Nasir, Bakht Fatima, Humaira Ahmed, Madiha Phull, Abdul-Rehman and Ihsan-ul-Haq 2017. Cannabis: A Prehistoric Remedy for the Deficits of Existing and Emerging Anticancer Therapies. Journal of Exploratory Research in Pharmacology, Vol. 2, Issue. 3, p. 82.
Pergam, Steven A. Woodfield, Maresa C. Lee, Christine M. Cheng, Guang-Shing Baker, Kelsey K. Marquis, Sara R. and Fann, Jesse R. 2017. Cannabis use among patients at a comprehensive cancer center in a state with legalized medicinal and recreational use. Cancer, Vol. 123, Issue. 22, p. 4488.
Park, Ji-Yeun and Wu, Li-Tzy 2017. Prevalence, reasons, perceived effects, and correlates of medical marijuana use: A review. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, Vol. 177, p. 1.
Verrotti, Alberto Castagnino, Miriam Maccarrone, Mauro and Fezza, Filomena 2016. Plant-Derived and Endogenous Cannabinoids in Epilepsy. Clinical Drug Investigation, Vol. 36, Issue. 5, p. 331.
Cairns, Elizabeth A. Baldridge, William H. and Kelly, Melanie E. M. 2016. The Endocannabinoid System as a Therapeutic Target in Glaucoma. Neural Plasticity, Vol. 2016, p. 1.
Savage, Seddon R. Romero-Sandoval, Alfonso Schatman, Michael Wallace, Mark Fanciullo, Gilbert McCarberg, Bill and Ware, Mark 2016. Cannabis in Pain Treatment: Clinical and Research Considerations. The Journal of Pain, Vol. 17, Issue. 6, p. 654.
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Payandemehr, Borna Ebrahimi, Ali Gholizadeh, Ramtin Rahimian, Reza Varastehmoradi, Bardia Gooshe, Maziar Aghaei, Hossein Nayeb Mousavizadeh, Kazem and Dehpour, Ahmad Reza 2015. Involvement of PPAR receptors in the anticonvulsant effects of a cannabinoid agonist, WIN 55,212-2. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, Vol. 57, p. 140.
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Kluger, Benzi Triolo, Piera Jones, Wallace and Jankovic, Joseph 2015. The therapeutic potential of cannabinoids for movement disorders. Movement Disorders, Vol. 30, Issue. 3, p. 313.
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Fischer, Benedikt Murphy, Yoko Kurdyak, Paul Goldner, Elliot and Rehm, Jürgen 2015. Medical marijuana programs — Why might they matter for public health and why should we better understand their impacts?. Preventive Medicine Reports, Vol. 2, p. 53.
Zou, Shenglong Somvanshi, Rishi K Paik, Seungil and Kumar, Ujendra 2015. Colocalization of Cannabinoid Receptor 1 with Somatostatin and Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase in Rat Brain Hypothalamus. Journal of Molecular Neuroscience, Vol. 55, Issue. 2, p. 480.
Kral, Alex H. Wenger, Lynn Novak, Scott P. Chu, Daniel Corsi, Karen F. Coffa, Diana Shapiro, Brad and Bluthenthal, Ricky N. 2015. Is cannabis use associated with less opioid use among people who inject drugs?. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, Vol. 153, p. 236.
Brunt, Tibor M. van Genugten, Marianne Höner-Snoeken, Kathrin van de Velde, Marco J. and Niesink, Raymond J.M. 2014. Therapeutic Satisfaction and Subjective Effects of Different Strains of Pharmaceutical-Grade Cannabis. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, Vol. 34, Issue. 3, p. 344.
Review commissioned in 1996 by the Department of Health (DOH).
Assess therapeutic profile of cannabis and cannabinoids.
Medline search, references supplied by DOH and others, and personal communications.
Cannabis and some cannabinoids are effective antiemetics and analgesics and reduce intraocular pressure. There is evidence of symptom relief and improved well-being in selected neurological conditions, AIDS and certain cancers. Cannabinoids may reduce anxiety and improve sleep. Anticonvulsant activity requires clarification. Other properties identified by basic research await evaluation. Standard treatments for many relevant disorders are unsatisfactory. Cannabis is safe in overdose but often produces unwanted effects, typically sedation, intoxication, clumsiness, dizziness, dry mouth, lowered blood pressure or increased heart rate. The discovery of specific receptors and natural ligands may lead to drug developments. Research is needed to optimise dose and route of administration, quantify therapeutic and adverse effects, and examine interactions.
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