Skip to main content Accesibility Help
×
×
Home

Perceived Depriving Parental Rearing and Depression

  • Carlo Perris (a1), W. A. Arrindell (a2), Hjördis Perris (a3), Martin Eisemann (a3), J. van der Ende (a4) and Lars von Knorring (a5)...
Abstract

Four groups of depressed patients 47 unipolars, 21 bipolars, 34 with neurotic-reactive depression, and 39 with unspecified depressive disorder completed, after recovery, the EMBU, a Swedish instrument aimed at assessing the experience of parental rearing practices. The results for three factors: “rejection”, “emotional warmth” and “over-protection” and the global judgement scores of “severity” and “consistency” in rearing attitudes were compared with those obtained from 205 healthy individuals. Depressed patients, particularly in the unipolar unspecified groups rated both parents lower than the controls on emotional warmth. Patients tended also to rate their parents as less consistent in their rearing attitudes. The variables emotional warmth and overprotection allowed 64% of the patients and 72 of the unipolar depressives to be classified correctly. These results, like those of previous studies, support the hypothesis that deprivation of love during childhood represents an important psychological risk factor in the background of depressive disorders.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Correspondence
References
Hide All
Arieti, S. Bemporad, J. (1978) Mild and Severe Depression. New York: Basic Books.
Arrindell, W. A., Emmelkamp, P. M. G. & Monsma, A. (1983a) Psychometric evaluation of an inventory for assessment of parental rearing practices. Acta Psychiatrica Svandinavica, 67, 163177.
Arrindell, W. A., Emmelkamp, P. M. G., Monsma, A. & Brilman, E. (1983b) The role of perceived parental rearing practices in the aetiology of phobic disorders: a controlled study. British Journal of Psychiatry, 143, 183187.
Arrindell, W. A., Emmelkamp, P. M. G., Perris, C., Eisemann, M., Perris, H., van der Ende, J., Ross, M., Benjaminsen, S., Gaszner, P. & Del Vecchio, M. (1985) Cross-national study of generalizability of patterns of parental rearing behaviour and attitudes: invariance of EMBU dimensional representations of healthy subjects from Australia, Denmark, Hungary, Italy and the Netherlands. Acta Psychiatric Scandinavica, submitted.
Ausubel, D. P., Balthazar, E., Rosenthal, I., Blackman, L., Schpoont, S. & Welkowitz, , (1954) Perceived parent attitudes as determinants of children's ego structure. Child Development, 25, 173183.
Ausubel, D. P. (1958) Theory and Problems of Child Development. New York: Grune & Stratton.
Bibring, E. (1953) The mechanism of depression. In Greenacre, P. (ed) Affective Disorders, New York: International Universities Press.
Blatt, S. J., Wein, S. J. & Chenron, E. (1979) Parental representations and depression in normal young adults. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 88, 388397.
Bowlby, J. (1969) Attachment and Loss, Vol 1: Attachment. New York: Basic Books.
Bowlby, J. (1973) Attachment and Loss, vol 2: Separation: anxiety and anger. New York: Basic Books.
Bowlby, J. (1980) Attachment and Loss, Vol 3: Loss, Sadness and Depression. London: Hogarth Press.
Brown, G. W., Harris, T. & Copeland, J. (1977) Depression and loss. British Journal of Psychiatry, 130, 118.
Clayer, J. R., Campbell, R. L. & Ross, M. E. (1984) Parental rearing and transient thought disorder in young adults. Psychopathology, 17, 916.
Crook, T. & Elliot, J. (1980) Parental death during childhood and adult depression, a critical review of the literature. Psychological Bulletin, 87, 252259.
d'Elia, G. von Knorring, L. & Perris, C. (1974) Non-psychotic depressive disorders: a ten year follow up. Acta Psychiatric Scandinavica, suppl 255, 173176.
Freud, S. (1917) Mourning and Melancholia. In Jones, E. Collected Papers, vol 4. London: Hogarth Press, 1950.
Gay, M. J. & Tonge, W. L. (1967) The late effects of loss of parents in childhood. British Journal of Psychiatry, 113, 753759.
Granville-Grossman, K. L. (1968) The early environment in affective disorders. In Coppen, A. & Walk, A. (eds) Recent developments in affective disorders. British Journal of Psychiatry Special Publication 2.
Jacobsson, L., Lindström, H., von Knorring, L. & Perris, H. (1980) Perceived parental behaviour and psychogenic needs. Archiv für Psychiatrie und Nervenkrankheiten, 233, 7788.
Jacobsson, S., Fasman, J. & Di Mascio, A. (1975) Deprivation in the childhood of depressed women. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 160, 514.
Lloyd, C. (1980) Life events and depressive disorders reviewed. I. Events as predisposing factors. Archives of General Psychiatry, 37, 529535.
Miller, A. (1981) Du sollst nicht merken. Zollikerberg.
Parker, G. (1979) Parental characteristics in relation to depressive disorders. British Journal of Psychiatry, 134, 138147.
Parker, G. (1981) Parental reports of depressives. Journal of Affective Disorders, 3, 131140.
Parker, G. (1983) Parental “affectionless control” as an antecedent to adult depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 40. 956960.
Perris, C. (1966) A study of bipolar and unipolar recurrent depressive psychosis. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica suppl, 194.
Perris, C. (1975) The bipolar unipolar dichotomy and the need for a consistent terminology. Neuropsychobiology, 1, 6569.
Perris, C. & Perris, H. (1978) Status within the family and early life experiences in patients with affective disorders and cycloid psychosis. Psychiatria clinica, 11, 155162.
Perris, C., Jacobsson, L., Lindström, H., von Knorring, L. & Perris, H. (1980) Development of a new inventory for assessing memories of parental rearing behaviour. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 61, 265274.
Perris, C., Eisemann, M., Ericsson, U., von Knorring, L. & Perris, H. (1983) Parental rearing behaviour and personality characteristics of depressed patients. Archiv für Psychiatrie und Nervenkrankheiten, 233, 7788.
Perris, C., Holmgren, S., von Knorring, L. & Perris, H. (1984) Parental loss by death in the early childhood of depressed patients and of their healthy siblings. British Journal of Psychiatry, 148, 165169.
Perris, H. (1983) Deprivation in childhood and live events in depression. Archiv für Psychiatrie und Nervenkrankheiten, 233, 489–98.
Perris, H. (1984) Life events and personality characteristics in depression. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 69, 350358.
Raskin, A., Boothe, H. H., Reatig, N. A., Schultenbrandt, J. G. & Cole, D. (1971) Factor analysis of normal and depressed patients' memories of parental behaviour. Psychological Reports, 29, 871879.
Ross, M. W., Cambell, R. L. & Clayer, J. R. (1982) New inventory for measurement of parental rearing patterns. An English form of the EMBU. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 66, 499507.
Ross, M. W., Clayer, J. R. & Campbell, R. L. (1983) Dimensions of childbearing practices. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 68, 476483.
Roy, A. (1978) Vulnerability factors and depression in women. British Journal of Psychiatry, 133, 106110.
Siegel, S. (1956) Non-parametric Statistics of the Behavioural sciences. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Tennant, C., Bebbington, P. & Hurry, J. (1980) Parental death in childhood and risk of adult depressive disorders. Psychological Medicine, 10, 289–99.
Wolfenstein, M. (1955) How is mourning possible? Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 21, 93123.
Wolkind, S. & Coleman, E. (1983). Adult psychiatric disorder and childhood experiences—the validity of retrospective data. British Journal of Psychiatry, 147, 188–91.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The British Journal of Psychiatry
  • ISSN: 0007-1250
  • EISSN: 1472-1465
  • URL: /core/journals/the-british-journal-of-psychiatry
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed

Perceived Depriving Parental Rearing and Depression

  • Carlo Perris (a1), W. A. Arrindell (a2), Hjördis Perris (a3), Martin Eisemann (a3), J. van der Ende (a4) and Lars von Knorring (a5)...
Submit a response

eLetters

No eLetters have been published for this article.

×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *