Lasalvia, A, Zoppei, S, van Bortel, T, Bonetto, C, Cristofalo, D, Wahlbeck, K, et al. Global pattern of experienced and anticipated discrimination reported by people with major depressive disorder: a cross-sectional survey. Lancet
2013; 381: 55–62.
Henderson, C, Thornicroft, G. Evaluation of the Time to Change programme in England 2008–2011. Br J Psychiatry
2013; 202 (suppl 55): s45–8.
Schomerus, G, Schwahn, C, Holzinger, A, Corrigan, PW, Grabe, HJ, Carta, MG, et al. Evolution of public attitudes about mental illness: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Acta Psychiatr Scand
2012; 125: 440–52.
Brohan, E, Elgie, R, Sartorius, N, Thornicroft, G. Self-stigma, empowerment and perceived discrimination among people with schizophrenia in 14 European countries: the GAMIAN-Europe study. Schizophr Res
2010; 122: 232–8.
Rüsch, N, Lieb, K, Bohus, M, Corrigan, PW. Self-stigma, empowerment, and perceived legitimacy of discrimination among women with mental illness. Psychiatr Serv
2006; 57: 399–402.
Corrigan, PW, Larson, JE, Rüsch, N. Self-stigma and the “why try” effect: impact on life goals and evidence-based practices. World Psychiatry
2009; 8: 75–81.
Link, BG, Mirotznik, J, Cullen, FT. The effectiveness of stigma coping orientations: can negative consequences of mental illness labeling be avoided?
J Health Soc Behav
1991; 32: 302–20.
Rüsch, N, Corrigan, PW, Wassel, A, Michaels, P, Olschewski, M, Wilkniss, S, et al. A stress-coping model of mental illness stigma: I. Predictors of cognitive stress appraisal. Schizophr Res
2009; 110: 59–64.
Rüsch, N, Corrigan, PW, Powell, K, Rajah, A, Olschewski, M, Wilkniss, S, et al. A stress-coping model of mental illness stigma: II. Emotional stress responses, coping behavior and outcome. Schizophr Res
2009; 110: 65–71.
Mittal, D, Sullivan, G, Chekuri, L, Allee, E, Corrigan, PW. Empirical studies of self-stigma reduction strategies: a critical review of the literature. Psychiatr Serv
2012; 63: 974–81.
Yanos, PT, Roe, D, Lysaker, PH. Narrative enhancement and cognitive therapy: a new group-based treatment for internalized stigma among persons with severe mental illness. Int J Group Psychother
2011; 61: 576–95.
Knight, MTD, Wykes, T, Hayward, P. Group treatment of perceived stigma and self-esteem in schizophrenia: a waiting list trial of efficacy. Behav Cogn Psychother
2006; 34: 305–18.
Lucksted, A, Drapalski, A, Calmes, C, Forbes, C, DeForge, B, Boyd, J. Ending self-stigma: pilot evaluation of a new intervention to reduce internalized stigma among people with mental illnesses. Psychiatr Rehab J
2011; 35: 51–4.
Luoma, JB, Kohlenberg, BS, Hayes, SC, Fletcher, L. Slow and steady wins the race: a randomized clinical trial of acceptance and commitment therapy targeting shame in substance use disorders. J Consult Clin Psychol
2012; 80: 43–53.
Sibitz, I, Provaznikova, K, Lipp, M, Lakeman, R, Amering, M. The impact of recovery-oriented day clinic treatment on internalized stigma: preliminary report. Psychiatry Res
2013; 209: 326–32.
Morrison, AP, Birchwood, M, Pyle, M, Flach, C, Stewart, SLK, Byrne, R, et al. Impact of cognitive therapy on internalised stigma in people with at-risk mental states. Br J Psychiatry
2013; 203: 140–5.
Chaudoir, SR, Fisher, JD. The disclosure processes model: understanding disclosure decision making and postdisclosure outcomes among people living with a concealable stigmatized identity. Psychol Bull
2010; 136: 236–56.
Pachankis, JE. The psychological implications of concealing a stigma: a cognitive-affective-behavioral model. Psychol Bull
2007; 133: 328–45.
Corrigan, PW, Morris, S, Larson, JE, Rafacz, J, Wassel, A, Michaels, P, et al. Self-stigma and coming out about one's mental illness. J Commun Psychol
2010; 38: 1–17.
Quinn, DM, Earnshaw, VA. Concealable stigmatized identities and psychological well-being. Soc Personal Psychol Compass
2013; 7: 40–51.
Corrigan, PW, Lundin, R. Don't Call Me Nuts! Coping with the Stigma of Mental Illness.
Recovery Press, 2001.
Corrigan, PW, Kosyluk, KA, Rüsch, N. Reducing self-stigma by coming out proud. Am J Public Health
2013; 103: 794–800.
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edn) . APA, 1994.
Corrigan, PW, Morris, SB, Michaels, PJ, Rafacz, JE, Rüsch, N. Challenging the public stigma of mental illness: a meta-analysis of outcome studies. Psychiatr Serv
2012; 63: 963–73.
Ritsher, JB, Otilingam, PG, Grajales, M. Internalized stigma of mental illness: psychometric properties of a new measure. Psychiatr Res
2003; 121: 31–49.
Rogers, ES, Chamberlin, J, Ellison, ML, Crean, T. A consumer-constructed scale to measure empowerment among users of mental health services. Psychiatr Serv
1997; 48: 1042–7.
Major, B, O'Brien, LT. The social psychology of stigma. Annu Rev Psychol
2005; 56: 393–421.
Hult, JR, Wrubel, J, Branstrom, R, Acree, M, Moskowitz, JT. Disclosure and nondisclosure among people newly diagnosed with HIV: an analysis from a stress and coping perspective. AIDS Patient Care STDS
2012; 26: 181–90.
Kaiser, CR, Major, B, McCoy, SK. Expectations about the future and the emotional consequences of perceiving prejudice. Pers Soc Psychol Bull
2004; 30: 173–84.
Lazarus, RS, Folkman, S. Stress, Appraisal, and Coping.
Rüsch, N, Müller, M, Lay, B, Corrigan, PW, Zahn, R, Schönenberger, T, et al. Emotional reactions to involuntary psychiatric hospitalization and stigma as a stressor among people with mental illness. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci
Hautzinger, M, Bailer, M. Allgemeine Depressionsskala [Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, German version].
Vacha–Haase, T, Thompson, B. How to estimate and interpret various effect sizes. J Couns Psychol
2004; 51: 473–81.
Henderson, C, Brohan, E, Clement, S, Williams, P, Lassman, F, Schauman, O, et al. Decision aid on disclosure of mental health status to an employer: feasibility and outcomes of a randomised controlled trial. Br J Psychiatry
2013; 203: 350–7.