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Risk of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in relatives of people with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

  • Henrik Larsson (a1), Eleonore Rydén (a2), Marcus Boman (a3), Niklas Långström (a4), Paul Lichtenstein (a3) and Mikael Landén (a5)...
Extract
Background

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, and it has been suggested that combined bipolar disorder and ADHD is aetiologically distinct from the pure disorders.

Aims

To clarify whether ADHD shares genetic and environmental factors with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.

Method

By linking longitudinal Swedish national registers, we identified 61 187 persons with ADHD (the proband group) and their first- and second-degree relatives, and matched them with a control group of people without ADHD and their corresponding relatives. Conditional logistic regression was used to determine the risks of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in the relatives of the two groups.

Results

First-degree relatives of the ADHD proband group were at increased risk of both bipolar disorder (odds ratio (OR) = 1.84−2.54 for parents, offspring and full siblings) and schizophrenia (OR = 1.71−2.22 for parents, offspring and full siblings). The risks of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia among second-degree relatives were substantially lower than among full siblings.

Conclusions

These findings suggest that the co-occurrence of ADHD and bipolar disorder as well as ADHD and schizophrenia is due to shared genetic factors, rather than representing completely aetiologically distinct subsyndromes.

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Copyright
Corresponding author
Henrik Larsson, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, PO Box 281, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden. Email: Henrik.Larsson@ki.se.
Footnotes
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See editorial, pp. 81–83, this issue.

Declaration of interest

None.

Footnotes
References
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Risk of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in relatives of people with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

  • Henrik Larsson (a1), Eleonore Rydén (a2), Marcus Boman (a3), Niklas Långström (a4), Paul Lichtenstein (a3) and Mikael Landén (a5)...
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