Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Less Time, Better Quality. Shortening Questionnaires to Assess Team Environment and Goal Orientation

  • Saül Alcaraz (a1), Carme Viladrich (a1) and Miquel Torregrosa (a1)

Abstract

When assessing team environments in youth sport, participants often spend substantial time responding to lots of items in questionnaires, causing a lack of efficiency (i.e. time and effort) and a decrease of data quality. The purpose of this work was to create short-forms of the questionnaires PeerMCYSQ, SCQPeer, TEOSQ, and also to analyse the existing short-form of the SCQCoach. In Study 1 we developed the short-forms of the instruments. We shortened the questionnaires by using both theory driven and data-driven criteria. In Study 2, we used also qualitative and quantitative data with the aim of validating the short-forms. Finally, in Study 3 we tested the last version of the short-forms and sought evidences concerning their criterion validity. The results showed evidence that supports the psychometric merit of these short-forms: (a) significantly less missing values were obtained; (b) all the factors obtained alpha values above .70; (c) confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated that the short-forms fitted the hypothesized models well; (d) correlations between variables were coherent with expectations, and (e) structural equation modeling results showed significant paths consistent with previous literature. On average, our participants only spent a third of the time used to complete the original questionnaires.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Saül Alcaraz. Facultad de Psicología. Departamento de Psicologia Básica, Evolutiva y de la Educación. Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona. 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain). Phone: +34-93586 83 95. Fax: +34 93 581 33 29. E-mail: saul.alcaraz@uab.cat

Footnotes

Hide All
This research was supported in part by the DEP2010-15561 grant. The authors would like to thank Yago Ramis, Alex Latinjak, Fernando Azócar, and Luana Prato for their collaboration in this manuscript.

Footnotes

References

Hide All
Adie, J. W., Duda, J. L., & Ntoumanis, N. (2008). Autonomy support, basic need satisfaction and the optimal functioning of adult male and female sport participants: A test of basic needs theory. Motivation and Emotion, 32, 189199. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11031-008-9095-z
Álvarez, M. S., Balaguer, I., Castillo, I., & Duda, J. L. (2009). Coach autonomy support and quality of sport engagement in young soccer players. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 12, 138148. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1138741600001554
American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, & National Council on Measurement in Education (1999). Standards for educational and psychological testing. Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association.
Ames, C. (1992). Achievement goals and classroom motivational climate. In Meece, J. & Schunk, D. (Eds.), Students’ perceptions in the classroom (pp. 327348). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Balaguer, I., Castillo, I., & Duda, J. L. (2008). Apoyo a la autonomía, satisfacción de las necesidades, motivación y bienestar en deportistas de competición: Un análisis de la Teoría de la Autodeterminación [Autonomy support, need satisfaction, motivation and well-being among competitive athletes: A Self-determination Theory analysis]. Revista de Psicología del Deporte, 17, 123139.
Balaguer, I., Castillo, I., Duda, J. L., & García-Merita, M. (2011). Asociaciones entre la percepción del clima motivacional creado por el entrenador, orientaciones disposicionales de meta, regulaciones motivacionales y vitalidad subjetiva en jóvenes jugadoras de tenis [Associations between perceptions of coach-created motivational climate, goal orientations, behavioral regulations and subjective vitality in young female tennis players]. Revista de Psicología del Deporte, 20, 133148.
Balaguer, I., Castillo, I., Duda, J. L., & Tomás, I. (2009). Análisis de las propiedades psicométricas de la versión española del Cuestionario de Clima en el Deporte [Analysis of the psychometric properties of the Sport Climate Questionnaire Spanish version]. Revista de Psicología del Deporte, 18, 7383.
Balaguer, I., Castillo, I., & Tomás, I. (1996). Análisis de las propiedades psicométricas del Cuestionario de Orientación al Ego y a la Tarea en el deporte (TEOSQ) en su traducción al castellano [Analysis of the psychometric properties of the Task and Ego Orientation Questionnaire (TEOSQ) in its Spanish translation]. Psicológica, 17, 7181.
Balaguer, I., Guivernau, M., Duda, J. L., & Crespo, M. (1997). Análisis de la validez de constructo y de la validez predictiva del Cuestionario de Clima Motivacional Percibido en el Deporte (PMCSQ-2) con tenistas españoles de competición [Analysis of the construct validity and predictive validity of the Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire (PMCSQ-2) in competitive Spanish tennis players]. Revista de Psicología del Deporte, 6, 4158.
Barkoukis, V., Ntoumanis, N., & Nikitaras, N. (2007). Comparing dichotomous and trichotomous approaches to achievement goal theory: An example using motivational regulations as outcomes variables. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 77, 683702. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/000709906X171901
Boixadós, M., Valiente, L., Mimbrero, J., Torregrosa, M., & Cruz, J. (1998). Papel de los agentes de socialización en deportistas en edad escolar [Role of agents of socialization in school-age athletes]. Revista de Psicología del Deporte, 7, 295310.
Chan, D. K., Lonsdale, C., & Fung, H. H. (2012). Influences of coaches, parents, and peers on the motivational patterns of child and adolescent athletes. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 22, 558568. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2010.01277.x
Coste, J., Guillemin, F., Pouchot, J., & Fermanian, J. (1997). Methodological approaches to Shortening Composite Measurement Scales. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 50, 247252. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0895-4356(96)00363-0
Cox, T., Oliver, A., Rial-González, E., Tomás, J. M., Griffiths, A., & Thompson, L. (2006). The development of a Spanish language version of the Worn Out Scale of the General Well-Being Questionnaire (GWBQ). The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 9, 94102.
Cronbach, L., & Meehl, P. (1955). Construct validity in psychological tests. Psychological Bulletin, 52, 281302. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0040957
Deci, E. L. (2001). The sport climate questionnaire. Unpublished instrument. Retrieved from http://www.psych.rochester.edu/SDT/measures/auton_sport.html
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The “what” and “why” of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227268. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/S15327965PLI1104_01
Duda, J. L. (1989). Relationship between task and ego orientation and the perceived purpose of sport among high school athletes. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 11, 318335.
Duda, J. L., & Hall, H. (2001). Achievement goal theory in sport: Recent extensions and future directions. In Singer, R. N., Hausenblas, H. A., & Janelle, C. M. (Eds.), Handbook of sport psychology (2 nd ed., pp. 417443). New York, NY: Wiley.
Duda, J. L., & Nicholls, J. G. (1992). Dimensions of achievement motivation in schoolwork and sport. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84, 290299. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037//0022-0663.84.3.290
Duda, J. L., & Ntoumanis, N. (2003). Correlates of achievement goal orientations in physical education. International Journal of Educational Research, 39, 415436. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijer.2004.06.007
Edwards, P., Roberts, I., Sandercock, P., & Frost, C. (2004). Follow-up by mail in clinical trials: Does questionnaire length matter? Controlled Clinical Trials, 25, 3152. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cct.2003.08.013
Gagné, M., Ryan, R. M., & Bargmann, K. (2003). Autonomy support and need satisfaction in the motivation and well-being of gymnasts. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 15, 372390. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/714044203
García Ferrando, M., & Llopis, R. (2006). Encuesta de hábitos deportivos de los Españoles 2005 [Spanish population sport habits survey 2005] . Retrieved from Consejo Superior de Deportes website: http://www.csd.gob.es/csd/sociedad/encuesta-de-habitos-deportivos/encuesta-de-habitos-deportivos-2005/encuesta-de-habitos-deportivos/.
Graham, J. W. (2009). Missing data analysis: Making it work in the real world. Annual Review of Psychology, 60, 549576. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.58.110405.085530
Jackson, D. L., Gillaspy, J. A., & Purc-Stephenson, R. (2009). Reporting practices in confirmatory factor analysis: An overview and some recommendations. Psychological Methods, 14, 623. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0014694
Jokovic, A., Locker, D., & Guyatt, G. (2006). Short forms of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire for 11–14-year-old children (CPQ11–14): Development and initial evaluation. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 4(4). http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1477-7525-4-4
