered at the Close of the General Assembly, May 29, 1919 (Edinburgh, 1919), 9, 25, 32Google Scholar.

40 Tawney, R. H., ‘The Abolition of Economic Controls, 1918–1921’, Economic History Review, xiii (1943), 130CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Abrams, P., ‘The Failure of Social Reform, 1918–1920’, Past and Present, 24 (1963), 4364CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Morgan, K. O., Consensus and Disunity: The Lloyd George Coalition Government 1918–1922 (Oxford, 1979), 88105Google Scholar.

41 Tawney, ‘The Abolition of Economic Controls’, op. cit., 14.

42 The Diaries of W. P. Paterson, ed., Rawlins, C. L. (Edinburgh, 1987), 266Google Scholar; Reports on the Schemes of the Church of Scotland, 1920, p. 525.

43 Harvie, C., No God and Precious Few Heroes: Scotland 1914–1980 (London, 1981), 3948Google Scholar.

44 Proceedings and Debates of the General Assembly of the United Free Church of Scotland, 1921, pp. 150–59; Reith, G. M., Reminiscences of the United Free Church General Assembly (1900–1929) (Edinburgh, 1933), 235Google Scholar.

45 Proceedings and Debates of the General Assembly of the United Free Church of Scotland, 1922, pp. 314–21.

46 Sjolinder, Presbyterian Reunion in Scotland, op. cit., 309–58; Muir, John White, op. cit., 198–213.

47 Muir, John While, op. cit., 186.

48 For example, White's speech on Union, Glasgow Herald, 26th May 1928.

49 Smout, Century of the Scottish People, op. cit., 271.

50 Morgan, Consensus and Disunity, op. at., 163; Harvie, C., Scotland and Nationalism (London, 1977), 43CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Smout, Century of the Scottish People, op. cit., 270–1.

51 Reports on the Schemes of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, 1923, p. 750–762, 751.

52 Ibid., 756, 758.

53 Ibid., 761.

54 Ibid., 756.

55 Glasgow Herald, 30th May 1923.

56 Reports to the General Assembly of the United Free Church of Scotland, 1924, no.xxiii, pp. 11–12

57 Reports on the Schemes of the Church of Scotland 1926, p. 619.

58 Reports on the Schema of the Church of Scotland, 1927, p. 1220.

59 Glasgow Herald, 26th March, 15th April 1929.

60 Scotsman, 19th May 1926; Glasgow Herald, 19th May 1926.

61 See, for example, the letter from the Edinburgh Labour MP, T. Drummond Shiels, in the Scotsman, 18th May 1926.

62 In the second novel of his A Scots Quair trilogy, Cloud Howe (1933), Lewis Grassic Gibbon captures the sense of disillusionment with the national Church in post-war Scottish society. See also Gibbon, Lewis Grassic and MacDiarmid, Hugh, Scottish Scene, or The Intelligent Man's Guide to Albyn (London, 1934), 313327Google Scholar.

63 Barr, J., The United Free Church of Scotland (London, 1934), 109110, 173–4, 218, 284Google Scholar.

64 For a discussion of some long-term effects of this emphasis on ecclesiastical structures and authority, see Harvey, J., Bridging the Gap: Has the Church Failed the Poor? (Edinburgh, 1987), 1138Google Scholar.

2
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Reform, Reconstruction, Reaction: The Social Vision of Scottish Presbyterianism c. 1830-c. 1930
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Reform, Reconstruction, Reaction: The Social Vision of Scottish Presbyterianism c. 1830-c. 1930
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Reform, Reconstruction, Reaction: The Social Vision of Scottish Presbyterianism c. 1830-c. 1930
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *