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Cognitive–behavioural therapy for persistent and recurrent psychosis in people with schizophrenia-spectrum disorder: cost-effectiveness analysis

  • Mark van der Gaag (a1), A. Dennis Stant (a2), Kerstin J. K. Wolters (a3), Erik Buskens (a4) and Durk Wiersma (a5)...

Abstract

Background

Evidence on cost-effectiveness is important to make well-informed decisions regarding care delivery.

Aims

To determine the balance between costs and health outcomes of cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) compared with treatment as usual (TAU) in people with schizophrenia who have persistent and recurrent symptoms of psychosis. Trial number: ISRCTN57292778.

Method

A total of 216 people were randomised and followed up for 18 months. The primary clinical outcome measure was time functioning within the normal range. Normal functioning was defined as social functioning within the 95% range of the general population and no or minimal suffering and/or no or minimal affect on daily life of persistent psychotic symptoms. The difference in number of days was estimated. Using a societal perspective, cost differences were estimated and combined with clinical outcome to yield an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Uncertainty was accessed using bootstrapping and displayed by means of a cost-effectiveness acceptability curve.

Results

In the CBT group, participants experienced 183 days of normal social functioning, whereas the TAU group experienced 106 days. The ICER was e47 per day of normal functioning gained. Cognitive–behavioural therapy implies higher costs, yet results in better health outcomes. Sensitivity analyses showed that targeting individuals who have not been hospitalised before receiving CBT results in an ICER of e14 per day normal functioning gained.

Conclusions

Days of normal functioning improved in the CBT condition compared with TAU, but this gain in health was associated with additional societal costs.

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Copyright

Corresponding author

Mark van der Gaag, PhD, Professor of Clinical Psychology, VU University and EMGO Institute, Van der Boechorststraat 1, 1081 BT Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Email: m.van.der.gaag@psy.vu.nl

Footnotes

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This study was supported by grant 945-04-406 of the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development (ZonMW) and the contributions of the Universities of Groningen and Utrecht and the mental healthcare organisations Lentis, GGZ Drenthe, Mediant, Dimence, Altrecht, Parnassia and the Grote Rivieren.

Declaration of interest

None.

Footnotes

References

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Cognitive–behavioural therapy for persistent and recurrent psychosis in people with schizophrenia-spectrum disorder: cost-effectiveness analysis

  • Mark van der Gaag (a1), A. Dennis Stant (a2), Kerstin J. K. Wolters (a3), Erik Buskens (a4) and Durk Wiersma (a5)...

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Cognitive–behavioural therapy for persistent and recurrent psychosis in people with schizophrenia-spectrum disorder: cost-effectiveness analysis

  • Mark van der Gaag (a1), A. Dennis Stant (a2), Kerstin J. K. Wolters (a3), Erik Buskens (a4) and Durk Wiersma (a5)...
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