Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Seed traits and germination of native grasses and invasive forbs are largely insensitive to parental temperature and CO2 concentration

  • Jin Li (a1), Lei Ren (a1), Yuguang Bai (a1), Daniel Lecain (a2), Dana Blumenthal (a2) and Jack Morgan (a2)...
Abstract

The structure and function of grassland ecosystems can be altered by a changing climate, including higher temperature and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration. Previous studies suggest that there is no consistent trend in seed germination and seedling recruitment as affected by these conditions. We collected seeds of two native and two invasive species over 6 years from a field study with elevated CO2 (600 p.p.m.) and temperature (1.5/3.0°C day/night) on the mixed-grass prairie of Wyoming, USA. Seed fill, viability and mass were evaluated and germination tests were conducted under alternating temperatures in growth chambers. Thermal time requirements to reach 50% germination (θ50) and base temperatures (Tb) for germination were determined using thermal time models. Climate change conditions had limited effects on seed fill, viability and mass. The combination of CO2 enrichment and warming increased germination of Bouteloua gracilis. Centaurea diffusa and Linaria dalmatica, two invasive species in this study, had the lowest θ50 and Tb required for germination among all the species studied. Although final germination percentages of these invasive species were not affected by treatments, previous studies reported increased seed production under future climate conditions, indicating that they could be more invasive at the regeneration stage in the future. We conclude that projected future temperature increases will have little effect on seed reproductive traits of native species. In addition, the distribution and abundance of B. gracilis and invasive species may be favoured by global climate change due to enhanced germination or seed production traits caused by elevated parental CO2 and temperature conditions.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Author for correspondence: Yuguang Bai, Email: yuguang.bai@usask.ca
References
Hide All
Ainsworth, EA and Long, SP (2005) What have we learned from 15 years of free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE)? A meta-analytic review of the responses of photosynthesis, canopy. New Phytologist 165, 351371.
Andalo, C, Godelle, B, Lefranc, M, Mousseau, M and Till-Bottraud, I (1996) Elevated CO2 decreases seed germination in Arabidopsis thaliana. Global Change Biology 2, 129135.
Bai, Y, Tischler, CR, Booth, DT and Taylor, EM (2003) Variations in germination and grain quality within a rust resistant common wheat germplasm as affected by parental CO2 conditions. Environmental and Experimental Botany 50, 159168.
Blumenthal, DM, Resco, VR, Morgan, JA, Williams, DG, Lecain, DR, Hardy, EM, Pendall, E and Bladyka, E (2013) Invasive forb benefits from water savings by native plants and carbon fertilization under elevated CO2 and warming. New Phytologist 200, 11561165.
Bradley, BA, Blumenthal, DM, Wilcove, DS and Ziska, LH (2010) Predicting plant invasions in an ear of global change. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 25, 310318.
Briske, DD and Wilson, AM (1978) Moisture and temperature requirement for adventitous root development in blue grama seedlings. Journal of Range Management 31, 174178.
Briske, DD and Wilson, AM (1980) Drought effects on adventitious root development in blue grama seedlings. Journal of Range Management 33, 323327.
Chidumayo, EN (2008) Implications of climate warming on seedling emergence and mortality of African savanna woody plants. Plant Ecology 198, 6171.
De Frenne, P, Graae, BJ and Kolb, A et al. (2010) Significant effects of temperature on the reproductive output of the forest herb Anemone nemorosa L. Forest Ecology and Management 259, 809817.
Dijkstra, FA, Blumenthal, D, Morgan, JA, Pendall, E, Carrillo, Y and Follett, RF (2010) Contrasting effects of elevated CO2 and warming on nitrogen cycling in a semiarid grassland. New Phytologist 187, 426437.
Donohue, K, Casas, KK, Burghart, L, Kovach, LK and Willis, CG (2010) Germination, post germination adaptation, and species ecological ranges. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 41, 293319.
Drake, BG, Rogers, HH and Allen, LH Jr (1985) Methods of exposing plants to elevated carbon dioxide. In Direct effects of increasing carbon dioxide on vegetation. (eds Strain, B and Cure, J). Springfield, Virginia: United States Department of Energy.
Dukes, JS and Mooney, HA (1999) Does global change increase the success of biological invaders? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 14, 135139.
Ehleringer, JR, Cerling, TE and Helliker, BR (1997) C4 photosynthesis, atmospheric CO2, and climate. Oecologia 112, 285299.
Fenner, M (1992) Environmental influences on seed size and composition. Horticultural Reviews 13, 183213.
Fraaije, RGA, ter Braak, CJF, Verduyn, B, Breeman, LBS, Verhoeven, JTA and Soons, MB (2015) Early plant recruitment stages set the template for the development of vegetation patterns along a hydrological gradient. Functional Ecology 29, 971980.
Gao, S, Wang, JF, Zhang, ZJ, Dong, G and Guo, JX (2012) Seed production, mass, germinability, and subsequent seedling growth responses to parental warming environment in Leymus chinensis. Crop and Pasture Science 63, 8794.
Garbutt, K and Bazzaz, FA (1984) The effects of elevated CO2 on plants. III. Flower, fruit and seed production and abortion. New Phytologist 98, 433446.
Garcia-Huidobro, J, Monteith, JL and Squire, G (1982) Time, temperature and germination of pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoides S. and H.): II. Alternating temperature. Journal of Experimental Botany 33, 297302.
Graae, BJ, Alsos, IG and Ejrnaes, R (2008) The impact of temperature regimes on development, dormancy breaking and germination of dwarf shrub seeds from arctic, alpine and boreal sites. Plant Ecology 198, 275284.
Grabe, DF (1970) Tetrazolium Testing Handbook for Agricultural Seeds. Amherst, Massachusetts.
Hovenden, MJ, Wills, KE, Chaplin, RE, Vander Schoor, JK, Williams, AL, Osanai, YO and Newton, PCD (2008) Warming and elevated CO2 affect the relationship between seed mass, germinability and seedling growth in Austrodanthonia caespitosa, a dominant Australian grass. Global Change Biology 14, 16331641.
Hovenden, MJ, Wills, KE, Vander Schoor, JK, Chaplin, RE, Williams, AL, Nolan, MJ and Newton, PCD (2007) Flowering, seed production and seed mass in a species-rich temperate grassland exposed to FACE and warming. Australian Journal of Botany 55, 780794.
Huxman, TE, Hamerlynck, EP, Jordan, DN, Salsman, KJ and Smith, SD (1998) The effects of parental CO2 environment on seed quality and subsequent seedling performance in Bromus rubens. Oecologia 114, 202208.
Jablonski, LM, Wang, XZ and Curtis, PS (2002) Plant reproduction under elevated CO2 conditions: a meta analysis of reports on 79 crop and wild species. New Phytologist 156, 926.
Jimenez-Alfaro, B, Silveira, FAO, Fidelis, A, Poschlod, P and Commander, LE (2016) Seed germination traits can contribute better to plant community ecology. Journal of Vegetation Science 27, 637645.
Kimball, BA, Conley, MM, Wang, SP, Lin, XW, Luo, CY, Morgan, J and Smith, D (2008) Infrared heater arrays for warming ecosystem field plots. Global Change Biology 14, 309320.
Kullman, L (2002) Rapid recent range-margin rise of tree and shrub species in the Swedish Scandes. Journal of Ecology 90, 6877.
Lantz, TC, Kokelj, SV, Gergel, SE and Henry, GHR (2009) Relative impacts of disturbance and temperature: persistent changes in microenvironment and vegetation in retrogressive thaw slumps. Global Change Biology 15, 16641675.
Loehman, R (2009) Understanding the science of climate change: talking points – impacts to prairie potholes and grasslands. Natural Park Service, Natural Resource Program Center, p. 31.
Marty, C and BassiriRad, H (2014) Seed germination and rising atmospheric CO2 concentration: a meta-analysis of parental and direct effects. New Phytologist 202, 401414.
Miglietta, F, Peressotti, A, Vaccari, FP, Zaldei, A, Deangelis, P and Scarascia-Mugnozza, G (2001) Free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) of a poplar plantation: the POPFACE fumigation system. New Phytologist 150, 465476.
Milbau, A, Graae, BJ, Shevtsova, A and Nijs, I (2009) Effects of a warmer climate on seed germination in the subarctic. Annals of Botany 104, 287296.
Mondoni, A, Pedrini, S, Bernareggi, G, Rossi, G, Abeli, T, Probert, RJ, Ghitti, M, Bonomi, C and Orsenigo, S (2015) Climate warming could increase recruitment success in glacier foreland plants. Annuals of Botany 116, 907916.
Morgan, JA, Mosier, AR, Milchunas, DG, Lecain, DR, Nelson, JA and Parton, WJ (2004a) CO2 enhances productivity, alters species composition, and reduces digestibility of shortgrass steppe vegetation. Ecological Applications 14, 208219.
Morgan, JA, Pataki, DE, Körner, C et al. (2004b) Water relations in grassland and desert ecosystems exposed to elevated atmospheric CO2. Oecologia 140, 1125.
Morgan, JA, LeCain, DR, Pendall, E et al. (2011) C4 grasses prosper as carbon dioxide eliminates desiccation in warmed semi-arid grassland. Nature 476, 202205.
Mueller, KE, Blumenthal, DM, Pendall, E, Carrillo, Y, Dijkstra, FA, Williams, DG, Follett, RF and Morgan, JA (2016) Impact of warming and elevated CO2 on a semi-arid grassland are non-additive, shift with precipitation, and reverse over time. Ecology Letter 19, 956966.
Newton, PCD (1991) Direct effects of increasing carbon dioxide on pasture plants and communities. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 34, 124.
Paula, S and Pausas, JG (2008) Burning seeds: germinative response to heat treatments in relation to resprouting ability. Journal of Ecology 96, 543552.
Poorter, H and Navas, ML (2003) Plant growth and competition at elevated CO2: on winners, losers and functional groups. New Phytologist 157, 175198.
Qiu, J, Bai, YG, Coulman, B and Romo, JT (2006) Using thermal time models to predict seedling emergence of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) under alternating temperature regimes. Seed Science Research 16, 261271.
Reeves, JL, Blumenthal, DM, Kray, JA and Derner, JD (2015) Increased seed consumption by biological control weevil tempers positive CO2 effect on invasive plant (Centaurea diffusa) fitness. Biological Control 84, 3643.
Ren, L and Bai, Y (2016) Smoke originating from different plants has various effects on germination and seedling growth of species in Fescue Prairie. Botany, 94, 11411150.
Sage, RF and Kubien, DS (2003) Quo vadis C4? An ecophysiological perspective on global change and the future of C4 plants. Photosynthesis Research 77, 209225.
Sage, RF and Kubien, DS (2007) The temperature response of C-3 and C-4 photosynthesis. Plant Cell and Environment 30, 10861106.
Sandvik, SM and Eide, W (2009) Costs of reproduction in circumpolar Parnassia palustris L. in light of global warming. Plant Ecology 205, 111.
Seddigh, M and Jolliff, GD (1984) Night temperature effects on morphology, phenology, yield and yield components of indeterminate field-grown soybean. Agronomy Journal 76, 824828.
Shaw, MR, Zavaleta, ES, Chiariello, NR, Cleland, EE, Mooney, HA and Field, CB (2002) Grassland responses to global environmental changes suppressed by elevated CO2. Science 298, 19871990.
Shine, R (2011) Invasive species as drivers of evolutionary change: cane toads in tropical Australia. Evolutionary Applications 5, 107116.
Spears, JF, Tekrony, DM and Egli, DB (1997) Temperature during seed filling and soybean seed germination and vigour. Seed Science and Technology 25, 233244.
Stiling, P, Moon, D, Hymus, G and Drake, B (2004) Differential effects of elevated CO2 on acorn density, weight, germination, and predation among three oak species in a scrub-oak forest. Global Change Biology 10, 228232.
Thürig, B, Körner, C and Stöcklin, J (2003) Seed production and seed quality in a calcareous grassland in elevated CO2. Global Change Biology 9, 873884.
Vujnovic, K and Wein, RW (1997) The biology of Canadian weeds. 106. Linaria dalmatica (L.) Mill. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 77, 483491.
Walck, JL, Hidayati, SN, Dixon, KW, Thompson, K and Poschlod, P (2011) Climate change and plant regeneration from seed. Global Change Biology 17, 21452161.
Williams, AL, Wills, KE, Janes, JK, Vander Schoor, JK, Newton, PCD and Hovenden, MJ (2007) Warming and free air CO2 enrichment alter demographics in four co-occurring grassland species. New Phytologist 176, 365374.
Wood, DW, Scott, RK and Longden, PC (1980) The effects of mother plant temperature on seed quality in Beta vulgaris L. (sugar beet). Seed Production, 257270.
Wookey, PA, Robinson, CH, Parsons, AN, Welker, JM, Press, MC, Callaghan, TV and Lee, JA (1995) Environmental constraints on the growth, photosynthesis and reproductive development of Dryas octopetala at a high Arctic polar semi-desert, Svalbard. Oecologia 102, 478489.
Young, LM, Wilen, RW and Bonham-Smith, PC (2004) High temperature stress of Brassica napus during flowering reduces micro- and megagametophyte fertility, induces fruit abortion, and disrupts seed production. Journal of Experimental Botany 55, 485495.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Seed Science Research
  • ISSN: 0960-2585
  • EISSN: 1475-2735
  • URL: /core/journals/seed-science-research
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed