Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Psychiatric Disorder in Women from an Edinburgh Community: Associations with Demographic Factors

  • P. G. Surtees (a1), C. Dean (a1), J. G. Ingham (a1), N. B. Kreitman (a1), P. McC. Miller (a1) and S. P. Sashidharan (a1)...
Summary

The prevalence of psychiatric disorder was determined according to alternative diagnostic criteria in a random sample of 576 women from an Edinburgh community. Whichever diagnostic system was applied, significantly higher rates of disorder were found among the working class, the unemployed and women who were divorced, widowed, separated or cohabiting; in the subgroup of women who met all these conditions, up to half were found to satisfy the diagnostic criteria. The observed prevalence estimates can be explained as the effects of each demographic factor acting independently, no interaction effects being needed. Our results are discussed in relation to the findings of others, and in terms of the statistical issues involved.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Bagley, C. (1973) Occupational class and symptoms of depression. Social Science and Medicine, 7, 327–40.
Bebbington, P., Hurry, J., Tennant, C., Sturt, E. & Wing, J. K. (1981) Epidemiology of mental disorders in Camberwell. Psychological Medicine, 11, 561–79.
Brown, G. W. & Harris, T. O. (1978) Social Origins of Depression: A Study of Psychiatric Disorder in Women. London: Tavistock.
Brown, G. W. & Prudo, R. (1981) Psychiatric disorder in a rural and an urban population: 1. Aetiology of depression. Psychological Medicine, 11, 581–99.
Buglass, D., Duffy, J. & Kreitman, N. (1980) A Register of Social and Medical Indices by Local Government Area in Edinburgh and the Lothians, Parts I and II. Central Research Unit Paper, Scottish Office.
Cohen, J. (1960) A coefficient of agreement for nominal scales. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 20, 3746.
Cooper, J. E., Copeland, J. R. M., Brown, G. W., Harris, T. & Gourlay, A. J. (1977) Further studies on interviewer training and inter-rater reliability of the Present State Examination. Psychological Medicine, 7, 517–23.
Dean, C., Surtees, P. G. & Sashidharan, S. P. Comparison of research diagnostic systems in an Edinburgh community sample. (In Press. British Journal of Psychiatry).
Dohrenwend, B. P. & Dohrenwend, B. S. (1969) Social Status and Psychological Disorder: A Causal Inquiry. New York: Wiley-Interscience.
Eastwood, M. R. (1981) Editorial. Epidemiology and depression. Psychological Medicine, 11, 229–34.
Everitt, B. S. & Smith, A. M. R. (1979) Interactions in contingency tables: a brief discussion of alternative definitions. Psychological Medicine, 9, 581–3.
Faris, R. & Dunham, H. W. (1939) Mental Disorders in Urban Areas. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Fienberg, S. E. (1977) The Analysis of Cross-Classified Categorical Data. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Finlay-Jones, R., Brown, G. W., Duncan-Jones, P., Harris, T., Murphy, E. & Prudo, R. (1980) Depression and anxiety in the community: replicating the diagnosis of a case. Psychological Medicine, 10, 445–54.
Galtung, J. (1967) Theory and Methods of Social Research. London: Allen & Unwin.
Goldthorpe, J. & Hope, K. (1974) The Social Grading of Occupations: A New Approach and Scale. London: Oxford University Press.
Grizzle, J. E., Starmer, C. F. & Koch, G. G. (1969) Analysis of categorical data by linear models. Biometrics, 25, 489504.
Hollingshead, A. B. & Redlich, F. C. (1958) Social Class and Mental Illness: A Community Study. New York: Wiley.
Kish, L. (1965) Survey Sampling. New York: Wiley.
Langner, T. & Michael, S. (1963) Life Stress and Mental Health. New York: Free Press.
Noyes, A. & Kolb, L. (1958) Modern Clinical Psychiatry, 5th Ed. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders.
Office of Population Censuses and Surveys (1970) Classification of Occupations, 1970. London: HMSO.
Spitzer, R. L., Endicott, J. & Robins, E. (1978) Research Diagnostic Criteria: Rationale and reliability. Archives of General Psychiatry, 35, 773–82.
Srole, L., Langner, T. S., Michael, S. T., Opler, M. K. & Rennie, T. A. C. (1962) Mental Health in the Metropolis. New York. McGraw-Hill.
Sturt, E., Bebbington, P., Hurry, J. & Tennant, C. (1981) The Present State Examination used by interviewers from a survey agency: Report from the MRC Camberwell Community Survey. Psychological Medicine, 11, 185–92.
Uhlenhuth, E. H., Lipmann, R. S., Balter, M. B. & Stern, M. (1974) Symptom intensity and life stress in the city. Archives of General Psychiatry, 31, 759–64.
Warheit, G. J., Holzer, C. E. & Schwab, J. J. (1973) An analysis of social class and racial differences in depressive symptomatology: A community study. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 14, 291–9.
Weissman, M. M. & Myers, J. K. (1978a) Rates and risks of depressive symptoms in a United States urban community. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 57, 219–31.
Weissman, M. M. & Myers, J. K. (1978b) Affective disorders in a US urban community: the use of Research Diagnostic Criteria in an epidemiological survey. Archives of General Psychiatry, 35, 1304–14.
Weissman, M. M. & Myers, J. K. (1980) Psychiatric disorders in a US community. The application of Research Diagnostic Criteria to a resurveyed community sample. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 62, 99111.
Wing, J. K., Cooper, J. E. & Sartorius, N. (1974) The Measurement and Classification of Psychiatric Symptoms. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Wing, J. K., Henderson, A. S. & Winckle, M. (1977a) The rating of symptoms by a psychiatrist and a non-psychiatrist: a study of patients referred from general practice. Psychological Medicine, 7, 713–15.
Wing, J. K., Nixon, J. M., Mann, S. A. & Leff, J. P. (1977b). Reliability of the PSE (ninth edition) used in a population study. Psychological Medicine, 5, 505–16.
Wing, J. K. & Sturt, E. (1978) The PSE-ID-CATEGO System: Supplementary Manual. London: MRC Social Psychiatry Unit.
Woodruff, R. A., Robins, L. N., Winokur, G. & Reich, T. (1971). Manic-depressive illness and social achievement. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 47, 237–49.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The British Journal of Psychiatry
  • ISSN: 0007-1250
  • EISSN: 1472-1465
  • URL: /core/journals/the-british-journal-of-psychiatry
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 2 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 62 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 29th January 2018 - 22nd June 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Psychiatric Disorder in Women from an Edinburgh Community: Associations with Demographic Factors

  • P. G. Surtees (a1), C. Dean (a1), J. G. Ingham (a1), N. B. Kreitman (a1), P. McC. Miller (a1) and S. P. Sashidharan (a1)...
Submit a response

eLetters

No eLetters have been published for this article.

×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *