Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Prevalence of common mental disorders in general practice attendees across Europe

  • Michael King (a1), Irwin Nazareth (a2), Gus Levy (a2), Carl Walker (a1), Richard Morris (a3), Scott Weich (a4), Juan Ángel Bellón-Saameño (a5), Berta Moreno (a6), Igor Švab (a7), Danica Rotar (a7), J. Rifel (a7), Heidi-Ingrid Maaroos (a8), Anu Aluoja (a8), Ruth Kalda (a8), Jan Neeleman (a9), Mirjam I. Geerlings (a9), Miguel Xavier (a10), Manuel Caldas de Almeida (a11), Bernardo Correa (a10) and Francisco Torres-Gonzalez (a6)...
Abstract
Background

There is evidence that the prevalence of common mental disorders varies across Europe.

Aims

To compare prevalence of common mental disorders in general practice attendees in six European countries.

Method

Unselected attendees to general practices in the UK, Spain, Portugal, Slovenia, Estonia and The Netherlands were assessed for major depression, panic syndrome and other anxiety syndrome. Prevalence of DSM–IV major depression, other anxiety syndrome and panic syndrome was compared between the UK and other countries after taking account of differences in demographic factors and practice consultation rates.

Results

Prevalence was estimated in 2344 men and 4865 women. The highest prevalence for all disorders occurred in the UK and Spain, and lowest in Slovenia and The Netherlands. Men aged 30–50 and women aged 18–30 had the highest prevalence of major depression; men aged 40–60 had the highest prevalence of anxiety, and men and women aged 40–50 had the highest prevalence of panic syndrome. Demographic factors accounted for the variance between the UK and Spain but otherwise had little impact on the significance of observed country differences.

Conclusions

These results add to the evidence for real differences between European countries in prevalence of psychological disorders and show that the burden of care on general practitioners varies markedly between countries.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Prevalence of common mental disorders in general practice attendees across Europe
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Prevalence of common mental disorders in general practice attendees across Europe
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Prevalence of common mental disorders in general practice attendees across Europe
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
Professor Michael King, Department of Mental Health Sciences, Royal Free and University College Medical School, Rowl and Hill Street, London NW3 2PF, UK. Email: m.king@medsch.ucl.ac.uk
References
Hide All
1 Wright, A. Depression. In Psychiatry and General Practice Today (eds Pullen, I, Wilkinson, G, Wright, A, Pereira Gray, D): 93111. Royal College of Psychiatrists & Royal College of General Practitioners, 1994.
2 Fernandez, LI, Torres, GF, Soria, M, Cuadros, C. Distribucion de los trastornos mentales en un area de salud mentale de Granada segun niveles de asistencia [Distribution of mental illnesses within levels of care in a mental health sector of Granada]. APySAM 1999; 2: 48.
3 Ormel, J, Oldehinkel, T, Brilman, E, vanden Brink, W. Outcome of depression and anxiety in primary care. A three-wave 3 1/2-year study of psychopathology and disability. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1993; 50: 759–66.
4 Vázquez-Barquero, JL, García, J, Simón, JA, Iglesias, C, Montejo, J, Herrán, A, Dunn, G. Mental health in primary care. An epidemiological study of morbidity and use of health resources. Br J Psychiatry 1997; 170: 529–35.
5 Jenkins, R. Minor psychiatric morbidity in employed young men and women and its contribution to sickness absence. Br J Ind Med 1985; 42: 147–54.
6 Ansseau, M, Fischler, B, Dierick, M, Mignon, A, Leyman, S. Prevalence and impact of generalized anxiety disorder and major depression in primary care in Belgium and Luxemburg: the GADIS study. Eur Psychiatry 2005; 20: 229–35.
7 Wittchen, HU. Generalized anxiety disorder: prevalence, burden, and cost to society. Depress Anxiety 2002; 16: 162–71.
8 Rollman, BL, Herbeck, BB, Reynolds, CF, Schulberg, HC, Shear, MK. A contemporary protocol to assist primary care physicians in the treatment of panic and generalized anxiety disorders. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 2003; 25: 7482.
9 Craske, MG, Roy-Byrne, P, Stein, MB, Donald-Sherbourne, C, Bystritsky, A, Katon, W, Sullivan, G. Treating panic disorder in primary care: a collaborative care intervention. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 2002; 24: 148–55.
10 Goldberg, DP, Huxley, P. Common Mental Disorders: A Bio-Social Model. Tavistock/Routledge, 1992.
11 King, M, Weich, S, Torres, F, Svab, I, Maaroos, H, Neeleman, J, Xavier, M, Morris, R, Walker, C, Bellon, JA, Moreno, B, Rotar, D, Rifel, J, Aluoja, A, Kalda, R, Geerlings, MI, Carraca, I, Caldas de Almeida, M, Vincente, B, Salidivio, S, Rioseco, P, Nazareth, I. Prediction of depression in European general practice attendees: the PREDICT study. BMC Public Health 2006; 6: 6.
12 Murphy, JM, Monson, RR, Olivier, DC, Sobol, AM, Leighton, AH. Affective disorders and mortality. A general population study. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1987; 44: 473–80.
13 Williams, P, Tarnopolsky, AHD and Shepherd, M. Minor psychiatric morbidity and general practice consultation: the West London Survey. Psychol Med Monogr Suppl 1986; 9: 137.
14 Spitzer, RL, Kroenke, K, Williams, JB. Validation and utility of a self-report version of PRIME-MD: the PHQ primary care study. Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders. Patient Health Questionnaire. JAMA 1999; 282: 1737–44.
15 Alonso, J, Angermeyer, MC, Bernert, S, Bruffaerts, R, Brugha, TS, Bryson, H, de Girolamo, G, Graaf, R, Demyttenaere, K, Gasquet, I, Haro, JM, Katz, SJ, Kessler, RC, Kovess, V, Lépine, JP, Ormel, J, Polidori, G, Russo, LJ, Vilagut, G, Almansa, J, Arbabzadeh-Bouchez, S, Autonell, J, Bernal, M, Buist-Bouwman, MA, Codony, M, Domingo-Salvany, A, Ferrer, M, Joo, SS, Martínez-Alonso, M, Matschinger, H, Mazzi, F, Morgan, Z, Morosini, P, Palacín, C, Romera, B, Taub, N, Vollebergh, WA; ESEMeD/MHEDEA 2000 Investigators, European Study of the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders (ESEMeD) Project. Prevalence of mental disorders in Europe: results from the European Study of the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders (ESEMeD) project. Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl 2004 (420): 21–7.
16 Kendler, KS, Myers, J, Prescott, CA. Sex differences in the relationship between social support and risk for major depression: a longitudinal study of opposite-sex twin pairs. Am J Psychiatry 2005; 162: 250–6.
17 Staley, JK, Sanacora, G, Tamagnan, G et al. Sex differences in diencephalon serotonin transporter availability in major depression. Biol Psychiatry 2006; 59: 40–7.
18 Olfson, M, Shea, S, Feder, A, Fuentes, M, Nomura, Y, Gameroff, M, Weissman, MM. Prevalence of anxiety, depression, and substance use disorders in an urban general medicine practice. Arch Fam Med 2000; 9: 876–83.
19 Blazer, DG, Kessler, RC, McGonagle, KA, Swartz, MS. The prevalence and distribution of major depression in a national community sample: the National Comorbidity Survey. Am J Psychiatry 1994; 151: 979–86.
20 Gusmao, RM, Xavier, M, Heitor, MJ, Bento, A, Almeida, JM. [Depressive disorder burden: global epidemiological issues and information needs in Portugal]. Acta Med Port 2005; 18: 129–46.
21 Aragones, E, Gutierez, MA, Pino, M, Lucena, C, Cervera, J, Garreta, I. Prevalencia y características de la depresión mayor y la distimia en atención primaria [Prevalence and characteristics of major depression and dysthymia in primary care]. Atencion Primaria 2001; 27: 623–8.
22 Copeland, JR, Beekman, AT, Dewey, ME, Hooijer, C, Jordan, A, Lawlor, BA, Lobo, A, Magnusson, H, Mann, AH, Meller, I, Prince, MJ, Reischies, F, Turrina, C, deVries, MW, Wilson, KC. Depression in Europe. Geographical distribution among older people. Br J Psychiatry 1999; 174: 312–21.
23 Lepine, JP, Gastpar, M, Mendlewicz, J, Tylee, A. Depression in the community: the first pan-European study DEPRES (Depression Research in European Society). Int Clin Psychopharmacol 1997; 12: 1929.
24 Simon, GE. Evidence review: efficacy and effectiveness of antidepressant treatment in primary care. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 2002; 24: 213–24.
25 Wittchen, HU, Hofler, M, Meister, W. Prevalence and recognition of depressive syndromes in German primary care settings: poorly recognized and treated? Int Clin Psychopharmacol 2001; 16: 121–35.
26 Fernández, A, Haro, JM, Martinez-Alonso, M, Demyttenaere, K, Brugha, TS, Autonell, J, De Girolamo, G, Bernert, S, Lépine, JP, Alonso, J. Treatment adequacy for anxiety and depressive disorders in six European countries. Br J Psychiatry 2007; 190: 172–3.
27 Bellon, JA, Lardelli, P, Luna, JD, Delgado, A. Validity of self reported utilisation of primary health care services in an urban population in Spain. J Epidemiol Community Health 2000; 54: 544–51.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The British Journal of Psychiatry
  • ISSN: 0007-1250
  • EISSN: 1472-1465
  • URL: /core/journals/the-british-journal-of-psychiatry
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×
Type Description Title
UNKNOWN
Supplementary materials

King et al. supplementary material
Supplementary Material

 Unknown (624 bytes)
624 bytes
PDF
Supplementary materials

King et al. supplementary material
Supplementary Table S1-S4

 PDF (45 KB)
45 KB

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed

Prevalence of common mental disorders in general practice attendees across Europe

  • Michael King (a1), Irwin Nazareth (a2), Gus Levy (a2), Carl Walker (a1), Richard Morris (a3), Scott Weich (a4), Juan Ángel Bellón-Saameño (a5), Berta Moreno (a6), Igor Švab (a7), Danica Rotar (a7), J. Rifel (a7), Heidi-Ingrid Maaroos (a8), Anu Aluoja (a8), Ruth Kalda (a8), Jan Neeleman (a9), Mirjam I. Geerlings (a9), Miguel Xavier (a10), Manuel Caldas de Almeida (a11), Bernardo Correa (a10) and Francisco Torres-Gonzalez (a6)...
Submit a response

eLetters

No eLetters have been published for this article.

×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *