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Staging Public Blackness in Mid-Twentieth-Century Peru: The Repertoires of Pancho Fierro and Cumanana

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  08 April 2020

Heidi Carolyn Feldman
Visiting Scholar, Center for Iberian and Latin American Studies at the University of California, San Diego
E-mail address:


In 1951, Victoria (1922–2014) and Nicomedes Santa Cruz (1925–92) attended a performance at Lima's Teatro Municipal (Municipal Theatre) by the Katherine Dunham Dance Company. Dunham (1909–2006), an African American choreographer and anthropologist, pioneered a “research-to-performance” method to study African-derived dances in the Caribbean and stage them in stylized choreographies. Elite Lima patrons walked out of the theatre during the danced African fertility rite in Dunham's “Rites de Passage,” but the performance left a lasting impression on the Santa Cruzes. Nicomedes Santa Cruz later described the event as the first positive staged demonstration of blackness in Peru—and Victoria Santa Cruz stated that, when they saw Katherine Dunham's production, they knew they had to do something similar. The Santa Cruzes went on to lead a revival of Afro-Peruvian arts in the 1960s and 1970s.

Copyright © American Society for Theatre Research 2020

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This article appears for the first time in English with permission of the Fondo Editorial de la Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú. An earlier version was originally published in Spanish as “Escenificando la negritud en la Lima de mediados del siglo XX: Las compañías Pancho Fierro y Cumanana,” trans. Adriana Soldi, in Lima siglo XX: Cultura, socialización, y cambio, ed. Carlos Aguirre and Aldo Panfichi (Lima: Fondo Editorial de la Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, 2013), 199–234. Some material was previously published in my book Black Rhythms of Peru: Reviving African Musical Heritage in the Black Pacific (Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 2006). I am grateful to the anonymous reviewers and to Marlis Schweitzer for their excellent questions and suggestions.


1 Clark, VéVé, “Performing the Memory of Difference in Afro-Caribbean Dance: Katherine Dunham's Choreography, 1938–87,” in History and Memory in African-American Culture, eds. Fabre, Geneviève and O'Meally, Robert (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994), 188204Google Scholar.

2 Cruz, Nicomedes Santa, “De Senegal y Malambo,” Caretas 479 (1973): 22–4Google Scholar, at 24; Victoria Santa Cruz, conversation with the author, Lima, 19 March 2000.

3 William David Tompkins, “The Musical Traditions of the Blacks of Coastal Peru” (Ph.D. diss., University of California, Los Angeles, 1981), 106.

4 The Spanish décima is a poetic form that came to the Americas with the Spanish conquest and was adopted in Peru by rural black and indigenous populations. A decimista composes and/or recites original décimas.

5 Feldman, Heidi Carolyn, Black Rhythms of Peru: Reviving African Musical Heritage in the Black Pacific (Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 2006)Google Scholar; Romero, Raúl R., “Black Music and Identity in Peru: Reconstruction and Revival of Afro-Peruvian Musical Traditions,” in Music and Black Ethnicity: The Caribbean and South America, ed. Béhague, Gerard H. (Coral Gables: North–South Center Press, University of Miami, 1994), 307–30Google Scholar; Tompkins, 105–12; Javier Francisco León Quirós, “The Aestheticization of Tradition: Professional Afroperuvian Musicians, Cultural Reclamation, and Artistic Interpretation” (Ph.D. diss., University of Texas, Austin, 2003), 10–13; and interviews, by the author, of Roberto Arguedas, Lima, 25 March 2000; Abelardo Vásquez, Lima, 5 March 2000; Juan Carlos “Juanchi” Vásquez, Lima, 4 February 2000; Carlos “Caitro” Soto de la Colina, Lima, 17 February 2000.

6 Feldman, Heidi Carolyn, “Strategies of the Black Pacific: Music and Diasporic Identity in Peru,” in Comparative Perspectives on Afro-Latin America, eds. Dixon, Kwame and Burdick, John (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2012), 4271Google Scholar, at 61.

7 The term criollo originally described the children of Africans born into slavery and later included European descendants born in Peru. After independence, the word criollo came to describe a set of cultural practices associated with multiethnic coastal Peruvian populations that were believed to be of European origin, including música criolla.

8 Taylor, Diana, The Archive and the Repertoire: Performing Cultural Memory in the Americas (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

9 Bowser, Frederick P., The African Slave in Colonial Peru, 1524–1650 (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1974), 75Google Scholar.

10 Glave, Luis Miguel, “Origen de la cultura afroperuana,” in De cajón Caitro Soto: El duende en la música afroperuana, ed. Miró Quesada, Bernardo Roca Rey et al. (Lima: Servicios Especiales de Edición S.A. del Grupo Empresa Editora El Comercio, 1995), 1329Google Scholar, at 15.

11 Tompkins, 374.

12 Panfichi, Aldo, “Africanía, barrios populares y cultura criolla a inicios del siglo XX,” in Aguirre, Carlos et al. , Lo africano en la cultura criolla (Lima: Fondo Editorial del Congreso del Perú, 2000), 137–56Google Scholar, at 138; Stokes, Susan Carol, “Etnicidad y clase social: Los afro-peruanos de Lima, 1900–1930,” in Lima obrera 1900–1930, vol. 2, ed. Stein, Steve (Lima: Ediciones El Virrey, 1987), 171252Google Scholar.

13 See Romero, Raúl R., Debating the Past: Music, Memory and Identity in the Andes (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2001), 30Google Scholar.

14 León Quirós, “Aestheticization of Tradition,” 21–3; Cabrejo, Fanni Muñoz, “The New Order: Diversions and Modernization in Turn-of-the-Century Lima,” in Latin American Popular Culture: An Introduction, ed. Beezley, William H. and Curcio-Nagy, Linda A. (Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources, 2000), 155–68Google Scholar.

15 Romero, Debating, 124.

16 A. Vásquez interview, 5 March 2000; Soto de la Colina interview, 17 February 2000; Vicente Vásquez, interview with Rosa Elena (Chalena) Vásquez and Max Brandt (Lima, 17 July 1978), Centro de Etnomusicología Andina, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Lima, cassette recording, Rosa Elena Vásquez Collection, C/88/6/28.

17 Muñoz Cabrejo, 156; Panfichi H., Aldo, “Urbanización temprana de Lima, 1535–1900,” in Mundos interiores: Lima 1850–1950, ed. Panfichi H., Aldo and Portocarrero S., Felipe (Lima: Universidad del Pacífico, Centro de Investigación, 1995), 36–7Google Scholar.

18 Panfichi H., “Africanía,” 139–40.

19 Romero, “Black Music,” 314.

20 See Javier Francisco León Quirós, “El que no tiene de inga, tiene de mandinga: Negotiating Tradition and Ethnicity in Peruvian Criollo Popular Music” (M.A. thesis, University of Texas, Austin, 1997), 96–9; Amico, José Antonio Lloréns, Música popular en Lima: Criollos y andinos (Lima: Instituto de Estudios Peruanos and Instituto Indigenista Interamericano, 1983), 74–7Google Scholar.

21 Luis Tejada R., “Malambo,” in Mundos interiores, 145–60; Tompkins, 81–3.

22 Lloréns Amico, 25.

23 Feldman, Black Rhythms, 22–3.

24 See Lloréns Amico, 117–41; León Quirós, “El que no tiene,” 94–6, and “Aestheticization of Tradition,” 26–8; Romero, Debating, 91–122; de la Cadena, Marisol, “Silent Racism and Intellectual Superiority in Peru,” Bulletin of Latin American Research 17.2 (1998): 143–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar, at 153.

25 Lloréns Amico, 60–1; León Quirós “El que no tiene,” 42–5.

26 Aguirre, Carlos, “Nicomedes Santa Cruz: La formación de un intelectual público afroperuano,” Historica 37.2 (2013): 137–68Google Scholar, at 144–5; defender and invasión italic in the original. [N.B.: Unless otherwise noted, all translations from Spanish-language sources are my own.] See Feldman, Black Rhythms, 19–23; Lloréns Amico, 87–94.

27 See Fell, Eve Marie, “Du folklore rural au folklore commercial: Une Expérience dirigiste au Pérou,” CMHLB Caravelle 48 (1987): 5968Google Scholar.

28 Indigenismo was a movement led by urban mestizos in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries that celebrated Peru's indigenous heritage in literature, arts, and politics. See Fell, 60–1.

29 Luciano, José and Pastor, Humberto Rodriguez, “Peru,” trans. Smith, Meagan, in No Longer Invisible: Afro-Latin Americans Today, ed. Minority Rights Group (London: Minority Rights Publications, 1995), 271–86Google Scholar, at 281.

30 Lloréns Amico, 61.

31 León Quirós, “El que no tiene,” 99–100; Lloréns Amico, 44–53.

32 Taylor, Diana, Theatre of Crisis: Drama and Politics in Latin America (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1991), 1Google Scholar.

33 For discussions of indigenous theatrical expression in Peru, see Natella, Arthur Jr., The New Theatre of Peru (Montclair, NJ: Senda Nueva de Ediciones, 1982)Google Scholar; Oleszkiewicz, Malgorzata, Teatro popular peruano: Del precolombino al siglo XX (Warsaw: CESLA y el Instituto Austríaco, 1995)Google Scholar; Dean, Carolyn, “The Ambivalent Triumph: Corpus Christi in Colonial Cusco, Peru,” in Acting on the Past: Historical Performance across the Disciplines, ed. Franko, Mark and Richards, Annette, 159–76 (Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press [Hanover, NH: UPNE], 2000)Google Scholar.

34 Montesano, Denice, “Peru,” in Encyclopedia of Latin American Theater, ed. Cortés, Eladio and Barrea-Marlys, Mirta (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2003), 378–98Google Scholar, at 379.

35 Oleszkiewicz, 23–4, “teatro frívolo” at 23; also see Morris, Robert J., The Contemporary Peruvian Theatre (Lubbock: Texas Tech University, 1977), 7Google Scholar.

36 Oleszkiewicz, 25.

37 In the sixteenth century, public performance of black Peruvian music and dance was restricted to the Plaza de Nicolás de Ribera “El Mozo.” In 1722, black dances (including the panalivio and the serini) were denounced by the Catholic Church for perceived obscenity, and in 1817 the church prohibited dances using devils, giants, and other figures. In the nineteenth century, the perceived “indecency” of the zamacueca was the subject of a public scandal. See Juan Carlos Estenssoro Fuchs, “Música y comportamiento festivo de la población negra en Lima colonial,” Cuadernos Hispanoamericanos 451–2 (1988), 161–8, at 166; Tompkins, 26–8, 34, 62–76, 258–9.

38 Muñoz Cabrejo, 157, 161–2; Aída Balta Campbell, Historia general del teatro en el Perú (Lima: Escuela de Ciencias de la Comunicación, Universidad de San Martín de Porres), 63.

39 Taylor, Theatre of Crisis, 39.

40 See Polar, Jorge Cornejo, El costumbrismo en el Perú: Estudio y antología de cuadros de costumbres (Lima: Ediciones Copé, 2001)Google Scholar; Montalvo, César Toro, Historia de la literatura peruana, vol. 4: Costumbrismo y literatura negra del Perú (Lima: Editorial San Marcos, 1995)Google Scholar; Balta Campbell, 73–6; del Saz, Agustín, Teatro social hispanoamericano (Barcelona: Editorial Labor, 1967)Google Scholar; Montesano, 381–2; Natella, 21–4.

41 Saz, 36.

42 See Robert J. Morris, “The Peruvian Theater, 1946–1966” (Ph.D. diss., University of Kentucky, 1968), 6.

43 Tompkins, 62, 70–1, 74. As Marisol de la Cadena writes (“Silent Racism”), the notion of “decency” has long been used in Peruvian society, instead of explicit references to race or ethnicity, to exclude non-Europeans from social acceptance and mobility, thus creating an environment of “silent racism.”

44 Segura, Manuel Ascensio, Artículos, Poesías, y Comedias (Lima: Carlos Prince, 1885)Google Scholar, cited and translated in Tompkins, 62.

45 Tompkins, 73–5.

46 Balta Campbell, 75–6. Also see Natella, 22.

47 Morris, “Peruvian Theater,” 8; Montesano, 381–2; Reedy, Daniel R. and Morris, Robert J., “The Lima Theatre, 1966–67,” Latin American Theatre Review 1.1 (1967): 2638Google Scholar, at 33.

48 Spitta, Silvia, “Lima, the Horrible: The Cultural Politics of Theft,” PMLA 122.1 (2007): 294300CrossRefGoogle Scholar, at 295.

49 Eduardo Hopkins Rodríguez, “Teatro peruano: Panorama teatral 1900–1968,” Seminario “Panorama teatral peruano, siglo XX” (1988), 2–3, cited in Oleszkiewicz, 26.

50 “Renace lo costumbrista: Con las exitosas presentaciones de las Cias. ‘Pancho Fierro’ y ‘Estampas de Mi Tierra’ vislúmbrase el triunfo del folklore,” La Crónica, 8 June 1956, 23; “Gran éxito de ‘Pancho Fierro’ es triunfo del arte peruano,” La Prensa, 12 June 1956, 13.