Keegan, R., Spray, C., Harwood, C., & Lavallee, D. (2010). The motivational atmosphere in youth sport: Coach, parent, and peer influences on motivation in specializing sport participants. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 22, 87105. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10413200903421267
Li, F., Harmer, P., Chi, L., & Vongjaturapat, N. (1996). Cross-cultural validation of the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 18, 392407.
Lonsdale, C., Hodge, K., & Rose, E. A. (2008). The behavioral regulation in Sport Questionnaire (BRSQ): Instrument development and initial validity evidence. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 30, 323355.
McAuley, E., Duncan, T., & Tammen, V. V. (1989). Psychometric properties of the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory in a competitive sport setting: A confirmatory factor analysis. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 60, 4858. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02701367.1989.10607413
Meijer, R. R., & Sijtsma, K. (1995). Detection of aberrant item score patterns: A review of recent developments. Applied Measurement in Education, 8, 261272. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15324818ame0803_5
Moran, L. A., Guyatt, G. H., & Norman, J. R. (2001). Establishing the minimal number of items for a responsive, valid, health-related quality of life instrument. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 54, 571579. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0895-4356(00)00342-5
Moreno, J. A., Conte, L., Martínez, C. Alonso, N., González-Cutre, D., & Cervelló, E. (2011). Propiedades psicométricas del Peer Motivational Climate in Youth Sport Questionnaire (PeerMCYSQ) con una muestra de deportistas españoles [Psychometric properties of the Peer Motivational Climate in Youth Sport Questionnaire (PeerMCYSQ) with a sample of Spanish athletes]. Revista de Psicología del Deporte, 20, 101118.
Mülhan, H., Bullinger, M., Power, M., & Schmidt, S. (2008). Short forms of subjective quality of life assessments from cross- cultural studies for use in surveys with different populations. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 15, 142153. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpp.573
Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2008). Mplus Editor (version 5.2) [Computer software] . Los Angeles, CA: Muthen & Muthen.
Newton, M., Duda, J. L., & Yin, Z. (2000). Examination of the psychometric properties of the Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire-2 in a sample of female athletes. Journal of Sports Sciences, 18, 275290. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/026404100365018
Nicholls, J. G. (1989). The competitive ethos and democratic education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric Theory. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Ntoumanis, N. (2001). Empirical links between achievement goal theory and self-determination theory in sport. Journal of Sports Sciences, 19, 397409. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/026404101300149357
Ntoumanis, N., & Biddle, S. (1999). A review of motivational climate in physical activity. Journal of Sports Sciences, 17, 643665. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/026404199365678
Ntoumanis, N., & Vazou, S. (2005). Peer motivational climate in youth sport: Measurement development and validation. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 27, 432455.
Pelletier, L. G., Fortier, M. S., Vallerand, R. J., & Brière, N. M. (2001). Associations among perceived autonomy support, forms of self-regulation, and persistence: A prospective study. Motivation and Emotion, 25, 279306. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1014805132406
Patton, M. Q. (2002). Qualitative Research & Evaluation Methods (3 th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Ramis, Y., Torregrosa, M., Viladrich, C., & Cruz, J. (2010). Adaptación y validación de la versión española de la Escala de Ansiedad Competitiva SAS - 2 para deportistas de iniciación [Adaptation and validation of the Spanish Version of the Sport Anxiety Scale-2 for young athletes]. Psicothema, 22, 10041009.
Ramis, Y., Torregrosa, M., Viladrich, C., & Cruz, J. (2013). El apoyo a la autonomía generado por entrenadores, compañeros y padres y su efecto sobre la motivación autodeterminada de deportistas de iniciación [Coaches’, peers’ and parents’ autonomy support and their effect in youth athletes’ self-determined motivation]. Anales de Psicología, 29, 243248. http://dx.doi.org/10.6018/analesps.29.1.124011
Reinboth, M., & Duda, J. L. (2006). Perceived motivational climate, need satisfaction and indices of well-being in team sports: A longitudinal perspective. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 7, 269286. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2005.06.002
Smith, G. T., McCarthy, D. M., & Anderson, K. G. (2000). On the sins of short-form development. Psychological Assessment, 12, 102111. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037//1040-3590.12.1.102
Smith, R. E., Smoll, F. L., & Cumming, S. P. (2009). Motivational climate and changes in young athletes’ achievement goal orientations. Motivation and Emotion, 33, 173183. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11031-009-9126-4
Standage, M., Duda, J. L., & Ntoumanis, N. (2005). A test of self-determination theory in school physical education. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 75, 411433. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/000709904X22359
Streiner, D. L., & Norman, G. R. (2008). Health measurement scales (4 th ed.). Gosport, Hampshire: Oxford University Press.
Terry, P. C., Lane, A. M., Lane, H. J., & Keohane, L. (1999). Development and validation of a mood measure for adolescents. Journal of Sports Sciences, 17, 861872. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/026404199365425h
Torregrosa, M., Viladrich, C., Ramis, Y., Azócar, F., Latinjak, A., & Cruz, J. (2011). Efectos en la percepción del clima motivacional generado por los entrenadores y compañeros sobre la diversión y el compromiso. Diferencias en función de género [The effect of coach-created and peer-created motivational climate on enjoyment and commitment: gender differences]. Revista de Psicología del Deporte, 20, 243255.
Vazou, S. (2010). Variations in the perceptions of peer and coach motivational climate. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 81, 199211. http://dx.doi.org/10.5641/027013610X13088554297279
Vazou, S., Ntoumanis, N., & Duda, J. L. (2006). Predicting young athletes’ motivational indices as a function of their perceptions of the coach- and peer-created climate. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 7, 215233. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2005.08.007
Viladrich, C., Torregrosa, M., & Cruz, J. (2011). Calidad psicométrica de la adaptación española del Cuestionario de Regulación Conductual en el Deporte [Psychometric quality of the Spanish adaptation of the Behavioral Regulation in Sport Questionnaire]. Psicothema, 23, 786794.
Whitehead, J., Andrée, K. V., & Lee, M. J. (2004). Achievement perspectives and perceived ability: How far do interactions generalize in youth sport? Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 5, 291317. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1469-0292(03)00016-5
Watson, D., & Clark, L. A. (1997). Measurement and mismeasurement of mood: Recurrent and emergent issues. Journal of Personality Assessment, 68, 267296. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327752jpa6802_4

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed