Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Therapeutic aspects of cannabis and cannabinoids

  • Philip Robson (a1)
Abstract
Background

Review commissioned in 1996 by the Department of Health (DOH).

Aims

Assess therapeutic profile of cannabis and cannabinoids.

Method

Medline search, references supplied by DOH and others, and personal communications.

Results and Conclusions

Cannabis and some cannabinoids are effective antiemetics and analgesics and reduce intraocular pressure. There is evidence of symptom relief and improved well-being in selected neurological conditions, AIDS and certain cancers. Cannabinoids may reduce anxiety and improve sleep. Anticonvulsant activity requires clarification. Other properties identified by basic research await evaluation. Standard treatments for many relevant disorders are unsatisfactory. Cannabis is safe in overdose but often produces unwanted effects, typically sedation, intoxication, clumsiness, dizziness, dry mouth, lowered blood pressure or increased heart rate. The discovery of specific receptors and natural ligands may lead to drug developments. Research is needed to optimise dose and route of administration, quantify therapeutic and adverse effects, and examine interactions.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Therapeutic aspects of cannabis and cannabinoids
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Therapeutic aspects of cannabis and cannabinoids
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Therapeutic aspects of cannabis and cannabinoids
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
References
Hide All
Abrahamov, A. Abrahamov, A. & Mechoulam, R. (1995) An efficient new cannabinoid anti-emetic in pediatric oncology. Life Sciences, 56, 20972102.
Beal, J. E., Olson, R., Laubenstein, L., et al (1995) Dronabinol as a treatment for anorexia associated with weight loss in patients with AIDS. Journal of Pain & Symptom Management, 10, 8997.
Carlini, E. A. & Cunha, J. M. (1981) Hypnotic and antiepileptic effects of cannabidiol. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 21 (suppl. 8–9), 417S427S.
Chan, H. S., Correia, J. A. & MacLeod, S. M. (1987) Nabilone versus prochlorperazine for control of cancer chemotherapy-induced emesis in children: a double-blind, crossover trial. Pediatrics, 79, 946952.
Chang, A. E., Shiling, D. J., Stillman, R. C., et al (1979) Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol as an antiemetic in cancer patients receiving high-dose methotrexate. A prospective, randomized evaluation. Annals of Internal Medicine, 91, 819824.
Chesher, G. B. & Jackson, D. M. (1985) The quasimorphine withdrawal syndrome: effect of cannabinol, cannabidiol and THC. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behaviour, 23, 1315.
Clifford, D. B. (1983) Tetrahydrocannabinol for tremor in multiple sclerosis. Annals of Neurology, 13, 669671.
Consroe, P. F., Wood, G. C. & Buchsbaum, H. (1975) Anticonvulsant nature of marihuana smoking. Journal of the American Medical Association, 234, 306307.
Consroe, P. F., Laguna, J., Allender, J., et al (1991) Controlled clinical trial of cannabidiol in Huntington's disease. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, 40, 701708.
Consroe, P. F., Musty, R., Rein, J., et al (1997) The perceived effects of smoked cannabis on patients with multiple sclerosis. European Neurology, 38, 4448.
Cunha, J. M., Carlini, E. A., Pereira, A. E., et al (1980) Chronic administration of cannabidiol to healthy volunteers and epileptic patients. Pharmacology, 21, 175185.
Dalzell, A. H., Bartlett, H. & Lilleyman, J. S. (1986) Nabilone: an alternative antiemetic for cancer chemotherapy. Annals of Diseases of Childhood, 61, 502505.
Doblin, R. E. & Kleiman, M. A. R. (1991) Marijuana as anti-emetic medicine: a survey of oncologists' experiences and attitudes. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 9, 13141319.
Einhorn, L. H., Nagy, C., Furnas, B., et al (1981) Nabilone: an effective antiemetic in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 21 (suppl. 8–9), 64S69S.
Fabre, L. F. & McLendon, D. (1981) The efficacy and safety of nabilone (a synthetic cannabinoid) in the treatment of anxiety. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 21 (suppl. 8–9), 377S382S.
