Chang, CK, Hayes, RD, Perera, G, Broadbent, MTM, Fernandes, AC, Lee, WE, et al. Life expectancy at birth for people with serious mental illness and other major disorders from a secondary mental health care case register in London. PLoS One
2011; 6: e19590.
Lawrence, D, Hancock, KJ, Kisely, S. The gap in life expectancy from preventable physical illness in psychiatric patients in Western Australia: retrospective analysis of population based registers. BMJ
2013; 346: f2539.
Laursen, TM, Wahlbeck, K, Hallgren, J, Westman, J, Osby, U, Alinaghizadeh, H, et al. Life expectancy and death by diseases of the circulatory system in patients with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia in the Nordic countries. PLoS One
2013; 8: e67133.
Chesney, E, Goodwin, GM, Fazel, S. Risks of all-cause and suicide mortality in mental disorders: a meta-review. World Psychiatry
2014; 13: 153–60.
Brown, S, Kim, M, Mitchell, C, Inskip, H. Twenty-five year mortality of a community cohort with schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry
2010; 196: 116–21.
De Hert, M, Detraux, J, van Winkel, R, Yu, W, Correll, CU. Metabolic and cardiovascular adverse effects associated with antipsychotic drugs. Nature Rev Endocrinol
2012; 8: 114–26.
Scott, KM, Wu, B, Saunders, K, Benjet, C, He, Y, Lepine, JP, et al. Early-onset mental disorders and their links to chronic physical conditions in adulthood. In The Burdens of Mental Disorders: Global Perspectives from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys (eds Alonso, J, Chatterji, S, He, Y): pp 87–96. Cambridge University Press, 2013.
Lawrence, D, Kisely, S. Inequalities in healthcare provision for people with severe mental illness. J Psychopharmacol
2010; 24 (suppl 4): 61–8.
Bailey, S, Thorpe, L, Smith, G. Whole-Person Care: From Rhetoric to Reality (Achieving Parity Between Mental and Physical Health). . Royal College of Psychiatrists, 2013.
Liao, CC, Shen, WW, Chang, CC, Chang, H, Chen, TL. Surgical adverse outcomes in patients with schizophrenia: a population-based study. Ann Surg
2013; 257: 433–8.
Goodman, RA, Posner, SF, Huang, ES, Parekh, AK, Koh, HK. Defining and measuring chronic conditions: imperatives for research, policy, program, and practice. Prev Chronic Dis
2013; 10: E66.
Moher, D, Liberati, A, Tetzlaff, J, Altman, DG, Group, PRISMA. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA Statement. PLoS Med
2009; 6: e1000097.
De Hert, M, Correll, CU, Bobes, J, Cetkovich-Bakmas, M, Cohen, D, Asai, I, et al. Physical illness in patients with severe mental disorders. Prevalence, impact of medications and disparities in health care. World Psychiatry
2011; 10: 52–77.
Tosh, G, Clifton, A, Mala, S, Bachner, M. Physical health care monitoring for people with serious mental illness. Cochrane Database Syst Rev
2010; 3: CD008298.
Tosh, G, Clifton, AV, Xia, J, White, MM. Physical health care monitoring for people with serious mental illness. Cochrane Database Syst Rev
2014; 1: CD008298.
Shea, BJ, Grimshaw, JM, Wells, GA, Boers, M, Andersson, N, Hamel, C, et al. Development of AMSTAR: a measurement tool to assess the methodological quality of systematic reviews. BMC Med Res Methodol
2007; 7: 10.
Shea, BJ, Hamel, C, Wells, GA, Bouter, LM, Kristjansson, E, Grimshaw, J, et al. AMSTAR is a reliable and valid measurement tool to assess the methodological quality of systematic reviews. J Clin Epidemiol
2009; 62: 1013–20.
National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health. Core Interventions in the Treatment and Management of Schizophrenia in Primary and Secondary Care (Update). National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, 2009.
Weinmann, S, Read, J, Aderhold, V. Influence of antipsychotics on mortality in schizophrenia: systematic review. Schizophr Res
2009; 113: 1–11.
Von Ruden, AE, Adson, DE, Kotlyar, M. Effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Therap
2008; 13: 32–40.
Jones, C, Hacker, D, Cormac, I, Meaden, A, Irving, CB. Cognitive behaviour therapy versus other psychosocial treatments for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev
2012; 4: CD008712.
Joukamaa, M, Heliovaara, M, Knekt, P, Aromaa, A, Raitasalo, R, Lehtinen, V. Schizophrenia, neuroleptic medication and mortality. Br J Psychiatry
2006; 188: 122–7.
Haukka, J, Tiihonen, J, Harkanen, T, Lonnqvist, J. Association between medication and risk of suicide, attempted suicide and death in nationwide cohort of suicidal patients with schizophrenia. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf
2008; 17: 686–96.
Tiihonen, J, Walhbeck, K, Lonnqvist, J, Klaukka, T, Loannidis, JPA, Volavka, J, et al. Effectiveness of antipsychotic treatments in a nationwide cohort of patients in community care after first hospitalisation due to schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder: observational follow-up study. BMJ
2006; 333: 224.
Cohen, HW, Gibson, G, Alderman, MH. Excess risk of myocardial infarction in patients treated with antidepressant medications: association with use of tricyclic agents. Am J Med
2000; 108: 2–8.
Xiong, GL, Jiang, W, Clare, R, Shaw, LK, Smith, PK, Mahaffey, KW, et al. Prognosis of patients taking selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors before coronary artery bypass grafting. Am J Cardiol
2006; 98: 42–7.
Tiihonen, J, Lonnqvist, J, Wahlbeck, K, Klaukka, T, Tanskanen, A, Haukka, J. Antidepressants and the risk of suicide, attempted suicide, and overall mortality in a nationwide cohort. Arch Gen Psychiatry
2006; 63: 1358–67.
Malone, D, Marriott, S, Newton-Howes, G, Simmonds, S, Tyrer, P. Community mental health teams (CMHTs) for people with severe mental illnesses and disordered personality. Cochrane Database Syst Rev
2007; 3: CD000270.
Dieterich, M, Irving, CB, Park, B, Marshall, M. Intensive case management for severe mental illness. Cochrane Database Syst Rev
2010; 10: CD007906.
Tosh, G, Clifton, AV, Xia, J, White, MM. General physical health advice for people with serious mental illness. Cochrane Database Syst Rev
2014; 3: CD008567.
Gierisch, JM, Nieuwsma, JA, Bradford, DW, Wilder, CM, Mann-Wrobel, MC, McBroom, AJ, et al. Interventions To Improve Cardiovascular Risk Factors in People With Serious Mental Illness.
. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 2013.
Hunt, GE, Siegfried, N, Morley, K, Sitharthan, T, Cleary, M. Psychosocial interventions for people with both severe mental illness and substance misuse. Cochrane Database Syst Rev
2013; 10: CD001088.
Danavall, L, Druss, B. Medical Self-Management for Improving Health Behaviour Among Individuals in Community Health Settings. National Institute of Mental Health, 2007.
Druss, BG, von Esenwein, SA, Compton, MT, Rask, KJ, Zhao, L, Parker, RM. A randomized trial of medical care management for community mental health settings: the Primary Care Access, Referral, and Evaluation (PCARE) study. Am J Psychiatry
2010; 167: 151–9.
Forsberg, KA, Bjorkman, T, Sandman, PO, Sandlund, M. Physical health – a cluster randomized controlled lifestyle intervention among persons with a psychiatric disability and their staff. Nord J Psychiatry
2008; 62: 486–95.
Caemmerer, J, Correll, CU, Christoph, U, Maayan, L. Acute and maintenance effects of non-pharmacologic interventions for antipsychotic associated weight gain and metabolic abnormalities: a meta-analytic comparison of randomized controlled trials. Schizophr Res
2012; 140: 159–68.
Galletly, CL, Murray, LE. Managing weight in persons living with severe mental illness in community settings: a review of strategies used in community interventions. Issues Ment Health Nurs
2009; 30: 660–8.
Verhaeghe, N, De Maeseneer, J, Maes, L, Van Heeringen, C, Annemans, L. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of lifestyle interventions on physical activity and eating habits in persons with severe mental disorders: a systematic review. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act
2011; 8: 28.
Van Hasselt, FM, Krabbe, PF, van Ittersum, DG, Postma, MJ, Loonen, AJ. Evaluating interventions to improve somatic health in severe mental illness: a systematic review. Acta Psychiatr Scand
2013; 128: 251–60.
Cabassa, LJ, Ezell, JM, Lewis-Fernandez, R. Lifestyle interventions for adults with serious mental illness: a systematic literature review. Psychiatr Serv
2010; 61: 774–82.
Alvarez-Jimenez, M, Hetrick, SE, Gonzalez-Blanch, C, Gleeson, JF, McGorry, PD. Non-pharmacological management of antipsychotic-induced weight gain: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Br J Psychiatry
2008; 193: 101–7.
Faulkner, G, Cohn, T, Remington, G. Interventions to reduce weight gain in schizophrenia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev
2007; 1: CD005148.
Kisely, S, Campbell, LA. Use of smoking cessation therapies in individuals with psychiatric illness: an update for prescribers. CNS Drugs
2008; 22: 263–73.
Cullen, BA, McGinty, EE, Zhang, Y, dosReis, SC, Steinwachs, DM, Guallar, E, et al. Guideline-concordant antipsychotic use and mortality in schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull
2013; 39: 1159–68.
Tiihonen, J, Lönnqvist, J, Wahlbeck, K, Klaukka, T, Niskanen, L, Tanskanen, A, et al. 11-year follow-up of mortality in patients with schizophrenia: a population-based cohort study (FIN11 study). Lancet
2009; 374: 620–7.
Scherrer, JF, Garfield, LD, Lustman, PJ, Hauptman, PJ, Chrusciel, T, Zeringue, A, et al. Antidepressant drug compliance: reduced risk of MI and mortality in depressed patients. Am J Med
2011; 124: 318–24.
De Hert, M, Correll, CU, Cohen, D. Do antipsychotic medications reduce or increase mortality in schizophrenia? A critical appraisal of the FIN-11 study. Schizophr Res
2010; 117: 68–74.
Wozniak, G, Toska, A, Saridi, M, Mouzas, O. Serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants (SSRIs) against atherosclerosis. Med Sci Monitor
2011; 17: RA205–14.
Tecco, J, Monreal, J, Staner, L. Citalopram may reduce sympathoadrenal hyperactivity in elderly depressed patients: an open multicenter study in Belgium and Luxembourg. Psychiatr Danub
2011; 23 (suppl 1): s35–42.
Tseng, YL, Chiang, ML, Huang, TF, Su, KP, Lane, HY, Lai, YC. A selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, citalopram, inhibits collagen-induced platelet aggregation and activation. Thromb Res
2010; 126: 517–23.
Sauer, WH, Berlin, JA, Kimmel, SE. Selective serotine reuptake inhibitors and myocardial infarction. Circulation
2001; 104: 1894–8.
Sauer, WH, Berlin, JA, Kimmel, SE. Effect of antidepressants and their relative affinity for the serotonin transporter on the risk of myocardial infarction. Circulation
2003; 108: 32–6.
Schlienger, RG, Fischer, LM, Jick, H. Current use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and risk of acute myocardial infarction. Drug Saf
2004; 27: 1157–65.
Charlson, FJ, Stapelberg, NJC, Baxter, AJ, Whiteford, HA. Should global burden of disease estimates include depression as a risk factor for coronary heart disease?
2011; 9: 47.
Strine, TW, Mokdad, AH, Dube, SR, Balluz, LS, Gonzalez, O, Berry, JT, et al. The association of depression and anxiety with obesity and unhealthy behaviors among community-dwelling US adults. Gen Hosp Psychiatry
2008; 30: 127–37.
Smoller, JW, Allison, M, Cochrane, BB, Curb, JD, Perlis, RH, Robinson, JG, et al. Antidepressant use and risk of incident cardiovascular morbidity and mortality among postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Initiative study. Arch Intern Med
2009; 169: 2128–39.
Gallo, JJ, Morales, KH, Bogner, HR, Raue, PJ, Zee, J, Bruce, ML, et al. Long term effect of depression care management on mortality in older adults: follow-up of cluster randomized clinical trial in primary care. BMJ
2013; 346: f2570.
White, J, Gray, RJ, Swift, L, Barton, GR, Jones, M. The serious mental illness health improvement profile (HIP): study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial. Trials
2011; 12: 167.
Gaughran, F, Stahl, D, Ismail, K, Atakan, Z, Lally, J, Gardner-Sood, P, et al. Improving physical health and reducing substance use in psychosis – randomised control trial (IMPACT RCT): study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial. BMC Psychiatry
2013; 13: 263.
Allison, DB, Newcomer, JW, Dunn, AL, Blumenthal, JA, Fabricatore, AN, Daumit, GL, et al. Obesity among those with mental disorders: a National Institute of Mental Health meeting report. Am J Prevent Med
2009; 36: 341–50.
Department of Health. No Health Without Mental Health. A Cross-Government Mental Health Outcomes Strategy for People of All Ages. Department of Health, 2011.
Crump, C, Winkleby, MA, Sundquist, K, Sundquist, J. Comorbidities and mortality in persons with schizophrenia: a Swedish national cohort study. Am J Psychiatry
2013; 170: 324–33.
Kisely, S, Smith, M, Lawrence, D, Cox, M, Campbell, LA, Maaten, S. Inequitable access for mentally ill patients to some medically necessary procedures. CMAJ
2007; 176: 779–84.
Kisely, S, Campbell, LA, Wang, Y. Treatment of ischaemic heart disease and stroke in individuals with psychosis under universal healthcare. Br J Psychiatry
2009; 195: 545–50.
Laursen, T, Munk-Olsen, T, Agerbo, E, Gasse, C, Mortensen, P. Somatic hospital contacts, invasive cardiac procedures, and mortality from heart disease in patients with severe mental disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry
2009; 66: 713–20.
Mitchell, AJ, Lord, O. Do deficits in cardiac care influence high mortality rates in schizophrenia? A systematic review and pooled analysis. J Psychopharmacol
2010; 24 (suppl 4): 69–80.
Cohn, TA, Sernyak, MJ. Metabolic monitoring for patients treated with antipsychotic medications. Can J Psychiatry
2006; 51: 492–501.
Barnett, AH, Mackin, P, Chaudhry, I, Farooqi, A, Gadsby, R, Heald, A, et al. Minimising metabolic and cardiovascular risk in schizophrenia: diabetes, obesity and dyslipidaemia. J Psychopharmacol
2007; 21: 357–73.
Hasnain, M, Vieweg, WVR, Fredrickson, SK, Beatty-Brooks, M, Fernandez, A, Pandurangi, AK. Clinical monitoring and management of the metabolic syndrome in patients receiving atypical antipsychotic medications. Prim Care Diabetes
2009; 3: 5–15.
Mackin, P, Bishop, DR, Watkinson, HM. A prospective study of monitoring practices for metabolic disease in antipsychotic-treated community psychiatric patients. BMC Psychiatry
2007; 7: 28.
Morrato, EH, Druss, B, Hartung, DM, Valuck, RJ, Allen, R, Campagna, E, et al. Metabolic testing rates in 3 state Medicaid programs after FDA warnings and ADA/APA recommendations for second-generation antipsychotic drugs. Arch Gen Psychiatry
2010; 67: 17–24.
Department of Health Social Services and Public Safety. Service Framework for Mental Health and Wellbeing. DHSSPS, 2011.
Mitchell, A, Delaffon, V, Vancampfort, D, Correll, C, De Hert, M. Guideline concordant monitoring of metabolic risk in people treated with antipsychotic medication: systematic review and meta-analysis of screening practices. Psychol Med
2012; 42: 125.
Collins, GS, Altman, DG. Predicting the 10 year risk of cardiovascular disease in the United Kingdom: independent and external validation of an updated version of QRISK2. BMJ
2012; 344: e4181.
National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel. Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III) final report. Circulation
2002; 106: 3143–421.
Osborn, DPJ, Hardoon, S, Omar, RZ, Holt, RIG. Cardiovascular risk prediction models for people with severe mental illness: results from the prediction and management of cardiovascular risk in people with severe mental illnesses (PRIMROSE) research program. JAMA Psychiatry
2015; 72: 143–51.
Wright, CA, Osborn, DP, Nazareth, I, King, MB. Prevention of coronary heart disease in people with severe mental illnesses: a qualitative study of patient and professionals' preferences for care. BMC Psychiatry
2006; 6: 16.
De Hert, M, Dekker, JM, Wood, D, Kahl, KG, Holt, RIG, Moller, HJ. Cardiovascular disease and diabetes in people with severe mental illness position statement from the European Psychiatric Association (EPA), supported by the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) and the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Eur Psychiatry
2009; 24: 412–24.
World Health Organization. The World Health Report 2008: Primary Health Care Now More Than Ever. WHO, 2008.
Barley, E, Borschmann, R, Walters, P, Tylee, A. Interventions to encourage uptake of cancer screening for people with severe mental illness. Cochrane Database Syst Rev
2013; 7: CD009641.
Banham, L, Gilbody, S. Smoking cessation in severe mental illness: what works?
2010; 105: 1176–89.
Tsoi, DT, Porwal, M, Webster, AC. Interventions for smoking cessation and reduction in individuals with schizophrenia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev
2013; 2: CD007253.
Hartmann-Boyce, J, Stead, LF, Cahill, K, Lancaster, T. Efficacy of interventions to combat tobacco addiction: Cochrane update of 2013 reviews. Addiction
2014; 109: 1414–25.