Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Schizophrenia and the frontal lobes: Post-mortem stereological study of tissue volume

  • J. Robin Highley (a1), Mary A. Walker (a1), Margaret M. Esiri (a1), Brendan McDonald (a1), Paul J. Harrison (a2) and Timothy J. Crow (a3)...
Abstract
Background

It has been suggested that there is frontal lobe involvement in schizophrenia, and that it may be lateralised and gender-specific.

Aims

To clarify the structure of the frontal lobes in schizophrenia in a postmortem series.

Method

The volume of white matter and cortical components of the frontal lobes was measured in brains of controls and patients with schizophrenia using planimetry and the Cavalieri principle. The components measured were: superior frontal gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, a composite of inferior frontal gyrus and orbito-frontal cortex, as well as total frontal lobe cortex and white matter. In addition, the anterior cingulate gyrus was measured.

Results

No diagnosis, gender, diagnosis × side, diagnosis × gender or diagnosis × gender × side interactions were observed in the volume of any of the components, the grey matter as a whole or the white matter. No evidence for volumetric inter-group differences was found for the anterior cingulate gyrus.

Conclusions

Such structural abnormalities as are present in the frontal lobes are more subtle than straightforward alterations in tissue volume; they may include changes in shape and the pattern of gyral folding.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Schizophrenia and the frontal lobes
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Schizophrenia and the frontal lobes
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Schizophrenia and the frontal lobes
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
Timothy J. Crow, POWIC, University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford OX3 7JX, UK. Tel: +44 1865 223909; Fax: +44 1865 244990; e-mail: tim.crow@psychiatry.oxford.ac.uk
Footnotes
Hide All

Declaration of interest

This work was supported by The Medical Research Council and The Wellcome Trust.

Footnotes
References
Hide All
Albanese, A. M., Merlo, A. B., Mascitti, T. A., et al (1995) Inversion of the hemispheric laterality of the anterior cingulate gyrus in schizophrenics. Biological Psychiatry, 38, 1321.
Americal Psychiatric Association (1994) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edn) (DSM–IV). Washington, DC: APA.
Baaré, W. F. C., Hulshoff Pol, H. E., Hijman, R., et al (1999) Volumetric analysis of frontal lobe regions in schizophrenia: relation to cognitive function and symptomatology. Biological Psychiatry, 45, 15971605.
Bilder, R. M., Houwei, W., Bogerts, B., et al (1994) Absence of regional hemispheric asymmetries in first-episode schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 14371447.
Breier, A., Buchanan, R. W., Elkashef, A., et al (1992) Brain morphology and schizophrenia: a magnetic resonance imaging study of limbic, prefrontal cortex, and caudate structures. Archives of General Psychiatry, 49, 921926.
Buchanan, R. W., Vladar, K., Barta, P. E., et al (1998) Structural evaluation of the prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 155, 10491055.
Crespo-Facorro, B., Kim, J.-J., Andreasen, N. C., et al (2000) Regional frontal abnormalities in schizophrenia: a quantitative gray matter volume and cortical surface size study. Biological Psychiatry, 48, 110119.
Crow, T. J., Ball, J., Bloom, S. J., et al (1989) Schizophrenia as an anomaly of development of cerebral asymmetry. Archives of General Psychiatry, 46, 11451150.
Goldman-Rakic, P. S. & Selemon, L. D. (1997) Functional and anatomical aspects of prefrontal pathology in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 23, 437458.
Goldstein, J. M., Goodman, J. M., Seidman, L. J., et al (1999) Cortical abnormalities in schizophrenia identified by structural magnetic resonance imaging. Archieves of General Psychiatry, 56, 537547.
Griffin, L. D. (1994) The intrinsic geometry of the cerebral cortex. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 166, 261273.
Gundersen, H. J. G. & Jensen, E. B. (1987) The efficacy of systematic sampling in stereology and its prediction. Journal of Microscopy, 147, 229263.
Gundersen, H. J. G., Bendtsen, T. F., Korbo, L., et al (1988) Some new, simple and efficient stereological methods and their use in pathological research and diagnosis. Acta Pathologica et Microbiologica Scandinavica, 96, 379394.
Highley, J. R., Esiri, M. M., McDonald, B., et al (1998a) Anomalies of cerebral asymmetry in schizophrenia interact with gender and age of onset: a post mortem study. Schizophrenia Research, 34, 1325.
Highley, J. R., Esiri, M. M., McDonald, B., et al (1998b) Temporal lobe length is reduced, and gyral folding is increased in schizophrenia: a post-mortem study. Schizophrenia Research, 34, 112.
Highley, J. R., Esiri, M. M., McDonald, B., et al (1999a) The size and fibre composition of the corpus callosum with respect to gender and schizophrenia: a post mortem study. Brain, 122, 99110.
Highley, J. R., McDonald, B., Walker, M. A., et al (1999b) Schizophrenia and temporal lobe asymmetry. A postmortem stereological study of tissue volume. British Journal of Psychiatry, 175, 127134.
Hirayasu, Y., Shenton, M. E., Salisbury, D. F., et al (1999) Subgenual cingulate cortex volume in first-episode psychosis. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 10911093.
McDonald, B., Highley, J. R., Walker, M. A., et al (2000) Anomalous asymmetry of fusiform and parahippocampal gyrus grey matter in schizophrenia: a post-mortem study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 4047.
Noga, J. T., Aylward, E., Barta, P. E., et al (1995) Cingulate gyrus in schizophrenic patients and normal volunteers. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 61, 201208.
Pakkenberg, B. (1993) Total nerve cell number of neocortex in chronic schizophrenics and controls estimated using optical dissectors. Biological Psychiatry, 34, 768772.
Pakkenberg, B. & Gundersen, H. J. G. (1997) Neocortical neuron number in humans: effect of sex and age. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 384, 312320.
Quester, R. & Schröder, R. (1997) The shrinkage of the human brain stem during formalin fixation and embedding in paraffin. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 75, 8189.
Shelton, R. C., Karson, C. N., Doran, A. R., et al (1988) Cerebral structural pathology in schizophrenia: evidence for a selective prefrontal cortical defect. American Journal of Psychiatry, 145, 154163.
Szeszko, P. R., Bilder, R. M., Lencz, T., et al (1999) Investigation of frontal lobe subregions in first-episode schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimagaing, 90, 115.
Van Essen, D. C. (1997) A tension-based theory of morphogenesis and compact wiring in the central nervous sysetm. Nature (London), 385, 313318.
Vogeley, K., Schneider-Axman, T., Tepest, U., et al (1998) Disturbed gyrification and reduced volume of the prefrontal lobe in male schizophrenia – a morphometric post-mortem study. Schizophrenia Research, 29, 87.
Wible, C. G., Shenton, M. E., Hokama, H., et al (1995) Prefrontal cortex and schizophrenia: a quantitative magnetic resonance imaging study. Archieves of General Psychiatry, 52, 279288.
Woodruff, P. W. R., McManus, I. C. & David, A. S. (1995) A meta-analysis of corpus callosum size in schizophrenia. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 58, 457461.
Woodruff, P. W. R., Wright, I. C., Shuriquie, N., et al (1997) Structural bain abnormalities in male schizophrenics reflect frontotemporal dissociation. Psychological Medicine, 27, 12571266.
Zipursky, R. B., Marsh, L., Lim, K. O., et al (1994) Volumetric MRI assessment of temporal lobe structures in schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry, 35, 501516.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The British Journal of Psychiatry
  • ISSN: 0007-1250
  • EISSN: 1472-1465
  • URL: /core/journals/the-british-journal-of-psychiatry
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 17 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 146 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 3rd January 2018 - 26th April 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Schizophrenia and the frontal lobes: Post-mortem stereological study of tissue volume

  • J. Robin Highley (a1), Mary A. Walker (a1), Margaret M. Esiri (a1), Brendan McDonald (a1), Paul J. Harrison (a2) and Timothy J. Crow (a3)...
Submit a response

eLetters

No eLetters have been published for this article.

×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *