1Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Trends in aging--United States and worldwide. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2003; 52: 101.
2Whiteford, HA, Degenhardt, L, Rehm, J, Baxter, AJ, Ferrari, AJ, Erskine, HE, et al. Global burden of disease attributable to mental and substance use disorders: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet 2013; 382: 1575–86.
3Stubbs, B. Falls in older adult psychiatric patients: equipping nurses with knowledge to make a difference. J. Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs 2011; 18: 457–62.
4Correll, CU, Solmi, M, Veronese, N, Bortolato, B, Rosson, S, Santonastaso, P, et al. Prevalence, incidence and mortality from cardiovascular disease in patients with pooled and specific severe mental illness: a large-scale meta-analysis of 3,211,768 patients and 113,383,368 controls. World Psychiatry 2017; 16: 163–80.
5Lackamp, J, Schlachet, R, Sajatovic, M. Assessment and management of major depressive disorder in older adults. Psychiatr Danub 2016; 28 (suppl 1): 95–8.
6Bukh, JD, Bock, C, Vinberg, M, Gether, U, Kessing, LV. Differences between early and late onset adult depression. Clin Pract Epidemiol Ment Health 2011; 7: 140.
7Variend, H, Gopal, YV. Late-onset depression: issues affecting clinical care. Adv Psychiatr Treat 2008; 14: 152–8.
8Ulrich, L, Nogueira, EL, Teixeira, LM, Ely Filho, L. Early versus late-onset major depression in the elderly: a comparative study. Pan Am J Aging Res 2013; 1: 8–15.
9Seitz, D, Purandare, N, Conn, D. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders among older adults in long-term care homes: a systematic review. Int Psychogeriatr 2010; 22: 1025–39.
10Moher, D, Liberati, A, Tetzlaff, J, Altman, DG, Group, P. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. Int J Surg 2010; 8: 336–41.
11Stroup, DF, Berlin, JA, Morton, SC, Olkin, I, Williamson, GD, Rennie, D, et al. Meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology: a proposal for reporting. Meta-analysis Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) group. JAMA 2000; 283: 2008–12.
12Sajatovic, M, Strejilevich, SA, Gildengers, AG, Dols, A, Al Jurdi, RK, Forester, BP, et al. A report on older-age bipolar disorder from the International Society for Bipolar Disorders Task Force. Bipolar Disord 2015; 17: 689–704.
13Higgins, JP, Altman, DG, Gøtzsche, PC, Jüni, P, Moher, D, Oxman, AD, et al. The Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias in randomised trials. BMJ 2011; 343: d5928.
14Borenstein, M, Hedges, L, Higgins, J, Rothstein, H. Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Version 2. Biostat, 2005.
15Higgins, JP, Thompson, SG, Deeks, JJ, Altman, DG. Measuring inconsistency in meta-analyses. BMJ 2003; 327: 557–60.
16Begg, CB, Mazumdar, M. Operating characteristics of a rank correlation test for publication bias. Biometrics 1994; 50: 1088–101.
17Egger, M, Davey Smith, G, Schneider, M, Minder, C. Bias in meta-analysis detected by a simple, graphical test. BMJ 1997; 315: 629–34.
18Duval, S, Tweedie, R. Trim and fill: a simple funnel-plot-based method of testing and adjusting for publication bias in meta-analysis. Biometrics 2000; 56: 455–63.
19Falck, RP, Pot, AM, Braam, AW, Hanewald, GJ, Ribbe, MW. Prevalence and diagnosis of depression in frail nursing home patients; a pilot study [in Italian]. Tijdschr Gerontol Geriatr 1999; 30: 193–9.
20Class, CA, Unverzagt, FW, Gao, S, Hall, KS, Baiyewa, O, Hendrie, HC. Psychiatric disorders in African American nursing home residents. Am J Psychiatry 1996; 153: 677–81.
21Parmelee, PA, Katz, IR, Lawton, MP. Depression among institutionalized aged: assessment and prevalence estimation. J Gerontol 1989; 44: M22–9.
