Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-v5vhk Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-06-25T10:31:03.715Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Cross-Cultural Validation of the Work Values Scale EVAT Using Multi-Group Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Confirmatory Multidimensional Scaling

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  10 January 2013

Luis M. Arciniega*
Instituto Tecnológico Autónomo de México (Mexico)
Luis González
Universidad de Salamanca (Spain)
Vítor Soares
Instituto Piaget (Portugal)
Stefania Ciulli
Università degli Studi di Firenze (Italy)
Marco Giannini
Università degli Studi di Firenze (Italy)
Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Luis M. Arciniega. ITAM School of Business. Río Hondo 1. México 01080 D.F., (Mexico). Phone: +52-5556284000. Fax: +52-5556284049. E-mail:


The Work Values Scale EVAT (based on its initials in Spanish: Escala de Valores hacia el Trabajo) was created in 2000 to measure values in the work context. The instrument operationalizes the four higher-order-values of the Schwartz Theory (1992) through sixteen items focused on work scenarios. The questionnaire has been used among large samples of Mexican and Spanish individuals reporting adequate psychometric properties. The instrument has recently been translated into Portuguese and Italian, and subsequently used in a large-scale study with nurses in Portugal and in a sample of various occupations in Italy. The purpose of this research was to demonstrate the cross-cultural validity of the Work Values Scale EVAT in Spanish, Portuguese, and Italian. Our results suggest that the original Spanish version of the EVAT scale and the new Portuguese and Italian versions are equivalent.

La Escala de Valores hacia el Trabajo (EVAT) fue desarrollada en el 2000 para medir valores en el contexto del trabajo. El instrumento operacionaliza los cuatro valores de orden superior de la Teoría de Schwartz (1992) a través de dieciséis ítems focalizados en escenarios laborales. El cuestionario ha sido empleado en grandes muestras de participantes mexicanos y españoles, mostrando adecuadas propiedades psicométricas. El instrumento ha sido traducido recientemente al portugués e italiano, siendo utilizado en un estudio con una gran muestra de enfermeras en Portugal, y en una muestra conformada con sujetos de diferentes ocupaciones en Italia. El propósito de este estudio consistió en demostrar la validez transcultural de la Escala de Valores hacia el Trabajo, en español, portugués e italiano. Los resultados revelan que tanto la versión original en castellano, como las nuevas versiones en portugués e italiano son equivalentes.

Research Article
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2009

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Arciniega, L.M., & González, L. (2000). Desarrollo y validación de la escala de valores hacia el trabajo EVAT 30. Revista de Psicología Social, 15, 281296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Arciniega, L.M., & González, L. (2005). Other-oriented values and job satisfaction. Problems and Perspectives in Management, 4, 128132.Google Scholar
Arciniega, L.M., & González, L. (2006). What is the influence of work values relative to other variables in the development of organizational commitment? Revista de Psicología Social, 21, 3550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Borg, I., & Groenen, P.J.F. (2005). Modern multidimensional scaling: Theory and applications. New York, NY.: Springer.Google Scholar
Brislin, R. W. (1986). The wording and translation of research instruments. In Lonner, W. J. & Berry, J. W. (Eds.), Field methods in cross-cultural research (pp. 137164). Newbury Park, CA.: Sage.Google Scholar
Cheung, G. W., & Rensvold, R. B. (2002). Evaluating goodness-of-fit indexes for testing measurement invariance. Structural Equation Modeling, 9, 233255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ciulli, S. (2005). Uno strumento per la misura dei valori professionali: propietá psicometriche della escala de valores hacia el trabajo EVAT. Unpublished manuscript. Università degli studi di Firenze. Florence, Italy.Google Scholar
Elizur, D. (1984). Facets of work values: A structural analysis of work outcomes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 69, 379389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Elizur, D., Borg, I., Hunt, R.& Beck, I.M. (1991). The structure of work values: A cross cultural comparison. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 12, 2138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
González, L., & Arciniega, L.M. (2005). Anclajes de carrera profesional y valores en el trabajo. In Romay, J., Salgado, J., Robla, M. Romaní y D. (Comps.). Psicología de las Organizaciones, del Trabajo y de los Recursos Humanos y de la Salud, 4. 6977. Madrid: Biblioteca Nueva.Google Scholar
Jöreskog, K. G. (1971). Simultaneous factor analysis in several populations. Psychometrika, 36, 409426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rokeach, M. (1973). The nature of human values. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
Ros, M., Schwartz, S.H., Surkiss, S. (1999). Basic individual values, work values, and the meaning of work. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 48, 4971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sagie, A., Elizur, D.& Koslowsky, M. (1996). Work values: a theoretical overview and a model of their effects. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 17, 503514.3.0.CO;2-Q>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schwartz, S. H. (1999). A theory of cultural values and some implications for work. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 48, 2347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schwartz, S.H. (1992). Universals in the content and structure of values: Theoretical advances and empirical tests in 20 countries. In Zanna, M.. (Ed.). Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 25, Academic Press, New York, pp. 165.Google Scholar
Schwartz, S.H., Melech, G., Lehman, A., Burgess, S., Harris, M.& Owens, V. (2001). Extending the cross-cultural validity of the theory of basic human values with a different method of measurement. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 32, 519542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Soares, V.M. (2008). Valores e Burnout em enfermagem. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation. Universidad de Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain.Google Scholar
Steenkamp, J. B. E. M., & Baumgartner, H. (1998). Assessing measurement invariance in cross-national consumer research. Journal of Consumer Research, 25, 7890.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vandenberg, R.J., & Lance, C.E. (2000). A review and synthesis of measurement invariance literature: Suggestions, practices, and recommendations for organizational research. Organizational Research Methods, 3, 469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar