Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-59b7f5684b-ns2hh Total loading time: 0.699 Render date: 2022-10-02T09:40:03.476Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "displayNetworkTab": true, "displayNetworkMapGraph": true, "useSa": true } hasContentIssue true

Screening Schoolchildren for High Risk of Emotional and Educational Disorder

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  29 January 2018

I. Kolvin
Affiliation:
Human Development Unit, University of Newcastle upon Tyne; and Nuffield Psychology and Psychiatry Unit at the Fleming Hospital, Great North Road, Newcastle upon Tyne
R. F. Garside
Affiliation:
Human Development Unit, University of Newcastle upon Tyne; and Nuffield Psychology and Psychiatry Unit at the Fleming Hospital, Great North Road, Newcastle upon Tyne
A. R. Nicol
Affiliation:
Human Development Unit, University of Newcastle upon Tyne; and Nuffield Psychology and Psychiatry Unit at the Fleming Hospital, Great North Road, Newcastle upon Tyne
I. Leitch
Affiliation:
Human Development Unit, University of Newcastle upon Tyne; and Nuffield Psychology and Psychiatry Unit at the Fleming Hospital, Great North Road, Newcastle upon Tyne
A. Macmillan
Affiliation:
Human Development Unit, University of Newcastle upon Tyne; and Nuffield Psychology and Psychiatry Unit at the Fleming Hospital, Great North Road, Newcastle upon Tyne

Abstract

Junior schoolchildren were screened for high risk of emotional and educational disorder. The information was gathered from the school, using standard and objective tests. The multiple criterion screen employed, comprised: (a) classroom behaviour scale (Rutter B Scale), rated by teachers; (b) sociometric tests; choice of companions by classmates. From these, lack of positive choices was taken as a measure of isolation and a high rate of negative choices, as a measure of rejection; (c) Reading quotient of 75 or below on the Young Reading Test; (d) Absence from school for reasons considered by teachers to be trivial.

The number of cases identified by the screening was found to be 322 children per thousand. They may be seen as representing a high risk rate.

Using extreme scores as indicative of high risk, approximately 17 per cent of children were identified on the basis of the behaviour test; 12 per cent by the reading test; 9 per cent by the isolation test; 8 per cent by the rejection test and 3 per cent by the absenteeism test. Seventy per cent of the identified children were rated clinically as disturbed. Absenteeism identified the smallest percentage of cases and made the smallest independent contribution to identification. Isolation was not impressively related to neurotic or antisocial beha viour. The three important criteria, therefore, were behaviour, rejection and reading.

Corrected disturbance rates for our population of 7-8-year-old children, including those not identified by the screen, were 6-8 per cent markedly maladjusted and 33.7 per cent somewhat maladjusted.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Royal College of Psychiatrists 1977 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Atwell, A. A., Orpet, R. E. & Meyers, C. E. (1967) Kindergarten behaviour ratings as a predictor of academic achievement. Journal of School Psychology, 6, 43–6.Google Scholar
Blau, A. (1946) The Master Hand. American Ortho-psychiatric Association Research Monographs, No. 5. New York.Google Scholar
Bower, E. M. (1960–69) Early Identification of Emotionally Handicapped Children in School, Springfield, Ill.: Thomas.Google Scholar
Caplan, G. (1964) Principles of Preventive Psychiatry, New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
Cohen, J. (1960) A coefficient of agreement for nominal scales. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 20, 3746.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cowen, E. L. & Zax, M. (1969) Early detection and prevention of emotional disorder: conceptualization and programming. In Research Contributions from Psychology to Community Mental Health (ed. Carter, J. W.). New York: Behavioral Publications.Google Scholar
Cowen, E. L., Dorr, D. A. & Orgel, A. R. (1971) Interrelations among screening measures for early detection of school dysfunction. Psychology in the Schools, 8, 135–9.3.0.CO;2-H>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cowen, E. L., Clarfield, S. P., Kreling, B., McWilliams, S. A., Pokracki, F., Pratt, D. M., Terrell, D. L. & Wilson, A. B. (1973) The AML: a quick screening device for early detection of school maladaption. American Journal of Community Psychology, 1, 1235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Critchley, M. (1962) Developmental dyslexia: a constitutional dyssymbolia. In Word Blindness or Specific Developmental Dyslexia (ed. Franklin, A. W.). Pitman.Google ScholarPubMed
Currie, S. F., Holtzman, W. H. & Swart, J. D. (1974) Early indicators of personality traits viewed retrospectively. Journal of School Psychology, 12, 51–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Feldhuzen, J. F., Thurston, J. R. & Benning, J. J. (1970) Aggressive classroom behaviour and school achievement. Journal of Special Education, 4, 431–9.Google Scholar
Forfar, J. O. (1968) Annotation. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 10, 384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gibson, H. B. & Hansen, R. (1969) Peer ratings as predictors of school behaviour and delinquency. British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 8, 313–22.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Grygier, T. (1975) Measurement of treatment potential. In Varieties of Residential Experience (eds Tizard, J., Sinclair, I. and Clark., R. V. G.) London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
Glueck, S. & Glueck, E. T. (1950) Unravelling Juvenile Delinquency. New York: The Commonwealth Fund.Google Scholar
Goldberg, D. P. (1972) The Detection of Psychiatric Illness by Questionnaire. Maudsley Monographs. Oxford: O.U.P.Google Scholar
Gronlund, N. E. (1959) Sociometry in the Classroom. Harper.Google Scholar
Hallworth, H.J. & Morrison, A. (1964) A comparison of peer and teacher personality ratings of pupils in a secondary modern school. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 34, 285–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hargreaves, D. H. (1967) Social Relations in a Secondary School. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harper, D. (1965) Some correlates of sociometric status among adolescent boys: Report to the study group on research methods in child development. (Unpublished; London School of Economics).Google Scholar
Harper, D. (1968) The reliability of measures of sociometric acceptance and rejection. Sociometry, 31, 219–27.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kendell, R. E. (1975) The Role of Diagnosis in Psychiatry. London: Blackwell.Google Scholar
Khlief, B. B. (1964) Teachers as predictors of juvenile delinquency. Social Problems, 11, 270–82.Google Scholar
Kolvin, I., Wolff, S., Barber, L. M., Tweddle, E. G., Garside, R. F., Scott, D. & Chambers, S. (1975) Dimensions of behaviour in infant school children. British Journal of Psychiatry, 126, 114–26.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kolvin, I., Garside, R. F., Nicol, A. R., Macmillan, A. & Wolstenholme, F. (1976) Maladjusted pupils in ordinary schools. Special Education: Forward Trends, 3(3), 1519.Google ScholarPubMed
Kolvin, I., Garside, R. F., Nicol, A. R., Macmillan, A., Wolstenholme, F. & Leitch, I. M. (1977) Familial and sociological correlates of behavioural and sociometric deviance in 8-year-old school children. In Epidemiology of Psychiatric Disorders of Childhood (ed. Graham, P.). Academic Press.Google Scholar
Macmillan, A., Walker, L., Garside, R. F., Kolvin, I., Leitch, I. & Nicol, A. R. The development and application of sociometric techniques for the identification of isolated and rejected children. (Submitted.) Google Scholar
Malmquist, E. (1958) Factors Related to Reading Disabilities in the First Grade of The Elementary School. Stockholm: Almquist and Wiksell.Google Scholar
Mischel, W. (1968) Personality and Assessment. London: John Wiley.Google Scholar
McKeown, T. (1968) Screening in Medical Care: Reviewing the Evidence. Nuffield Provincial Hospital Trust. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Mulligan, G., Douglas, J. W. B., Hamond, W. A. & Tizard, J. (1963) Delinquency and symptoms of maladjustment: the findings of a longitudinal study. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine, 56, 1083–6.Google ScholarPubMed
Neligan, G. A., Prudham, D. & Steiner, H. (1974) The Formative Years. Birth, Family and Development in Newcastle upon Tyne. Oxford University Press for Nuffield Provincial Hospital Trust. Oxford.Google Scholar
New York State Youth Commission (1952) Reducing Juvenile Delinquency: What New York Schools Can Do. Google Scholar
Northway, M. L. (1952) A Primer of Sociometry. Toronto: Toronto University Press.Google Scholar
Plowden, (1967) Children In Their Primary Schools. A report of the Central Advisory Council for Education. London: HMSO.Google Scholar
Pond, D. (1967) Communication disorders in braindamaged children. Proceedings of Royal Society of Medicine, 60, 343–8.Google Scholar
Power, M. J., Benn, R. T. & Morris, J. N. (1972) Neighbourhood school and juveniles before the courts. British Journal of Criminology, 12, 111–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reynolds, D., Jones, D. & St. Leger, S. (July 1976). Schools do make a difference. New Society, 223–5.Google Scholar
Richards, I. D. G. & Roberts, C. J. (1967) The ‘at risk’ infant. Lancet, ii, 711.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Robins, L. N. (1966) Deviant Children Grown Up. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins.Google Scholar
Robins, L. N. (1970) Follow-up studies investigating childhood disorders. In Psychiatric Epidemiology (eds Hare, E. and Wing, J. K.). Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Roff, M., Sells, S. B. & Golden, M. M. (1972) Social Adjustment and Personality Development in Children. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
Rogers, C. A. (1942) Mental health findings in three elementary schools. Educational Research Bulletin (Ohio State University), 21, No. 3.Google Scholar
Rogers, M. G. H. (1967) The risk register—a critical assessment. Medical Officer, 118, 253.Google Scholar
Rutter, M. (1967) A children's behaviour questionnaire for completion by teachers: preliminary findings. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 8, 111.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rutter, M., Tizard, J. & Whitmore, K. (1970) Education, Health and Behaviour. London: Longman.Google Scholar
Rutter, M., Yule, B., Quinton, D., Rowlands, O., Yule, W. & Berger, M. (1975) Attainment and adjustment in two geographical areas: III. Some factors accounting for area differences. British Journal of Psychiatry, 125, 520–33.Google Scholar
Semler, I. J. (1960) Relationships among several measures of pupil adjustment. Journal of Educational Psychology, 51, 60–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sheridan, M. D. (1962) Infants at risk of handicapping conditions. Monograph Bulletin of Mental Health, 21, 238.Google ScholarPubMed
Shepherd, M., Oppenheim, B. & Mitchell, S. (1971) Childhood Behaviour and Mental Health. University of London Press.Google Scholar
Skaberne, B., Blejec, M., Skalar, V. & Vodopivec, K. (1965) Criminal prevention and elementary school children. Revue de Criminologie, 16, 814.Google Scholar
Smith, L. M. (1958) The concurrent validity of six personality and adjustment tests for children. Psychological Monographs, 72.Google Scholar
Smith, A. (1972) Report to Symposium of W.H.O. Windsor.Google Scholar
Smith, A. (1972–74) Identifying high risk persons and groups. Medicine, 35, 2062–4.Google Scholar
Smith, A. (1972–74) Population screening for pre-symptomatic disease. Medicine, 35, 2058–60.Google Scholar
Spivack, G. & Swift, M. (1967) Devereux Elementary School Behaviour Rating Scale Manual, Devon, Pennsylvania: The Devereux Foundation.Google Scholar
Swift, M. & Spivack, G. (1968) The assessment of achievement related classroom behaviour. Journal of Special Education, 2, 137–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Swift, M. & Spivack, G. (1969) Achievement related classroom behaviour of secondary school normal and disturbed students. Exceptional Children, 36, 99104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tizard, J. (1968) Questionnaire measures of maladjustment: a postscript to the symposium. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 38, 913.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ullman, C. A. (1952) Identification of maladjusted school children. Public Health Monograph, 7.Google Scholar
Ullman, C. A. (1957) Teachers, peers and tests as predictors of adjustment. Journal of Educational Psychology, 48, 257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wedge, P. & Prosser, H. (1974) Born to Fail. London: Arrow Books.Google Scholar
Wrate, R., Nichol, A. & Kolvin, I. (1977) Reliability of clinical ratings of psychiatric disorder from standard case records. (In preparation.) Google Scholar
Young, D. (1968) Manual for the Group Reading Test. University of London Press.Google Scholar
Zax, M. & Cowen, E. L. (1969) Research in early detection and prevention of emotional dysfunction in young school children. In Current Topics in Clinical and Community Psychology, 1 (ed. Spielbergen, C. D.). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Submit a response

eLetters

No eLetters have been published for this article.
32
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Screening Schoolchildren for High Risk of Emotional and Educational Disorder
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Screening Schoolchildren for High Risk of Emotional and Educational Disorder
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Screening Schoolchildren for High Risk of Emotional and Educational Disorder
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *