Salize, HJ, Dressing, H.
Epidemiology of involuntary placement of mentally ill people across the European Union. Br J Psychiatry
2004; 184: 163–8.
Katsakou, C, Priebe, S.
Outcome of involuntary hospital admission – a review. Acta Psychiatr Scand
2006; 114: 232–41.
Haglund, K, Von Essen, L.
Locked entrance doors at psychiatric wards – advantages and disadvantages according to voluntarily admitted patients. Nord J Psychiatry
2005; 59: 511–5.
Sailas, EES, Fenton, M.
Seclusion and restraint for people with serious mental illnesses. Cochrane Database Syst Rev
2000; 1: CD001163.
Swartz, MS, Wagner, HR, Swanson, JW, Hiday, VA, Burns, BJ. The perceived coerciveness of involuntary outpatient commitment: findings from an experimental study. J Am Acad Psychiatry Law
2002; 30: 207–17.
Zinkler, M, Priebe, S.
Detention of the mentally ill in Europe – a review. Acta Psychiatr Scand
2002; 106: 3–8.
The nature of coercion. J Value Inq
2000; 34: 369–81.
Coercion in psychiatric care: where are we now, what do we know, where do we go?
2010; 34: 217–20.
Glass, C, Arnkoff, D.
Consumers' perspectives on helpful and hindering factors in mental health treatment. J Clin Psychol
2000; 56: 1467–80.
Nilstun, T, Syse, A.
The right to accept and the right to refuse. Acta Psychiatr Scand
2000; 101 (suppl): 31–4.
Gliburt, H, Slade, M, Rose, D, Lloyd-Evans, B, Johnson, S, Osborn, DPJ. Service users' experiences of residential alternatives to standard acute wards: qualitative study of similarities and differences. Br J Psychiatry
2010; 197 (suppl 53): s26–31.
Department of Health. Deprivation of Liberty Safeguards: Code of Practice to Supplement the Main Mental Capacity Act 2005 Code of Practice. TSO (The Stationery Office), 2008.
Szmukler, G, Applebaum, PS. Treatment pressures, leverage, coercion and compulsion in mental health care. J Ment Health
2008; 17: 233–44.
Høyer, G, Kjellin, L, Engberg, M, Kaltiala-Heino, R, Nilstun, T, Sigurjónsdóttir, M, et al. Paternalism and autonomy: a presentation of a Nordic study on the use of coercion in the mental care system. Int J Law Psychiatry
2002; 25: 93–108.
Bergk, J, Flammer, E, Steinert, T.
Ratings of coercive interventions by inpatients and staff in Germany. Psychiatr Serv
2009; 60: 1401–2.
Allen, M, Smith, V.
Opening Pandora's box: the practical and legal dangers of involuntary outpatient commitment. Psychiatr Serv
2001; 52: 342–6.
Harbord, R, Higgins, J.
METAREG: Stata Module to Perform Meta-analysis Regression. Boston College Department of Economics, 2004.
Clayton, D, Hills, M.
Statistical Models in Epidemiology. Oxford University Press, 1993.
Thompson, S, Sharps, S.
Explaining heterogeneity in meta-analysis: a comparison of methods. Stat Med
1999; 18: 2693–708.
Kjellin, L, Høyer, G, Engberg, M, Kaltiala-Heino, R, Sigurjónsdóttir, M.
Differences in perceived coercion at admission to psychiatric hospitals in the Nordic countries. Soc Psychiatry Psychiat Epidemiol
2006; 41: 241–7.
Haglund, K, Von Knorring, L, Von Essen, L.
Forced medication in psychiatric care: patient experiences and nurse perceptions. J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs
2003; 10: 65–72.
Priebe, S, Katsakou, C, Amos, T, Leese, M, Morriss, R, Rose, D, et al. Patients' views and readmissions 1 year after involuntary hospitalisation. Br J Psychiatry
2009; 194: 49–54.
Lidz, CW, Mulvey, EP, Hoge, SK, Kirsch, BL, Monahan, J, Eisenberg, M, et al. Factual sources of psychiatric patients' perceptions of coercion in the hospital admission process. Am J Psychiatry
1998; 155: 1254–60.
