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Is mainstreaming always the answer? The social and economic development of service user communities

  • James M. Mandiberg (a1) and Richard Warner (a2)
Summary

The community placement of people with serious mental illness has focused on assimilation. The broad community, however, seems largely unwilling to support and include them. The result is programmes to help people maintain their community lives mainly through the support of formal mental health services. The social and economic development of ‘identity communities' of people with serious mental illness is an alternative model to assimilation. An identity community consists of people with shared interests, beliefs, experiences or needs which affect the identity of the participants and the cohesiveness of the group. Such communities can be economically sustainable and offer members more ways of having meaningful lives. Examples of this recovery-friendly approach are provided as a viable way of enhancing community support without additional expense.

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Copyright
This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Corresponding author
James M. Mandiberg (email: jmm2151@columbia.edu)
Footnotes
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Declaration of interest

J.M.M. has received NIH origin grant funding for research on training peer specialist mental health providers.

Footnotes
References
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1 Warner, R. Local projects of the World Psychiatric Association programme to reduce stigma and discrimination. Psychiatr Serv 2005; 56: 570–5.
2 Evans-Lacko, S, London, J, Little, K, Henderson, C, Thornicroft, G. Evaluation of a brief anti-stigma campaign in Cambridge: do short-term campaigns work? BMC Public Health 2010; 10: 339.
3 Mandiberg, JM, Edwards, M. Collective identity formation in the Mental Health Clubhouse Community. Int J Self-Help Self-Care 2013; 7: 1939.
4 Mandiberg, JM. Another way: enclave communities for people with mental illness. Am J Orthopsychiatry 2010; 80: 170–6.
5 Berry, JW. Acculturation: living successfully in two cultures. Int J Intercult Relations 2005; 29: 697712.
6 Mandiberg, JM, Warner, R. Business development and marketing within communities of social service clients. J Bus Res 2012; 65: 1736–42.
7 Mandiberg, JM. Commentary: the failure of social inclusion: an alternative approach through community development. Psychiatr Serv 2012; 63: 458.
8 Mandiberg, JM, Telles, L. The Santa Clara County Clustered Apartment Project. Psychosoc Rehabil J 1990; 14: 21–8.
9 Mandiberg, JM. Can interdependent mutual support function as an alternative to hospitalization? In Alternatives to Hospitalization for Acute Psychiatric Care (ed. Warner, R): 193210. American Psychiatric Press, 1995.
10 Leff, JP, Warner, R. Social Inclusion of People with Mental Illness. Cambridge University Press, 2006.
11 Warner, R, Mandiberg, J. An update on affirmative businesses or social firms for people with mental illness. Psychiatr Serv 2006; 57: 1488–92.
12 Kimura, M, Mukaiyachi, I, Ito, E. The House of Bethel and consumer-run businesses: an innovative approach to psychiatric rehabilitation. Can J Commun Ment Health 2002; 21: 6977.
13 Nakamura, K. Bethel: Community and Schizophrenia in Northern Japan (DVD). Manic Productions, 2010.
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BJPsych Bulletin
  • ISSN: 1758-3209
  • EISSN: 1758-3217
  • URL: /core/journals/bjpsych-bulletin
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Is mainstreaming always the answer? The social and economic development of service user communities

  • James M. Mandiberg (a1) and Richard Warner (a2)
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