Foltin, R. W., Brady, J. V. & Fischman, M. W. (1986) Behavioral analysis of marijuana effects on food intake in humans. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 25, 577582.
Formukong, E. A., Evans, A. T. & Evans, F. J. (1989) The medicinal use of cannabis and its constituents. Phytotherapy Research, 3, 219231.
Greenberg, H. S., Werness, S. A. S., Pugh, J. E., et al (1994) Short term effects of smoking marijuana on balance in patients with multiple sclerosis and normal volunteers. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 55, 324328.
Grinspoon, L. & Bakalar, J. B. (1993) Marihuana, The Forbidden Medicine. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Gross, H., Ebert, M. H., Faden, V. B., et al (1983) A double-blind trial of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in primary anorexia nervosa. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 3, 165171.
Hall, W., Solowij, N. & Lemon, J. (eds) (1994) The Health and Psychological Consequences of Cannabis Use, National Drug Strategy Monograph Series No. 25. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.
Harris, L. S., Munson, A. E. & Carchman, R. A. (1976) Antitumor properties of cannabinoids. In The Pharmacology of Marihuana, Vol. 2 (eds Braude, M. C. & Szara, S.), pp. 749761. New York: Raven Press.
Hepler, R. S., Frank, I. M. & Petrus, R. (1976) The ocular effects of marihuana smoking. In The Pharmacology of Marihuana (eds Braude, M. C. & Szara, S.). New York: Raven Press.
Holdcroft, A., Smith, M., Jacklin, A., et al (1997) Pain relief with oral cannabinoids in familial Mediterranean fever. Anaesthesia, 52, 483488.
Hollister, L. E. (1971) Hunger and appetite after single doses of marihuana, alcohol, and dextroamphetamine. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 12, 4449.
House of Lords Select Committee on Science and Technology (1988) Cannabis: The Scientific and Medical Evidence (HL Paper 151). London: HMSO.
Ilaria, R. L., Thornby, J. I. & Fann, W. E. (1981) Nabilone, a cannabinol derivative, in the treatment of anxiety neuroses. Current Therapeutic Research, 29, 943949.
Institute of Medicine (1999) Cannabinoids and animal physiology. In Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base (eds Joy, J. E., Watson, S. J. & Benson, J. A.), pp. 2. 12.47. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Jain, A. K., Ryan, J. R., McMahon, F. G., et al (1981) Evaluation of intramuscular levonantradol and placebo in acute postoperative pain. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 21 (suppl. 8–9), 320S326S.
Jones, R. T., Benowitz, N. L. & Herning, R. I. (1981) Clinical relevance of cannabis tolerance and dependence. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 21 (suppl. 8–9), 143S152S.
Jones, S. E., Durant, J. R., Greco, F. A., et al (1982) A multi-institutional Phase III study of nabilone vs. placebo in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Cancer Treatment Review, 9 (suppl. B), 4548.
Kaslow, R. A., Blackwelder, W. C., Ostrow, D. G., et al (1989) No evidence for a role of alcohol or other psychoactive drugs in accelerating immunodeficiency in HIV-I-positive individuals. Journal of the American Medical Association, 261, 34243429.
Keeler, M. H. & Reifler, C. B. (1967) Grand mal convulsions subsequent to marihuana use. Diseases of the Nervous System, 18, 474475.
Lane, M., Vogel, C. L. & Ferguson, J. (1991) Dronabinol and prochlorperazine in combination are better than either agent alone for treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Proceedings of the American Society of Clinical Oncologists, 8, 326.
Levitt, M. (1986) Cannabinoids as antiemetics in cancer chemotherapy. In Cannabinoids as Therapeutic Agents (ed. Mechoulam, R.). Boca Raton, FA: CRC Press.
Maurer, M., Henn, V., Dittrich, A., et al (1990) Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol shows antispastic and analgesic effects in a single case double-blind trial. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 240, 14.
Mechoulam, R. (1986) The pharmacohistory of Cannabis sativa. In Cannabinoids as Therapeutic Agents (ed. Mechoulam, R.), pp. 119. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Meek, C. (1994) Doctors want cannabis prescriptions allowed. BMA News Review, 15 February, p. 15.
Merritt, J. C., Crawford, W. J., Alexander, P. C., et al (1980) Effect of marihuana on intraocular and blood pressure in glaucoma. Ophthalmology, 87, 222228.
Merritt, J. C., Olsen, J. L., Armstrong, J. R., et al (1981) Topical delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in hypertensive glaucomas. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 33, 4041.
Niederle, N., Shütte, J. & Schmidt, C. G. (1986) Crossover comparison of the antiemetic efficacy of nabilone and alizapride in patients with nonseminomatous testicular cancer receiving cisplatin therapy. Klinische Wochenschrift, 64, 362365.
Niiranen, A. & Mattson, K. (1985) A cross-over comparison of nabilone and prochlorperazine for emesis induced by cancer chemotherapy. American Journal of Clinical Oncology, 8, 336340.
Noyes, R. Jr, Brunk, S. F., Baram, D. A., et al (1975a) Analgesic effect of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 15, 139143.
Noyes, R. Jr, Avery, D. A. H., et al (1975b) The analgesic properties of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and codeine. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 18, 8489.
Orr, L. E. & McKernan, J. G. (1981) Antiemetic effect of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in chemotherapy-associated nausea and emesis as compared to placebo and compazine. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 21 (suppl. 8–9), 76S80S.
Penta, J. S., Poster, D. S., Bruno, S., et al (1981) Clinical trials with anti-emetic agents in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 21 (suppl. 8–9), 11S22S.
Perez-Reyes, M., Wagner, D., Wall, M. E., et al (1976) Intravenous administration of cannabinoids and intraocular pressure. In The Pharmacology of Marihuana (eds Braude, M. C. & Szara, S.), pp. 829832. New York: Raven Press.
Pertwee, R. G. (1995) Pharmacological, physiological and clinical implications of the discovery of cannabinoid receptors: an overview. In Cannabinoid Receptors (ed. Pertwee, R.), pp. 134. Harcourt Brace.
Petro, D. J. & Ellenberger, C. (1981) Treatment of human spasticity with delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 21 (suppl. 8–9), 413S416S.
Plasse, T. F., Gorter, R. W., Krasnow, S. H., et al (1991) Recent clinical experience with dronabinol. Pharmacology, Biochemistry & Behaviour, 40, 695700.
Pomeroy, M., Fennelly, J. J. & Towers, M. (1986) Prospective randomized double-blind trial of nabilone versus domperidone in the treatment of cytotoxic-induced emesis. Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology, 17, 285288.
Regelson, W., Butler, J. R., Schulz, J., et al (1976) Delta-9-THC as an effective antidepressant and appetite-stimulating agent in advanced cancer patients. In The Pharmacology of Marihuana (eds Braude, M. C. & Szara, S.), pp. 763775. New York: Raven Press.
Reynolds, J. R. (1890) Therapeutic uses and toxic effects of cannabis indica. Lancet, i, 637638.
Sallan, S. E., Zinberg, N. E. & Frei, E. 3rd (1975) Antiemetic effect of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy. New England Journal of Medicine, 293, 795797.
Tashkin, D. P., Reiss, S., Shapiro, B. J., et al (1977) Bronchial effects of aerosolized delta-9-THC in healthy and asthmatic subjects. American Review of Respiratory Disease, 115, 5765.
Ungerleider, J. T., Andrysiak, T., Fairbanks, L., et al (1982) Cannabis and cancer chemotherapy: a comparison of oral delta-9-THC and prochlorperazine. Cancer, 50, 636645.
Ungerleider, J. T., Andrysiak, T., Fairbanks, L., et al (1987) Delta-9-THC in the treatment of spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis. Advances in Alcoholism and Substance Abuse, 7, 3950.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The British Journal of Psychiatry
  • ISSN: 0007-1250
  • EISSN: 1472-1465
  • URL: /core/journals/the-british-journal-of-psychiatry
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 99
Total number of PDF views: 169 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 3121 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 2nd January 2018 - 18th August 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Therapeutic aspects of cannabis and cannabinoids

  • Philip Robson (a1)
Submit a response

eLetters

No eLetters have been published for this article.

×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *