Skip to main content
×
×
Home

L1 INFLUENCE ON THE ACQUISITION ORDER OF ENGLISH GRAMMATICAL MORPHEMES: A Learner Corpus Study

  • Akira Murakami (a1) and Theodora Alexopoulou (a2)
Abstract

We revisit morpheme studies to evaluate the long-standing claim for a universal order of acquisition. We investigate the L2 acquisition order of six English grammatical morphemes by learners from seven L1 groups across five proficiency levels. Data are drawn from approximately 10,000 written exam scripts from the Cambridge Learner Corpus. The study establishes clear L1 influence on the absolute accuracy of morphemes and their acquisition order, therefore challenging the widely held view that there is a universal order of acquisition of L2 morphemes. Moreover, we find that L1 influence is morpheme specific, with morphemes encoding language-specific concepts most vulnerable to L1 influence.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      L1 INFLUENCE ON THE ACQUISITION ORDER OF ENGLISH GRAMMATICAL MORPHEMES
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      L1 INFLUENCE ON THE ACQUISITION ORDER OF ENGLISH GRAMMATICAL MORPHEMES
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      L1 INFLUENCE ON THE ACQUISITION ORDER OF ENGLISH GRAMMATICAL MORPHEMES
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
References
Hide All
Andersen, R. W. (1978). An implicational model for second language research. Language Learning, 28(2), 221282.
Azoulay, A., & Vicente, A. (1996). Spanish grammar for independent learners. Commerce, TX: VIC Languages.
Bailey, N., Madden, C., & Krashen, S. D. (1974). Is there a “natural sequence” in adult second language learning? Language Learning, 24(2), 235243.
Briscoe, E., Carroll, J., & Watson, R. (2006). The second release of the RASP system. In Proceedings of the COLING/ACL 2006 interactive presentation sessions (pp. 7780). Sydney, Australia.
Brown, R. (1973). A first language: The early stages. London: George Allen & Unwin.
Bulté, B., & Housen, A. (2012). Defining and operationalising L2 complexity. In Housen, A., Kuiken, F., & Vedder, I. (Eds.), Dimensions of L2 performance and proficiency: Complexity, accuracy and fluency in SLA (pp. 2146). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Butler, Y. G. (2002). Second language learners’ theories on the use of English articles: An analysis of the metalinguistic knowledge used by Japanese students in acquiring the English article system. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 24(3), 451480. doi:10.1017/S0272263102003042
Choi, M.-H. (2005). Testing Eubank’s optional verb-raising in L2 grammars of Korean speakers. In Proceedings of the 7th Generative Approaches to Second Language Acquisition Conference (pp. 5867).
Cinque, G. (2001). A note on mood, modality, tense and aspect affixes in Turkish. In Taylan, E. E. (Ed.), The verb in Turkish (pp. 4760). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Crawley, M. J. (2007). The R book. West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons.
DeKeyser, R. M. (2005). What makes learning second-language grammar difficult? A review of issues [Supplemental material]. Language Learning, 55(1), 125. doi:10.1111/j.0023-8333.2005.00294.x
De Villiers, J. G., & de Villiers, P. A. (1973). A cross-sectional study of the acquisition of grammatical morphemes in child speech. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 2(3), 267278.
Dulay, H. C., & Burt, M. K. (1973). Should we teach children syntax? Language Learning, 23(2), 245258.
Dulay, H. C., & Burt, M. K. (1974). Natural sequences in child second language acquisition. Language Learning, 24(1), 3753.
Durrell, M. (2011). Hammer’s German grammar and usage (5th ed.). London: Hodder Education.
Ekmekci, F. O. (1982). Acquisition of verbal inflections in Turkish. METU Journal of Human Sciences, 1(2), 227241.
Ellis, N. C. (2006). Selective attention and transfer phenomena in L2 acquisition: Contingency, cue competition, salience, interference, overshadowing, blocking, and perceptual learning. Applied Linguistics, 27(2), 164194. doi:10.1093/applin/aml015
Ellis, N. C., & Sagarra, N. (2010). The bounds of adult language acquisition: Blocking and learned attention. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 32(4), 553580. doi:10.1017/S0272263110000264
Filosofova, T., & Spöring, M. (2012). Da! A practical guide to Russian grammar. Oxon: Hodder Education.
Goldschneider, J., & DeKeyser, D. (2001). Explaining the “natural order of L2 morpheme acquisition” in English: A meta-analysis of multiple determinants. Language Learning, 51(1), 150. doi:10.1111/1467-9922.00147
Hakuta, K. (1976). A case study of a Japanese child learning English as a second language. Language Learning, 26(2), 321351.
Hawkey, R. (2009). Examining FCE and CAE: Key issues and recurring themes in developing the First Certificate in English and Certificate in Advanced English exams. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hawkins, J. A., & Buttery, P. (2010). Criterial features in learner corpora: Theory and illustrations. English Profile Journal, 1(1), e5. doi:10.1017/S2041536210000103
Hawkins, J. A., & Filipović, L. (2012). Criterial features in L2 English: Specifying the reference levels of the Common European Framework. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hawkins, R. (1981). Towards an account of the possessive constructions: NP’s N and the N of NP. Journal of Linguistics, 17(2), 247. doi:10.1017/S002222670000699X
Hawkins, R., & Towell, R. (2001). French grammar and usage (2nd ed.). London: Arnold.
Hiki, M. (1991). A study of learners’ judgments of noun countability (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA.
Ionin, T. (2006). This is definitely specific: Specificity and definiteness in article systems. Natural Language Semantics, 14(2), 175234. doi:10.1007/s11050-005-5255-9
Ionin, T. (2008). Progressive aspect in child L2 English. In Haznedar, B. & Gavruseva, E. (Eds.), Current trends in child second language acquisition: A generative perspective (pp. 1753). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Ionin, T., & Montrul, S. (2010). The role of L1 transfer in the interpretation of articles with definite plurals in L2 English. Language Learning, 60(4), 877925. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9922.2010.00577.x
Jarvis, S. (2000). Methodological rigor in the study of transfer: Identifying L1 influence in the interlanguage lexicon. Language Learning, 50(2), 245309. doi:10.1111/0023-8333.00118
Jarvis, S., Castañeda Jiménez, G., & Nielsen, R. (2012). Detecting L2 writers’ L1s on the basis of their lexical styles. In Jarvis, S. & Crossley, S. A. (Eds.), Approaching language transfer through text classification: Explorations in the detection-based approach (pp. 3470). Bristol, England: Multilingual Matters.
Jarvis, S., & Pavlenko, A. (2007). Crosslinguistic influence in language and cognition. New York: Routledge.
Jelinek, E. (1984). Empty categories, case, and configurationality. Natural Language & Linguistic Theory, 2(1), 3976. doi:10.1007/BF00233713
Koizumi, R., & In’nami, Y. (2012). Effects of text length on lexical diversity measures: Using short texts with less than 200 tokens. System, 40(4), 522532. doi:10.1016/j.system.2012.10.017
Krashen, S. D. (1977). Some issues relating to the Monitor Model. In Brown, H. D., Yorio, C. A., & Crymes, R. H. (Eds.), On TESOL ’77: Teaching and learning English as a second language: Trends in research and practice (pp. 144158). Washington, DC: TESOL.
Lardiere, D. (2007). Ultimate attainment in second language acquisition: A case study. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum Associates.
Larsen-Freeman, D. E. (1975). The acquisition of grammatical morphemes by adult ESL students. TESOL Quarterly, 9(4), 409430.
Larsen-Freeman, D. E. (1976). An explanation for the morpheme acquisition of second language learners. Language Learning, 26(1), 125134.
Larson-Hall, J., & Herrington, R. (2010). Improving data analysis in second language acquisition by utilizing modern developments in applied statistics. Applied Linguistics, 31(3), 368390. doi:10.1093/applin/amp038
Lee, E.-H. (2006). Dynamic and stative information in temporal reasoning: Interpretation of Korean past markers in narrative discourse. Journal of East Asian Linguistics, 16(1), 125. doi:10.1007/s10831-006-9003-z
Lewis, G. (2000). Turkish grammar (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Lindauer, T. (1998). Attributive genitive constructions in German. In Alexiadou, A. & Wilder, C. (Eds.), Possessors, predicates, and movement in the determiner phrase (pp. 109140). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Lu, X. (2010). Automatic analysis of syntactic complexity in second language writing. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics, 15(4), 474496. doi:10.1075/ijcl.15.4.02lu
Luk, Z. P., & Shirai, Y. (2009). Is the acquisition order of grammatical morphemes impervious to L1 knowledge? Evidence from the acquisition of plural -s, articles, and possessive ’s . Language Learning, 59(4), 721754. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9922.2009.00524.x
McCarthy, P. M., & Jarvis, S. (2010). MTLD, vocd-D, and HD-D: A validation study of sophisticated approaches to lexical diversity assessment. Behavior Research Methods, 42(2), 381392. doi:10.3758/BRM.42.2.381
Meisel, J. M. (2011). First and second language acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Michel, M. C., Kuiken, F., & Vedder, I. (2007). The influence of complexity in monologic versus dialogic tasks in Dutch L2. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, 45(3), 241259. doi:10.1515/IRAL.2007.011
Mooney, C. Z., & Duval, R. D. (1993). Bootstrapping: A nonparametric approach to statistical inference. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Müller, G. (2004). A distributed morphology approach to syncretism in Russian noun inflection. In Arnaudova, O., Browne, W., Rivero, M. L., & Stojanovic, D. (Eds.), Formal approaches to Slavic linguistics #12: The Ottawa meeting 2003 (pp. 353374). Ann Arbor: Michigan Slavic.
Nicholls, D. (2003). The Cambridge Learner Corpus: Error coding and analysis for lexicography and ELT. In Proceedings of the Corpus Linguistics 2003 (pp. 572581). Lancaster.
Odlin, T. (1989). Language transfer. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ortega, L. (2009). Understanding second language acquisition. London: Hodder Education.
Pica, T. (1983a). Adult acquisition of English as a second language under different conditions of exposure. Language Learning, 33(4), 465497. doi:10.1111/j.1467-1770.1983.tb00945.x
Pica, T. (1983b). Methods of morpheme quantification: Their effect on the interpretation of second language data. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 6(1), 6978. doi:10.1017/S0272263100000309
Pienemann, M. (1998). Language processing and second language development: Processability theory. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Plonsky, L., Egbert, J., & Laflair, G. T. (in press). Bootstrapping in applied linguistics: Assessing its potential using shared data. Applied Linguistics. doi:10.1093/applin/amu001
Robinson, P. (2001). Task complexity, task difficulty, and task production: Exploring interactions in a componential framework. Applied Linguistics, 22(1), 2757. doi:1093/applin/22.1.27
Shaw, S. D., & Weir, C. (2007). Examining writing: Research and practice in assessing second language writing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Shirai, Y. (1998a). The emergence of tense-aspect morphology in Japanese: Universal predisposition? First Language, 18(3), 281309. doi:10.1177/014272379801805403
Shirai, Y. (1998b). Where the progressive and the resultative meet: Imperfective aspect in Japanese, Chinese, Korean and English. Studies in Language, 22(3), 661692. doi:10.1075/sl.22.3.06shi
Slabakova, R. (2014). The bottleneck of second language acquisition. Foreign Language Teaching and Research, 46(4), 543559.
Slobin, D. I. (1996). From “thought to language” to “thinking for speaking.” In Gumperz, J. J. & Levinson, S. C. (Eds.), Rethinking linguistic relativity (pp. 7096). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Snape, N. (2005). The certain uses of articles in L2-English by Japanese and Spanish speakers. Durham and Newcastle Working Papers in Linguistics, 11, 155168.
Snape, N. (2008). Resetting the nominal mapping parameter in L2 English: Definite article use and the count-mass distinction. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 11(1), 6379. doi:10.1017/S1366728907003215
Tsimpli, I. M., & Dimitrakopoulou, M. (2007). The Interpretability Hypothesis: Evidence from wh-interrogatives in second language acquisition. Second Language Research, 23(2), 215242. doi:10.1177/0267658307076546
VanPatten, B. (1984). Morphemes and processing strategies. In Eckman, F., Bell, L., & Nelson, D. (Eds.), Universals and second language acquisition (pp. 8898). Cambridge, MA: Newbury House.
Weir, C., & Milanovic, M. (2003). Continuity and innovation: Revising the Cambridge Proficiency in English examination 1913–2002. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Yannakoudakis, H., Briscoe, T., & Medlock, B. (2011). A new dataset and method for automatically grading ESOL texts. In Proceedings of the 49th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (pp. 180189). Portland, Oregon, USA. June 19–24, 2011.
Yoon, K. K. (1993). Challenging prototype descriptions: Perception of noun countability and indefinite vs. zero article use. International Review of Applied Linguistics, 31(4), 269289.
Zdorenko, T., & Paradis, J. (2012). Article in child L2 English: When L1 and L2 acquisition meet at the interface. First Language, 32(1–2), 3862. doi:10.1177/0142723710396797
Zobl, H., & Liceras, J. (1994). Functional categories and acquisition orders. Language Learning, 44(1), 159180.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Studies in Second Language Acquisition
  • ISSN: 0272-2631
  • EISSN: 1470-1545
  • URL: /core/journals/studies-in-second-language-acquisition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed