Estévez, Estefanía Jiménez, Teresa I. and Cava, María-Jesús 2016. A Cross-Cultural Study in Spain and Mexico on School Aggression in Adolescence. Cross-Cultural Research, Vol. 50, Issue. 2, p. 123.
Povedano, Amapola Cava, María-Jesús Monreal, María-Carmen Varela, Rosa and Musitu, Gonzalo 2015. Victimization, loneliness, overt and relational violence at the school from a gender perspective. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, Vol. 15, Issue. 1, p. 44.
Previous studies have identified two subgroups of school violence victims: submissive and aggressive. Submissive victims are characterized by their withdrawal in violent situations, while aggressive victims combine hostile behavior with victimization. This study focuses on the second subgroup and aims to analyze possible factors influencing the transition from passive victimization to involvement in aggressive behaviors within the school context. To test these relationships, 1319 adolescents between 12 and 16 years of age were recruited from seven secondary schools in various Spanish provinces. Structural equation modeling techniques were used to analyze the data. Results supported Emler’s theory, which posits that the victim’s helplessness in situations of intimidation, along with disappointment resulting from a lack of expected protection from adult authority figures, may result in adolescents searching and developing an antisocial and non-conformist reputation that helps them defend themselves against future attacks. Practical implications of these results are further discussed.
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