Swartz, M, Swanson, J, Hannon, M.
Does fear of coercion keep people away from mental health treatment? Evidence from a survey of persons with schizophrenia and mental health professionals. Behav Sci Law
2003; 21: 459–72.
Link, B, Castilled, D, Stuber, J.
Stigma and coercion in the context of outpatient treatment for people with mental illness. Soc Sci Med
2008; 67: 409–19.
Hoge, SK, Lidz, CW, Eisenberg, M, Gardner, W, Monahan, J, Mulvey, E, et al. Perception of coercion in the admission of voluntary and involuntary psychiatric patients. Int J Law Psychiatry
1997; 20: 167–81.
Kjellin, L, Andersson, K, Bartholdson, E, Candefjord, IL, Holmstrøm, H, Jacobsson, L, et al. Coercion in psychiatric care – patients' and relatives' experiences from four Swedish psychiatric services. Nord J Psychiatry
2004; 58: 153–9.
Eriksson, K, Westrin, C-G. Coercive measures in psychiatric care. Acta Psychiatr Scand
1995; 92: 225–30.
Bindman, J, Reid, Y, Szmukler, G, Tiller, J, Thornicroft, G, Leese, M.
Perceived coercion at admission to psychiatric hospital and engagement with follow-up: a cohort study. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol
2005; 40: 160–6.
Ivar Iversen, K, Høyer, G, Sexton, H, Grønli, OK. Perceived coercion among patients admitted to acute wards in Norway. Nord J Psychiatry
2002; 56: 433–9.
Patients' perception of coercion on acute psychiatric wards: an interview study. Nord J Psychiatry
2004; 58: 299–304.
Coercion and compulsory hospitalization: some patients' attitudes. Med J Aust
1976; 2: 798–800.
Svensson, B, Hansson, N.
Patients satisfaction with inpatient psychiatric care. Acta Psychiatr Scand
1994; 90: 379–84.
McKenna, B, Simpson, A, Coverdale, J.
Patients' perceptions of coercion on admission to forensic psychiatric hospital: a comparison study. Int J Law Psychiatry
2003; 26: 355–72.
Kousmanen, L, Hätönen, H, Malkavaara, H, Kylmä, J, Välimäki, M.
Deprivation of liberty in psychiatric hospital care: the patient's perspective. Nurs Ethics
2007; 14: 597–607.
Bonsack, C, Borgeat, F.
Perceived coercion and need for hospitalization related to psychiatric admission. Int J Law Psychiatry
2005; 28: 342–7.
Olofsson, B, Jacobsson, N.
A plea for respect: involuntarily hospitalized psychiatric patients' narratives about being subjected to coercion. J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs
2001; 8: 357–66.
Kallert, T, Glöckner, M, Onchev, G, Raboch, J, Karastergiou, A, Solomon, Z, et al. The EUNOMIA project on coercion in psychiatry: study design and preliminary data. World Psychiatry
2005; 4: 168–72.
Burns, T, Yeeles, K, Molodynski, A, Nightingale, H, Vazquez-Montes, M, Sheehan, K, et al. Pressure to adhere to treatment (‘leverage’) in English mental healthcare. Br J Psychiatry
2011; 199: 145–50.
Thompson, S, Higgins, J.
How should meta-regression analyses be undertaken and interpreted?
2002; 21: 1559–73.
Coercion in psychiatric care: what have we learned from research?
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law
1998; 26: 631–7.
Newton-Howes, G, Weaver, T, Tyrer, P.
Attitudes of staff towards patients with personality disorder in community mental health teams. Aust N Z J Psychiatry
2008; 42: 572–7.
Towards an ethical standard for coerced mental health treatment: least restrictive or most therapeutic?
J Clin Ethics
1998; 9: 235–46.
Newton-Howes, G, Mullen, R.
Coercion in psychiatric care: systematic review of correlations and themes. Psychiatr Serv
2011; 62: 465–70.