Peen, J, Schoevers, RA, Beekman, AT, Dekker, J. The current status of urban-rural differences in
psychiatric disorders. Acta Psychiatr
van Son, GE, van Hoeken, D, Bartelds, AI, van Furth, EF, Hoek, HW. Urbanisation and the incidence of eating
disorders. Br J Psychiatry
2006; 189: 562–3.
Knopf, H, Holling, H, Huss, M, Schlack, R. Prevalence, determinants and spectrum of
attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication of children
and adolescents in Germany: results of the German Health Interview and
Examination Survey (KiGGS). BMJ Open
Freeman, H. Schizophrenia and city residence.
Br J Psychiatry
1994; 164 (suppl 23):
Mortensen, PB, Pedersen, CB, Westergaard, T, Wohlfahrt, J, Ewald, H, Mors, O, et al. Effects of family history and place and
season of birth on the risk of schizophrenia. N
Engl J Med
1999; 340: 603–8.
Vassos, E, Pedersen, CB, Murray, RM, Collier, DA, Lewis, CM. Meta-analysis of the association of urbanicity with
schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull
2012; 38: 1118–23.
van Os, J, Kenis, G, Rutten, BP. The environment and schizophrenia.
2010; 468: 203–12.
Pedersen, CB, Mortensen, PB. Urbanicity during upbringing and bipolar affective
disorders in Denmark. Bipolar Disord
2006; 8: 242–7.
Kroon, JS, Wohlfarth, TD, Dieleman, J, Sutterland, AL, Storosum, JG, Denys, D, et al. Incidence rates and risk factors of bipolar
disorder in the general population: a population-based cohort
study. Bipolar Disord
2013; 15: 306–13.
Laursen, TM, Munk-Olsen, T, Nordentoft, M, Bo Mortensen, P. A comparison of selected risk factors for unipolar
depressive disorder, bipolar affective disorder, schizoaffective
disorder, and schizophrenia from a Danish population-based
cohort. J Clin Psychiatry
2007; 68: 1673–81.
Sundquist, K, Frank, G, Sundquist, J. Urbanisation and incidence of psychosis and
depression: follow-up study of 4.4 million women and men in
Sweden. Br J Psychiatry
2004; 184: 293–8.
Chen, CY, Liu, CY, Su, WC, Huang, SL, Lin, KM. Factors associated with the diagnosis of
neurodevelopmental disorders: a population-based longitudinal
Lauritsen, MB, Astrup, A, Pedersen, CB, Obel, C, Schendel, DE, Schieve, L, et al. Urbanicity and autism spectrum
disorders. J Autism Dev Disord
Mors, O, Perto, GP, Mortensen, PB. The Danish Psychiatric Central Research
Register. Scand J Public Health
2011; 39 (suppl 7):
World Health Organization. International
Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems
World Health Organization. The ICD-10
Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders: Clinical Descriptions
and Diagnostic Guidelines. WHO,
Statistics Denmark. Befolkningen i Kommunerne 1.
Pedersen, CB, Mortensen, PB. Evidence of a dose-response relationship between
urbanicity during upbringing and schizophrenia risk.
Arch Gen Psychiatry
2001; 58: 1039–46.
Donath, C, Grassel, E, Baier, D, Pfeiffer, C, Karagülle, D, Bleich, S, et al. Alcohol consumption and binge drinking in
adolescents: comparison of different migration backgrounds and rural vs.
urban residence: a representative study. BMC
2011; 11: 84.
Flash Eurobarometer. Young People and
Drugs. European Commission,
Williams, JG, Higgins, JP, Brayne, CE. Systematic review of prevalence studies of autism
spectrum disorders. Arch Dis Child
Fombonne, E. The prevalence of autism.
2003; 289: 87–9.
Chakrabarti, S, Fombonne, E. Pervasive developmental disorders in preschool
2001; 285: 3093–9.
Baxter, AJ, Scott, KM, Vos, T, Whiteford, HA. Global prevalence of anxiety disorders: a systematic
review and meta-regression. Psychol Med
Romans, S, Cohen, M, Forte, T. Rates of depression and anxiety in urban and rural
Canada. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr
2011; 46: 567–75.
Lai, DC, Tseng, YC, Hou, YM, Guo, HR. Gender and geographic differences in the prevalence
of intellectual disability in children: analysis of data from the
national disability registry of Taiwan. Res Dev
2012; 33: 2301–7.
Sondenaa, E, Rasmussen, K, Nottestad, JA, Lauvrud, C. Prevalence of intellectual disabilities in Norway:
domestic variance. J Intellect Disabil
2010; 54: 161–7.
Coo, H, Ouellette-Kuntz, H, Lloyd, JE, Kasmara, L, Holden, JJ, Lewis, ME. Trends in autism prevalence: diagnostic substitution
revisited. J Autism Dev Disord
2008; 38: 1036–46.
King, M, Bearman, P. Diagnostic change and the increased prevalence of
autism. Int J Epidemiol
2009; 38: 1224–34.
Taurines, R, Schwenck, C, Westerwald, E, Sachse, M, Siniatchkin, M, Freitag, C. ADHD and autism: differential diagnosis or
overlapping traits? A selective review. Atten
Defic Hyperact Disord
2012; 4: 115–39.
Mortensen, PB, Pedersen, MG, Pedersen, CB. Psychiatric family history and schizophrenia risk in
Denmark: which mental disorders are relevant?
2010; 40: 201–10.
Cross-Disorder Group of the Psychiatric Genomics C, Lee, SH, Ripke, S, Neale, BM, Faraone, SV, Purcell, SM, et al. Genetic relationship between five psychiatric
disorders estimated from genome-wide SNPs. Nat
2013; 45: 984–94.
Allardyce, J, Boydell, J. Review: the wider social environment and
schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull
2006; 32: 592–8.
Pedersen, CB, Mortensen, PB. Are the cause(s) responsible for urban-rural
differences in schizophrenia risk rooted in families or in
Am J Epidemiol
2006; 163: 971–8.
Chu, A, Thorne, A, Guite, H. The impact on mental well-being of the urban and
physical environment: an assessment of the evidence.
J Public Ment Health
Cooper, R, Boyko, C, Codinhoto, R. State-of-Science Review: SR-DR2.
The Effect of the Physical Environment on Mental Wellbeing.
Mental Capital and Wellbeing: Making the Most of Ourselves in the 21st
Century. The Government Office for
Dalgard, OS, Tambs, K. Urban environment and mental health. A longitudinal
study. Br J Psychiatry
1997; 171: 530–6.
Eaton, WW, Hall, AL, Macdonald, R, McKibben, J. Case identification in psychiatric epidemiology: a
review. Int Rev Psychiatry
Lauritsen, MB, Jorgensen, M, Madsen, KM, Lemcke, S, Toft, S, Grove, J, et al. Validity of childhood autism in the Danish
Psychiatric Central Register: findings from a cohort sample born
1990–1999. J Autism Dev Disord
2010; 40: 139–48.
Uggerby, P, Ostergaard, SD, Roge, R, Correll, CU, Nielsen, J. The validity of the schizophrenia diagnosis in the
Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register is good.
Dan Med J
Moth, G, Olesen, F, Vedsted, P. Reasons for encounter and disease patterns in Danish
primary care: changes over 16 years. Scand J Prim
2012; 30: 70–5.
Lundberg, P, Cantor-Graae, E, Rukundo, G, Ashaba, S, Ostergren, PO. Urbanicity of place of birth and symptoms of
psychosis, depression and anxiety in Uganda. Br J
2009; 195: 156–62.
Prina, AM, Ferri, CP, Guerra, M, Brayne, C, Prince, M. Prevalence of anxiety and its correlates among older
adults in Latin America, India and China: cross-cultural
study. Br J Psychiatry
2011; 199: 485–91.
Murray, CJ, Vos, T, Lozano, R, et al. Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for
291 diseases and injuries in 21 regions, 1990-2010: a systematic analysis
for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010.
2012; 380: 2197–223.