22Burrows, AB, Satlin, A, Salzman, C, Nobel, K, Lipsitz, LA. Depression in a long-term care facility: clinical features and discordance between nursing assessment and patient interviews. J Am Geriatr Soc 1995; 43: 1118–22.
23Junginger, J, Phelan, E, Cherry, K, Levy, J. Prevalence of psychopathology in elderly persons in nursing homes and in the community. Hosp Commun Psychiatry 1993; 44: 381–3.
24 Allgaier, AK, Kramer, D, Mergl, R, Fejtkova, S, Hegerl, U. Validity of the Geriatric Depression Scale in Nursing Home Residents: Comparison of GDS-15, GDS-8, and GDS-4 [in German and English]. Psychiatrische Praxis, 2011.
25Van Asch, IFM, Nuyen, J, Veerbeek, MA, Frijters, DHM, Achterberg, WP, Pot, AM. The diagnosis of depression and use of antidepressants in nursing home residents with and without dementia. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2013; 28: 312–8.
26Davison, TE, McCabe, MP, Knight, T, Mellor, D. Biopsychosocial factors related to depression in aged care residents. J Affect Disord 2012; 142: 290–6.
27Boorsma, M, Joling, K, Dussel, M, Ribbe, M, Frijters, D, Van Marwijk, HWJ, et al. The incidence of depression and its risk factors in dutch nursing homes and residential care homes. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 2012; 20: 932–42.
28Volicer, L, Frijters, DHM, Van Der Steen, JT. Underdiagnosis and undertreatment of depression in nursing home residents. Eur Geriatr Med 2011; 2: 332–7.
29Smalbrugge, M, Jongenelis, L, Pot, AM, Beekman, ATF, Eefsting, JA. Comorbidity of depression and anxiety in nursing home patients. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2005; 20: 218–26.
30Allgaier, AK, Kramer, D, Saravo, B, Mergl, R, Fejtkova, S, Hegerl, U. Beside the Geriatric Depression Scale: the WHO-Five Well-being Index as a valid screening tool for depression in nursing homes. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2013; 28: 1197–204.
31Tiong, WW, Yap, P, Huat Koh, GC, Phoon Fong, N, Luo, N. Prevalence and risk factors of depression in the elderly nursing home residents in Singapore. Aging Ment Health 2013; 17: 724–31.
32Lee, MJ, Hasche, LK, Choi, S, Proctor, EK, Morrow-Howell, N. Comparison of major depressive disorder and subthreshold depression among older adults in community long-term care. Aging Ment Health 2013; 17: 461–9.
33Drageset, J, Eide, GE, Ranhoff, AH. Anxiety and depression among nursing home residents without cognitive impairment. Scand J Caring Sci 2013; 27: 872–81.
34Leontjevas, R, Gerritsen, DL, Vernooij-Dassen, MJ, Teerenstra, S, Smalbrugge, M, Koopmans, RT. Nijmegen observer-rated depression scale for detection of depression in nursing home residents. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2012; 27: 1036–44.
35Chu, CL, Liang, CK, Chou, MY, Lin, YT, Pan, CC, Lu, T, et al. Decreased plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in institutionalized elderly with depressive disorder. J Am Med Dir Assoc 2012; 13: 434–7.
36Friedman, B, Delavan, RL, Sheeran, TH, Bruce, ML. The effect of major and minor depression on Medicare home healthcare services use. J Am Geriatr Soc 2009; 57: 669–75.
37Choi, NG, Ransom, S, Wyllie, RJ. Depression in older nursing home residents: the influence of nursing home environmental stressors, coping, and acceptance of group and individual therapy. Aging Ment Health 2008; 12: 536–47.
38George, K, Davison, TE, McCabe, M, Mellor, D, Moore, K. Treatment of depression in low-level residential care facilities for the elderly. Int Psychogeriatr 2007; 19: 1153–60.
39Damian, J, Valderrama-Gama, E, Rodriguez-Artalejo, F, Martin-Moreno, JM. Health and functional status among elderly individuals living in nursing homes in Madrid [in Spanish] Gac Sanit 2004; 18: 268–74.
40Anderson, RL, Buckwalter, KC, Buchanan, RJ, Maas, ML, Imhof, SL. Validity and reliability of the Minimun Data Set Depression Rating Scale (MDSDRS) for older adults in nursing homes. Age Ageing 2003; 32: 435–8.
41Harralson, TL, White, TM, Regenberg, AC, Kallan, MJ, Ten Have, T, Parmelee, PA, et al. Similarities and differences in depression among black and white nursing home residents. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 2002; 10: 175–84.
42Rabins, PV, Black, BS, Roca, R, German, P, McGuire, M, Robbins, B, et al. Effectiveness of a nurse-based outreach program for identifying and treating psychiatric illness in the elderly. J Am Med Assoc 2000; 283: 2802–9.
43Erlandsen, C. Clozapine for schizophrenia. Clinical effect, financial considerations, and quality requirements. Nord J Psychiatry 2000; 54: 143–8.
44Goodwin, PE, Smyer, MA. Accuracy of recognition and diagnosis of comorbid depression in the nursing home. Aging Ment Health 1999; 3: 340–50.
45Albrecht Junghans, RE, Espino, DV. Prevalence of depression in older Mexicans: a nursing home and community based study in Mexico City. Clin Gerontol 1998; 18: 11–8.
46Koenig, HG, Kuchibhatla, M. Use of health services by hospitalized medically III depressed elderly patients. Am J Psychiatry 1998; 155: 871–7.
47Laprise, R, Vezina, J. Diagnostic performance of the Geriatric Depression Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory with nursing home residents. Can J Aging 1998; 17: 401–13.
48Butler, R, Fonseka, S, Barclay, L, Sembhi, S, Wells, S. The mental health of nursing home residents: a New Zealand study. Aging Ment Health 1998; 2: 49–52.
49Gerety, MB, Williams, JW Jr, Mulrow, CD, Cornell, JE, Kadri, AA, Rosenberg, J, et al. Performance of case-finding tools for depression in the nursing home: influence of clinical and functional characteristics and selection of optimal threshold scores. J Am Geriatr Soc 1994; 42: 1103–9.
50Parmelee, PA, Lawton, M, Katz, IR. Psychometric properties of the Geriatric Depression Scale among the institutionalized aged. Psychol Assess 1989; 1: 331–8.
51Kay, D, Holding, T, Jones, B, Littler, S. Psychiatric morbidity in Hobart's dependent aged. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 1987; 21: 463–75.
52Hyer, LA, Hyer, E. Clinical depression in long-term care facilities: practical issues. Act Adapt Aging 1984; 6: 33–44.
53Streim, JE, Oslin, DW, Katz, IR, Smith, BD, DiFilippo, S, Cooper, TB, et al. Drug treatment of depression in frail elderly nursing home residents. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 2000; 8: 150–9.
54Bartels, SJ, Mueser, KT, Miles, KM. A comparative study of elderly patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in nursing homes and the community. Schizophr Res 1997; 27: 181–90.
55Austin, M-P, Mitchell, P, Goodwin, GM. Cognitive deficits in depression. Br J Psychiatry 2001; 178: 200–6.
56DeJesus, R. Utilization of antidepressant medications among elderly patients with depression: comparison between usual care and collaborative care using care managers. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 2013; 21: S130.
57Sanyal, C, Asbridge, M, Kisely, S, Sketris, I, Andreou, P. The utilization of antidepressants and benzodiazepines among people with major depression in Canada. Can J Psychiatry 2011; 56: 667–76.
58Dembling, BP, Chen, DT, Vachon, L. Life expectancy and causes of death in a population treated for serious mental illness. Psychiatr Serv 1999; 50: 1036–42.
59Chang, C-K, Hayes, RD, Perera, G, Broadbent, MT, Fernandes, AC, Lee, WE, et al. Life expectancy at birth for people with serious mental illness and other major disorders from a secondary mental health care case register in London. PloS One 2011; 6: e19590.
60Swann, AC. Antisocial personality and bipolar disorder: interactions in impulsivity and course of illness. Neuropsychiatry 2011; 1: 599.