Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Use of drugs, alcohol and tobacco by people with schizophrenia: case–control study

  • Robin G. McCreadie (a1)
Abstract
Background

Specialised services should be developed to help people with schizophrenia and associated substance misuse. The extent of the problem therefore needs to be known.

Aims

To determine the use of drugs, alcohol and tobacco by people with schizophrenia drawn from rural, suburban and urban settings, and to compare use by general population control subjects.

Method

People with schizophrenia (n=316) and general population controls of similar gender distribution, age and postcode area of residence (n=250) were identified in rural, urban and suburban areas of Scotland. Use of drugs and alcohol was assessed by the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry, and use of tobacco by a questionnaire.

Results

More patients than controls reported problem use of drugs in the past year (22 (7%) v. 5 (2%)) and at some time before then (50 (20%) v. 15 (6%)) and problem use of alcohol in the past year (42 (17%) v. 25 (10%)) but not at sometime previously (99 (40%) v. 84 (34%)). More patients were current smokers (162 (65%) v. 99(40%)).

Conclusions

Problem use of drugs and alcohol by people with schizophrenia is greater than in the general population, but absolute numbers are small. Tobacco use is the greatest problem.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Use of drugs, alcohol and tobacco by people with schizophrenia: case–control study
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Use of drugs, alcohol and tobacco by people with schizophrenia: case–control study
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Use of drugs, alcohol and tobacco by people with schizophrenia: case–control study
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
References
Hide All
American Psychiatric Association (1994) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edn). Washington, DC: APA.
Bernadt, M.W. & Murray, R. M. (1986) Psychiatric disorder, drinking and alcoholism: what are the links? British Journal of Psychiatry, 148, 393400.
Blanchard, J. J., Brown, S. A., Horan, W., et al (2000) Substance use disorders in schizophrenia: review, integration and a proposed model. Clinical Psychology Review, 20, 207234.
Brown, S. (1998) Substance misuse in a chronic psychosis population. Psychiatric Bulletin, 22, 595598.
Brown, S., Barraclough, B. & Inskip, H. (2000) Causes of the excess mortality of schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 177, 212217.
Carstairs, V. & Morris, R. (1991) Deprivation and Health in Scotland. Aberdeen: Aberdeen University Press.
Drake, R. E., Osher, F. C. & Wallach, M. A. (1989) Alcohol use and abuse in schizophrenia. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 177, 408414.
Duke, P. J., Pantelis, C. & Barnes, T. R. E. (1994) South Westminster schizophrenia survey. Alcohol use and its relationship to symptoms, tardive dyskinesia and illness onset. British Journal of Psychiatry, 164, 630636.
Hughes, J. R., Hatsukami, D. K., Mitchell, J. E., et al (1986) Prevalence of smoking among psychiatric outpatients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 143, 993997.
Kelly, C. & McCreadie, R.G. (1999) Smoking habits, current symptoms and premorbid characteristics of schizophrenic patients in Nithsdale, Scotland. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 17511757.
McCreadie, R.G. (1982) The Nithsdale schizophrenia survey: I. Psychiatric and social handicaps. British Journal of Psychiatry, 140, 582586.
McGuffin, P., Farmer, A. & Harvey, I. (1991) A polydiagnostic application of operational criteria in studies of psychotic illness. Archives of General Psychiatry, 48, 764770.
Menezes, P. R., Johnson, S., Thornicroft, G., et al (1996) Drug and alcohol problems among individuals with severe mental illness in south London. British Journal of Psychiatry, 168, 612619.
Regier, D. A., Farmer, M. E., Rae, D. S., et al (1990) Comorbidity of mental disorders with alcohol and other drug abuse: results from the epidemiological catchment area (ECA) study. JAMA, 264, 25112518.
Scottish Office (1997) A Framework for Mental Health Services in Scotland. Edinburgh: The Scottish Office.
Siegfried, N. (1998) A review of comorbidity: major mental illness and problematic substance use. Australia and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 24, 707717.
Torrey, E. F. & Bowler, A. (1990) Geographical distribution of insanity in America: evidence for an urban factor. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 16, 591604.
Waldron, G., Chalmers, J., Bone, A., et al (1995) Health and Lifestyles in Dumfries & Galloway in 1995. Dumfries: Dumfries & Galloway Health Board.
World Health Organization (1992) The ICD–10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders. Geneva: WHO.
World Health Organization (1994) Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry. Version 2. Geneva: WHO.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The British Journal of Psychiatry
  • ISSN: 0007-1250
  • EISSN: 1472-1465
  • URL: /core/journals/the-british-journal-of-psychiatry
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed

Use of drugs, alcohol and tobacco by people with schizophrenia: case–control study

  • Robin G. McCreadie (a1)
Submit a response

eLetters

No eLetters have been published for this article.

×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *