1 Although the more common term in the sciences is ‘outer space’, I have decided to use ‘Space’ as way of signalling one of the main arguments in current debates about the historic periodization of extraterrestrial exploration. This focuses on the determination of the Cosmos as a bordered territory, as informed by military assumptions that shaped the first historic exercises on the topic. In other words, by capitalizing Space, I am suggesting a conceptual equivalence with the Cosmos at large.
Turkina, Olesya, Space Soviet Dogs (London: Fuel Design, 2014), p. 98
Astropolitics, The International Journal of Space Politics & Policy, at www.tandfonline.com/loi/fast20#.V3LDPpN96_A, accessed 29 June 2016.
Dick, Steven J. and Launius, Roger D., eds., Societal Impacts of Spaceflight (Washington, DC: NASA, 2007).
Bormann, Natalie and Sheehan, Michael, eds., Securing Outer Space (New York: Routledge, 2009).
Bell, David and Parker, Martin, eds., Space Travel and Culture: From Apollo to Space Tourism (Maldon, MA: Blackwell, 2009).
Geppert, Alexander, Imagining Outer Space: European Astroculture in the Twentieth Century (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012).
Dickens, Peter and Ormrod, James, eds., Palgrave Handbook of Society, Culture and Outer Space (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016).
Patersen, Stephen, Space-Age Aesthetics: Lucio Fontana, Yves Klein, and the Postwar European Avant Garde (Pennsylvania: Penn State University Press, 2009). Nicola Triscott, ‘Transmissions from the Noosphere: Contemporary Art and Outer Space’, in Dickens and Ormrod, Palgrave Handbook of Society, Culture and Outer Space, pp. 488–529.
7 Eustace shared his experience in a TedTalk conducted in September 2015. ‘I Leapt from the Stratosphere. Here's How I Did It’, YouTube, 28 September 2015, at www.youtube.com/watch?v=c-rWtqConY8, accessed 11 May 2016.
Ryan, Craig, Pre-astronauts, Manned Ballooning on the Threshold of Space (Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 2003), p. xi.
Arendt, Hannah, The Human Condition (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1998), p. 1
11 Arendt, The Human Condition, p. 2.
12 See ‘Human Research Program’, NASA, 28 May 2016, at www.nasa.gov/1ym, accessed 18 June 2016.
16 The ISS document of official agreement is available online: ‘SPACE STATION: Agreement Between the UNITED STATES OF AMERICA and OTHER GOVERNMENTS’, plus signatory pages, at www.state.gov/documents/organization/107683.pdf, accessed 18 June 2016.
Ó Tuathail, Gerard, Critical Geopolitics (London: Routledge, 1996), p. 26
Havercroft, Jonathan and Duvall, Raymond, ‘Critical Astropolitics: The Geopolitics of Space Control and the Transformation of State Sovereignty’, in Bormann, Natalie and Sheehan, Michael, Securing Outer Space (New York: Routledge, 2009), pp. 42–58.
20 As Kevin Polpetter from the UCLA Institute of Global Conflict and Cooperation put it in testimony at the US–China Economic and Security Review hearing on China's Space and Counterspace programmes on 18 February 2015: ‘At its current trajectory, China's space program, even if not the equal of the U.S. space program, will at some point be good enough to adequately support modern military operations, compete commercially, and deliver political gains that will serve its broader strategic interest of again being a major power more in control of its own destiny’. For the complete minutes of the hearing see ‘Hearing before the U.S.–China Economic and Security Review Commission’, 18 February 2015, at http://origin.www.uscc.gov/sites/default/files/transcripts/February%2018%2C%202015_Transcript.pdf, accessed 12 May 2016.
Villareal, Alberto, Desierto Bajo la Escenografía Lunar (Mexico City: TeatroSinParedes, 2012).
22 The fact that Villareal's main character is a girl suggests an inquiry into gendered dimensions of the production of knowledge about Space. A relevant entry point to the conversation about Space and gender in the current astropolitical climate could be a study of the group of scientists who made the Indian mission Mangalyaan possible. Mangalyaan is India's first interplanetary mission, and placed the cheapest satellite ever in orbit around Mars in September 2014. On the day the mission accomplished its orbit around Mars, an image of members of this group of scientists, all of them women dressed in saris, quickly circulated around the planet. Against the image of the typical white male scientist with spectacles, these Indian scientists suggest a compelling contrast.
23 I have deliberately selected Independece Day in order to signal the debate about race and Space that has found salient examples in
Between Camps: Nations, Cultures and the Allure of Race (London: Penguin, 2000); and the more recent
Anderson, Reynaldo and Jones, Charles E., eds., Afrofuturism 2.0: The Rise of Astro-blackness (London: Lexington Books, 2015).
24 ‘Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies’, at www.unoosa.org/pdf/gares/ARES_21_2222E.pdf, pp. 13–14, accessed 15 June 2016.
26 Jill Stuart, ‘Unbounding Sovereignity, Territory and the State in Outer Space: Two Approaches’, in Bormann and Sheehan, Securing Outer Space, pp. 8–23, here p. 19.
28 In October 2014, two PhD students at MIT published an independent report in which they outlined their diagnosis of MarsOne's plans to colonize Mars. The report did a close inspection of the technology as well as other simpler factors such as food rations. It concluded that based on the publicly displayed information the project was far from attainable. The report gained traction some months later, when the same students confronted MarsOne's CEO, Bas Lansdorp, during the latter's presentation at the Mars Society Conference on 13 August 2015. Since then, their report has been published and is freely available at Sydney Do, Andrew Owens, Koki Ho, Samuel Schreiner and Olivier de Weck, ‘An Independent Assessment of the Technical Feasibility of the Mars One Mission Plan: Updated Analysis’, Acta Astronautica, 120 (March-April 2016), pp. 192-228, at www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0094576515004294, accessed 10 May 2016.
32 Author interview with Honor Harger, ArtScience Musuem, Singapore, 30 May 2016.
37 Natalie Bormann, ‘The Lost Dimension? A Spatial Reading of US Weaponization of Space’, in Bormann and Sheehan, Securing Outer Space, pp. 76–90.