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Less Time, Better Quality. Shortening Questionnaires to Assess Team Environment and Goal Orientation

  • Saül Alcaraz (a1), Carme Viladrich (a1) and Miquel Torregrosa (a1)


When assessing team environments in youth sport, participants often spend substantial time responding to lots of items in questionnaires, causing a lack of efficiency (i.e. time and effort) and a decrease of data quality. The purpose of this work was to create short-forms of the questionnaires PeerMCYSQ, SCQPeer, TEOSQ, and also to analyse the existing short-form of the SCQCoach. In Study 1 we developed the short-forms of the instruments. We shortened the questionnaires by using both theory driven and data-driven criteria. In Study 2, we used also qualitative and quantitative data with the aim of validating the short-forms. Finally, in Study 3 we tested the last version of the short-forms and sought evidences concerning their criterion validity. The results showed evidence that supports the psychometric merit of these short-forms: (a) significantly less missing values were obtained; (b) all the factors obtained alpha values above .70; (c) confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated that the short-forms fitted the hypothesized models well; (d) correlations between variables were coherent with expectations, and (e) structural equation modeling results showed significant paths consistent with previous literature. On average, our participants only spent a third of the time used to complete the original questionnaires.


Corresponding author

*Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Saül Alcaraz. Facultad de Psicología. Departamento de Psicologia Básica, Evolutiva y de la Educación. Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona. 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain). Phone: +34-93586 83 95. Fax: +34 93 581 33 29. E-mail:


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This research was supported in part by the DEP2010-15561 grant. The authors would like to thank Yago Ramis, Alex Latinjak, Fernando Azócar, and Luana Prato for their collaboration in this manuscript.



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