51 Palma, Ricardo, Tradiciones peruanas completas [1872–1910], 3d ed. (Madrid: Aguilar 1957)Google Scholar. See Tompkins (104–5) for discussion of the “Ricardo Palma” group, an early predecessor of the Pancho Fierro company and the first group known to have included black Peruvian music as part of its larger repertoire of criollo genres in a theatrical presentation (in 1936).

52 For a discussion of Palma as a “special case” (“caso especial”) within costumbrismo, see Cornejo Polar, 45–6, 391–7.

53 León Quirós, “Aestheticization of Tradition,” 54.

54 Dauster, Frank N., Historia del teatro hispanoamericano: Siglos XIX y XX (Mexico: Ediciones de Andrea, 1973), 134–5Google Scholar; Field Researchers and Staff, “Perú,” trans. Joanne Rotermundt–De la Parra, in The World Encyclopedia of Contemporary Theatre, vol. 2: The Americas, eds. Don Rubin and Carlos Solórzano (New York: Routledge, 1996), 363–76, at 364; Morris, Contemporary Peruvian Theatre, 9–10; Oleszkiewicz, 28–9.

55 Lloréns Amico, 62.

56 Bondy, Sebastián Salazar, Lima la horrible (Mexico City: Ediciones Era S.A., 1964), 1213Google Scholar, 26. Salazar Bondy attributes the phrase “extraviada nostalgia” to Raúl Porras Barrenechea.

57 Rosaldo, Renato, Culture & Truth: The Remaking of Social Analysis, 2d ed. (Boston: Beacon Press, 1993), 69Google Scholar.

58 Salazar Bondy, 20. See the discussion of criollo nostalgia in Feldman, Black Rhythms, 17–25.

59 The involvement of Peruvians identified as “white criollos” continued throughout the revival with the participation of Chabuca Granda, César Calvo, Leslie Lee, and others in creative and leadership roles.

60 Luis Millones, interview with the author, Lima, 21 March 2000.

61 Cortest, Luis, ed. Homenaje a José Durand (Madrid: Editorial Verbum, 1993), 9Google Scholar.

62 Soto de la Colina interview, 17 February 2000; Tompkins, 106.

63 Quoted in Rosa Elena (Chalena) Vásquez Rodríguez, La práctica musical de la población negra en Perú: La danza de negritos de El Carmen (Havana: Casa de las Américas, 1982), 37.

64 José Durand Flórez, El señor de la jarana, videocassette recording of television documentary (Lima: Panamericana Televisión, Channel 5, 1979); Feldman, Black Rhythms, 32–42; Tompkins, 267–8.

65 For names of individual performers in the Pancho Fierro company, see Feldman, Heidi Carolyn, “Escenificando la negritud en la Lima de mediados del siglo XX: Las compañías Pancho Fierro y Cumanana,” trans. Soldi, Adriana, in Lima siglo XX: Cultura, socialización, y cambio, ed. Aguirre, Carlos and Panfichi, Aldo (Lima: Fondo Editorial de la Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, 2013), 199234Google Scholar.

66 See Feldman, Heidi Carolyn, “Interrogating Blackface in the Afro-Peruvian Revival,” e-misferica 5.2 (2008)Google Scholar,, accessed 31 December 2008.

67 See Feldman, “Escenificando”; “Mañana debuta el ‘Ballet Negro’” La Prensa, 6 June 1956, 6; “Debuta hoy Compañia ‘Pancho Fierro’ en el Teatro Municipal,” La Crónica, 7 June 1956, 23; and Tompkins, 107, for names of pieces performed in the program.

68 The marinera is a national Peruvian song and dance form with regional variations including the marinera limeña, an expression of criollo coastal culture.

69 Nicomedes Santa Cruz, “Estampas de Pancho Fierro,” Expreso, 2 February 1964, 7.

70 Various artists, Música negra: Grandes éxitos (Disvensa/Sono Radio, compact disc, CD-DIS 00026044, 1998).

71 Soto de la Colina interview, 17 February 2000.

72 All lyrics cited and translated in Tompkins, 521 (with slight retranslations by the author).

73 See my analysis of the festejo's emergence as an archetype of blackness in the revival in Feldman, Black Rhythms, 159–62. Also see Tompkins's history and analysis of the festejo (240–54).

74 Quirós, Javier León, “Mass Culture, Commodification, and the Consolidation of the Afro-Peruvian ‘Festejo’Black Music Research Journal 26.2 (2006): 213–47Google Scholar, at 218; León Quirós, “Aestheticization of Tradition,” 176.

75 Tompkins, 242. A performance of “Que se quema el zango” by Juan Criado is transcribed and translated in William Tompkins's 1981 dissertation (518–21). The Música negra CD sleeve credits Armando Ortiz Lambert as the composer, and H. Saramé as arranger, whereas Tompkins designates the song's authorship as “traditional.” In general, competing claims regarding authorship of festejos collected, arranged, embellished, and published in this manner in the revival were very common. For a discussion of this problem, see León Quirós, “Aestheticization of Tradition,” 179 n. 117.

76 Walker, Charles F., Shaky Colonialism: The 1746 Earthquake-Tsunami in Lima, Peru and Its Long Aftermath (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2008), 157CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

77 Tompkins, 247–8.

78 León Quirós, “Mass Culture,” 233–4; Feldman, Black Rhythms, 161–2.

79 Interviews, by the author, of Teresa Mendoza Hernández, Lima, 14 March and 24 October 2000, and Felix Casaverde, Lima, 23 February 2000.

80 J. Vásquez interview, Lima, 4 February 2000 (“había que quitar los elementos eróticos”); see also Monica Rojas, “Docile Devils: Performing Activism through Afro-Peruvian Dance” (Ph.D. diss., University of Washington, 2007), 96, 101–2.

81 León Quirós, “Aestheticization of Tradition,” 218–29, quotes at 224–5. See also de la Cadena, “Silent Racism.”

82 “Ballet negro ‘Pancho Fierro’ será repuesto el 30 de Julio,” La Prensa, 25 July 1956, 8.

83 “Reponen espectáculo folklórico costeño,” La Crónica, 13 June 1956, 12.

84 “Pancho Fierro,” El Comercio, 17 July 1956, 4.

85 “Renace lo costumbrista,” La Crónica, 8 June 1956, 23.

86 “Gran éxito de ‘Pancho Fierro’ es triunfo del arte peruano,” La Prensa, 12 June 1956, 13.

87 “Renace lo costumbrista,” La Crónica, 8 June 1956, 23.

88 Nicomedes Santa Cruz, “Ritmos Negros del Perú,” Expreso, 9 February 1964, 7.

89 Mario Campos, “José Durand al Son de los Diablos,” Caretas, 26 October 1987, 12–13.

90 “Productor de ‘Pancho Fierro’ da respuesta a comunicado,” La Prensa, 8 August 1956, 4.

91 “‘Pancho Fierro’ se presentará el jueves 17 en coso de Acho,” La Crónica, 13 January 1957, 19.

92 “Espectáculo ‘Pancho Fierro’ actuará el martes en Acho,” La Prensa, 9 January 1957, 6.

93 “Acho será escenario el jueves de la mas grande jarana criolla,” La Crónica, 14 January 1957, 12.

94 “Diez mil tributaron en Acho homenaje a Chabuca Granda,” La Prensa, 18 January 1957, 6.

95 “Esta noche se presenta en Acho el espectáculo ‘Pancho Fierro,’” La Prensa, 17 January 1957, 6.

96 “Diez mil tributaron,” La Prensa, 18 January 1957, 6.

97 “Con nuevos cuadros, el conjunto ‘Ritmo Negro del Perú’ se presentará el sábado en el Teatro Municipal,” La Crónica, 8 May 1957, 23.

98 “‘Ritmo Negro del Perú’ hará su debut en Chile el 5 de junio,” La Crónica, 31 May 1957, 23.

99 Nicomedes Santa Cruz, “Ritmos Negros del Perú.”

100 A. Vásquez interview, 5 March 2000.

101 Tompkins, 99–100.

102 Aguirre, 145; aceptados italic in the original.

103 See Urquieta, Octavio Santa Cruz, Mi tío Nicomedes (Lima: Ediciones Noche de Sol, 2015)Google Scholar; Rafael Santa Cruz, “La familia Santa Cruz,” in Aguirre et al., Lo africano en la cultura criolla, 177–86.

104 Cruz, Victoria Santa and Cruz, Nicomedes Santa, “Malató,” program from a theatrical performance (Lima: Teatro Principal Manuel A. Segura, 1961)Google Scholar.

105 “La Compañia de Arte Negro Debutará Hoy en La Cabaña,” La Prensa, 13 March 1960, n.p.

106 “Negros que cantan y danzan,” unknown newspaper, 18 March 1960, 8.

107 “Exótica brujería negra y estampas del callejón irán al teatro con Kumanana,” La Crónica, 4 March 1960, 5.

108 See Feldman, “Escenificando,” for a cast list. Reenactments of some scenes from Zanahary may be viewed in Victoria Santa Cruz's La magia del ritmo (2004), broadcast by TVPerú,, accessed 25 January 2020; and two songs from Zanahary are re-created on Victoria Santa Cruz's CD Ritmos y aires Afroperuanos (Discos Hispanos del Perú S.A. CD RH 10.0044, 1995).

109 The scene “Las lavanderas” from “Callejón de un solo caño” is described in both the printed program and the TVPerú broadcast video of La magia del ritmo as a “costumbrista sketch.”

110 “Exótica brujería,” La Crónica, 4 March 1960, 5.

111 Mendoza Hernández interviews, Lima, 14 March and 24 October 2000.

112 Victoria Santa Cruz y Gente Morena, Con Victoria Santa Cruz y Gente Morena (IEMPSA, CD IEM-0414-2, 2000 [original LP, 1971]).

113 Nicomedes Santa Cruz composed a separate décima about Zanahary after learning about the religious beliefs of Africans in Madagascar, for whom Zanahary is the supreme divinity; see Nicomedes Santa Cruz, Décimas, Chilean ed. (Santiago de Chile: Ediciones Ercilla, n.d. [1959?]).

114 Mendoza Hernández interviews, Lima, 14 March and 24 October 2000.

115 Ibid., 14 March 2000. Batá drums are played in Afro-Cuban Santería ritual ceremonies. In the Afro-Peruvian revival, musical rhythms and instruments borrowed from Cuba were adopted in re-created Afro-Peruvian genres. In Figure 4, a single double-headed drum similar to a batá drum is shown.


116 See, for example, Victoria Santa Cruz Gamarra, liner notes to Ritmos y aires afroperuanos; “Descubrimiento y Desarrollo del sentido rítmico,” Folklore: Reencuentro del hombre con sus raíces 2 (1979): 4–7, at 4; Ritmo el eterno organizador / Rhythm the Eternal Organizer, trans. Susan Polansky (Lima: PETROPERU Ediciones Copé, 2004), rereleased online in 2019 at, 64.

117 “Exótica brujería,” La Crónica, 4 March 1960, 5.

118 “Negros que cantan,” unknown newspaper, 18 March 1960, 8.

119 “Nicomedes Santa Cruz actuará en La Cabaña,” El Comercio, 11 March 1960, 16.

120 “Nicomedes Santa Cruz y su Conjunto Negroide triunfaron ampliamente en debut en La Cabaña,” La Crónica, 14 March 1960, 17.

121 “Nicomedes Santa Cruz y su Conjunto Negroide,” 17.

122 “Exótica brujería,” 5.

123 For a list of cast members, songs, and more detailed discussion of the plot, see Feldman “Escenificando.”

124 V. and N. Santa Cruz, “Malató,” program, 1961. Victoria Santa Cruz released revised versions of two songs from Malató on the CD Ritmos y aires afroperuanos.

125 Taylor, Archive, 19–20, 21, 36.

126 See Hobsbawm, Eric and Ranger, Terence, The Invention of Tradition (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983)Google Scholar; and Lipsitz, George, “Why Remember Mama? The Changing Face of a Women's Narrative,” in Time Passages: Collective Memory and American Popular Culture (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1990), 7798Google Scholar.

127 See Rojas, 206–14, 287–90; Pastor, Humberto Rodríguez, Negritud: Afroperuanos—Resistencia y existencia (Lima: CEDET, 2008)Google Scholar; Greene, Shane, “Entre lo indio, lo negro, y lo incaico: The Spatial Hierarchies of Difference in Multicultural Peru,” Journal of Latin American and Caribbean Anthropology 12.2 (2007): 441–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar; John Thomas III, “Theorizing Afro-Latin Social Movements: The Peruvian Case,” unpublished paper, presented at the Comparative Politics Workshop, University of Chicago (28 May 2009).

128 Luís Millones interview, 21 March 2000; Rojas, 146–8.

129 Thomas, 18.

130 Movimiento Negro Francisco Congo, “Manifiesto. Plataforma. Estatutos” (Lima: Movimiento Negro Francisco Congo, 1987); J. C. Vásquez interview, Lima, 4 February 2000.

131 Cruz, Rafael Santa and Johnston, Phillip, dirs., Son de los diablos, DVD (Lima: Encuentros Latinoamericanos, Cimarrones: Comunicación Interétnica Global, Philmagem, 2004)Google Scholar; Rojas, 214–65; Romero, “Black Music.”

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