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Frontal Lobotomy in Early Schizophrenia Long Follow-up in 415 Cases

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  29 January 2018

Walter Freeman*
Affiliation:
The George Washington University School of Medicine, Washington, D.C.

Extract

This is a report on 415 private patients who have been followed from four up to more than thirty years or until death. The operations were carried out before the end of twelve months of psychiatric hospitalization, not necessarily continuous. Many of the patients were operated upon more than once, especially in the earlier years before the importance of the orbitomedial quadrants of the brain was recognized.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Royal College of Psychiatrists, 1971 

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References

1. Burckhardt, G. (1890–91). Ueber Rindenexcisionen als Beitrag zur operativen Therapie der Psychosen. Allg. Ztschr. f. Psychiat., 47, 463548.Google Scholar
2. Fiamberti, A. M. (1937). Proposta di una tecnica operatoria modificata e scmplificata per gli interventi alla Moniz sui lobi frontali in malati di mente. Ross. Studi Psichiat., 26(2): 797.Google Scholar
3. Freeman, W. (1949). ‘Transorbital lobotomy: the deep frontal cut.’ Proc. Roy, Soc, Med., 42 Suppl. 812.Google Scholar
4. Freeman, W. and Watts, J. W. (1942; 2nd ed. 1950). Psychosurgery. Springfield, Ill., C. C. Thomas.Google Scholar
5. Freeman, W. and Williams, J. M. (1952). ‘Human sonar: The amygdaloid nucleus in relation to auditory hallucinations.’ J. nerv. and ment. Dis., 116, 456–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
6. Moniz, E. (1936). Tentatives opératoires dans le traitement de certaines psychoses. Paris, Masson.Google Scholar
7. Robinson, M. F., and Freeman, W. (1954). Psychosurgery and the Self. New York, Grune and Stratton.Google Scholar
8. Williams, J. M., and Freeman, W. (1953). ‘Evaluation of Lobotomy with Special Reference to Children.’ Res. Publ. Ass, Research in nerv. and ment, Dis., 31, 311.Google Scholar
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