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  • Gholam Hassan Khajavy (a1), Peter D. MacIntyre (a2) and Elyas Barabadi (a3)

The purpose of the present study was to examine the relations between emotions, classroom environment, and willingness to communicate (WTC) using the advanced quantitative methodological procedure of doubly latent multilevel analysis. To this end, 1528 secondary school students from 65 different classrooms in Iran participated in the study. Results of the doubly latent multilevel analysis showed that a positive classroom environment is related to fostering WTC and enjoyment, while it reduces anxiety among students. Moreover, enjoyment was found as an important factor in increasing WTC at both student and classroom level, while anxiety reduced WTC only at the student level. Finally, the results of the study are discussed and pedagogical implications are provided for language teachers.

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*Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Gholam Hassan Khajavy, Assistant Professor of Language Education, University of Bojnord, 4th km road to Esfarayen, Bojnord, Iran. E-mail:
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Authors would like to thank the SSLA editors Professor Susan Gass, Professor Bill VanPatten, Dr. Luke Plonsky, and three anonymous reviewers for providing us with insightful suggestions on earlier drafts of the paper. We are also grateful to Dr. Marko Lüftenegger, Professor Alexandre Morin, and Professor Herbert Marsh for answering our questions regarding doubly latent MLM.

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