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Ranulf Flambard and Early Anglo-Norman Administration. (The Alexander Prize Essay)

  • R. W. Southern
Extract

The importance of Flambard in Rufus's reign has always been acknowledged. All the chroniclers, in more or less strident language, put him in the forefront of those responsible for Rufus's exactions and lay the blame chiefly on him for the misfortunes they relate. Stubbs in working out his idea of constitutional development gave Flambard a more determined position in this scheme than he had ever held before. It will first be useful to see what kind of picture of Flambard he and, later, Freeman evolved. The chief difficulty Stubbs had in Rufus's reign was to find some guiding hand for the “hardening and sharpening” of feudalism which in his view was going on at that time, and for the introduction of new feudal practices. He required some single and unscrupulous innovator to account for a process which he thought time alone would not have brought about. Stubbs, looking from the point of view of constitutional development, explained the evolution of the conditions described in Henry I's coronation charter as the work of Flambard. The charter showed, for instance, heirs to feudal fiefs having to buy back their lands on the death of the holder instead of merely paying a relief—a stringency which he explained by the discovery of a legal mind working out feudal principle.

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page 95 note 1 Stubbs, , Const. Hist., I. 324–8.

page 96 note 1 Round, Feudal England, Chap, on Knight Service.

page 97 note 1 Armitage Robinson, Gilbert Crispin, pp. 41–2, and cf. Liber Eliensis, ed. Stewart, § 135.

page 97 note 2 Vol. I., pp. 329–57.

page 97 note 3 Wm. of Malms., Hist. Pont., R.S., p. xvii and p. 274.

page 97 note 4 Peterborough Chronicle (ed. Sparke), A.D. 1099.

page 98 note 1 Eadmer, Hist. Nov., R.S., pp. 53–67.

page 98 note 2 Hist. Nov., p. 41.

page 98 note 3 Feudal England, p. 226.

page 99 note 1 D. M. Stenton, E.H.R., Vol. 39, p. 79.

page 99 note 2 Flor. of Worcester (ed. Hearne), 1094, Vol. II, p. 35.

page 100 note 1 Eccl. Hist. (Ed. Soc. Hist, de Fr.), Introd., p. xxxvi.

page 100 note 2 Plummer's edit, of Earle's Two A.-S. Chronicles parallel, p. xxxv.

page 100 note 3 Wm. of Malm., Gesta Regum, Introd., pp. xix—xx.

page 100 note 4 Migne, Patrol. Vol. 159, col. 201. The letter was written just after Anselm's return from exile in 1100.

page 100 note 5 Eccl. Hist., Bk. X, Chap. 8.

page 100 note 6 Simeon of Durham, R.S., Vol. I, p. 136.

page 101 note 1 A.-S. Chron., A.D. 1099.

page 101 note 2 Hry. of Huntingdon, A.D. 1099.

page 101 note 3 E.H.R., Vol. 28, p. 153.

page 101 note 4 Normans and Angevins, p. 79 and note: “Treasurer and Chaplain are the only titles for which we have documentary evidence.”

page 101 note 5 Camb. Med. Hist., Vol. V, p. 522.

page 101 note 6 Historiœ Dunelmensis Scriptores Tres (Surtees Soc), p. xxii, and No. 318 in the Regesta. But the order of witnesses in the Regesta is rather confused. Actually they come in four columns, in the last of which are the names Ranulf the treasurer, Mervin, Ælaf, Orm, Aldred, priests, Robert dispensator Regis, Siward Bran.

page 101 note 7 Orderic's phrase (Bk. X, Chap. 18) “summus regiarum procurator opum” might imply something of the kind. But he then goes on to expand this into a story of Ranulf's exactions, so it looks as if he were merely referring to him, as elsewhere, as the chief agent of extortion.

page 102 note 1 Poole, Exchequer in the Twelfth Century, pp. 23–6.

page 102 note 2 Hist. of Ch. of York, R.S., Vol. II., p. 103.

page 102 note 3 Round, Calender of Documents preserved in France, p. 442. Also Hist, of Church of York (R.S., Vol. II, p. 102), where he is mentioned as being with the Archbishop in 1093.

page 102 note 4 Freeman, W.R., II, 536.

page 102 note 5 Monasticon, VI, p. 1173.

page 102 note 6 Northallerton, Kirkby Siggeston and Brompton.

page 103 note 1 Ann. Winton, A.D. 1097. This figure may be exaggerated, but from the remarks of others, and especially Eadmer, it cannot be wholly extravagant.

page 103 note 2 Simeon of Durham, R.S., I, 135.

page 103 note 3 Round, Feudal England, pp. 308–10.

page 103 note 4 Regesta, No. 387.

page 103 note 5 English Feudalism, p. 220. I have to thank Dr. Previté-Orton for drawing my attention to this.

page 104 note 1 Liber Eliensis, ed. Stewart, § 135.

page 104 note 2 Hist. Nov., p.41.

page 105 note 1 Regesta, No. 322.

page 105 note 2 Ibid., 420.

page 105 note 3 Ibid., 321.

page 105 note 4 Ibid., 385.

page 105 note 5 Ibid., 399.

page 106 note 1 Ord. Vit., Eccl. Hist. Bk. X, Chap. 8.

page 106 note 2 Ibid., Bk. VIII, Chap. 8: see Freeman, W. R., App. U.

page 107 note 1 English Commonwealth, Vol. II, p. ccccxlvii.

page 107 note 2 Const. Hist., Vol. I, p. 327, where he is very cautious.

page 107 note 3 Eccl. Hist., Bk. IV, Chap. 7.

page 107 note 4 Ibid., Bk. VII, Chap. 11.

page 107 note 5 Ibid., Bk. VIII, Chap. 8.

page 107 note 6 Regesta, No. 422 and lxii: Præcipio vobis ut ita admensuratis Abbatiam de Thorneia de geldis scotis et servitio militum et de omnibus consuetudinibus sicut melius admensuratus est aliquis honor in tota Anglia qui tantundem terram habet quantum est in Abbatia de Thorneia.” Round, in his review of the Regesta (E.H.R., 1914) pointed out the importance of this writ. He adds that “it is the more noteworthy because Thorney Abbey was not one of those which in the 12th Century owed Knight Service.”

page 108 note 1 See Round's Essays in Domesday Studies.

page 108 note 2 Always badly drained and flooded during a great part of the year.

page 109 note 1 Hist. Eccl., Book IV, Chap. 15.

page 109 note 2 See writs of Wm. I and II about lands of Ely, etc.

page 109 note 3 Ramsey Cartulary, R.S., I, p. 121.

page 110 note 1 Haskins, Norman Institutions, where he points out how fluid was the list of witnesses and how few charters are issued in Robert's own name (pp. 70–8).

page 110 note 2 Eccl. Hist., Bk. VIII, Chap. 8.

page 110 note 3 Regesta, Nos. 321, 322, 420, 442, 448, 484, 485.

page 111 note 1 Regesta, Nos. 387, 400, 416, 418, 422.

page 111 note 2 Ibid., No. 315: 1091 at Dover.

page 111 note 3 Ibid., No. 315 at Dover; 337, 429 Winchester; 385, 427 Salisbury; 347. 377 Hastings; 481 Brockenhurst; 464, 485 Westminster; 355 Brigstock; 418 Brampton.

page 112 note 1 Liebermann, E.H.R., Vol. 28, p. 153.

page 112 note 2 E.H.R., Vol. 27, pp. 105–6.

page 112 note 3 Ord. Vit., Bk. VIII, Chap. 8.

page 112 note 4 Ibid., Bk. VI, Chap. 2.

page 112 note 5 A.D. 1124; Select Charters, p. 115.

page 113 note 1 Eccl. Hist., Bk. VIII, Chap. 8.

page 113 note 2 Ibid.

page 113 note 3 Hist, of Ch. of York, II, p. 102.

page 113 note 4 The Durham account of the attempt on his life [see below] speaks of his former master Maurice—Simeon, i, 136–8. The only doubt is that Hugh the Chanter says expressly, “Sigillum patris vestri sub Mauritio cancellario custodiebat.”

page 113 note 5 Hist. of Ch. of York, Ibid.

page 113 note 6 Regesta, p. xxi.

page 113 note 7 § 135.

page 113 note 8 Eccl. Hist., Bk. VIII, Chap. 8.

page 113 note 9 D.B., i, 51 a 2, 49 a 2.

page 113 note 10 D.B., i, 58 a 2.

page 113 note 11 Ibid., 157 a 1.

page 113 note 12 Ibid., 30 b 2.

page 113 note 13 Ibid., 67 a 1.

page 113 note 14 Ibid., 89 b 2.

page 113 note 15 Ibid., 54 a 1.

page 114 note 1 D.B., i, 30 b 2. See also Sarum Documents No. I [R.S.] where Henry I grants the churches of Godalming and Heytesbury to Salisbury: Ranulf to continue to hold them for life as a canon.

page 114 note 2 Ibid., 187 b 2.

page 114 note 3 Ibid., 134 a 1, 135 a 1.

page 114 note 4 Monasticon, I, 461.

page 114 note 5 Farrer, Itinerary, No. 115.

page 114 note 6 Thomas of Ely, Historia Eliensis in Anglia Sacra, i, p. 614. This is the only mention we have of a London church.

page 114 note 7 D.B., i, 59 a 1.

page 114 note 8 Monasticon, I, 508.

page 114 note 9 Chron. Abingdon, R.S., ii, p. 84.

page 114 note 10 Two Bath Cartularies [Somerset Rec. Soc, VII, p. 54.

page 115 note 1 Ord. Vit., X, 18. Duplicate writ in Ramsey Cartulary, I, 149.

page 115 note 2 Regesta, Nos. 389, 416, 422, 424.

page 115 note 3 Ibid., No. 399.

page 115 note 4 Craster, Archeologia Aeliana, 1930, p. 47, writ No. XVI.

page 115 note 5 Regesta, No. 361; Monasticon, VI, 303.

page 115 note 6 Monasticon VI, 480.

page 115 note 7 Anglia Sacra, i, p. 614.

page 115 note 8 Regesta, Nos. 464, 480. Orderic [Eccl. Hist., X, 2] says that the rents and property of vacant bishoprics were in the hands of Flambard and his brother Fulcher.

page 115 note 9 Monasticon, VIII, 1273, No. 30.

page 116 note 1 Simeon, R.S., II, p. 231.

page 116 note 2 Migne, Vol. 159, col. 201.

page 117 note 1 Parker, E.H.R., Vol. 27, p. 32.

page 118 note 1 Cf. also the Colchester tradition assigning Eudo the chief part in inciting Rufus to seize the English crown (Freeman, W. R., ii. 463–4).

page 118 note 2 Eccl. Hist., X, 18.

page 118 note 3 Migne, Vol. 159, col. 202.

page 118 note 4 Ord. Vit., Eccl. Hist., X, 18.

page 118 note 5 W.R., II, 398, quotes the passage from Orderic where he says Ranulf's mother was known “pro scelestis incantationibus.” Roger of Hoveden gives the date (Vol. I, pp. 157, 158). Also description of escape in Simeon of Durham.

page 119 note 1 Simeon of Durham, Lives of the Bishops, p. 138.

page 119 note 2 Ord. Vit., X, 18.

page 119 note 3 Ivo of Chartres, Ep. 149.

page 120 note 1 Ivo of Chartres, Ep. 149, 153, 154, 157.

page 120 note 2 Haskins, Norman Institutions, p. 287.

page 120 note 3 Ivo of Chartres, Ep. 157.

page 120 note 4 Craster, Arch. Ael., Nos. XI–XVII.

page 120 note 5 Ibid., No. XVIII.

page 120 note 6 Ibid., No. XIX.

page 121 note 1 Craster, Arch. Ael., No. IX.

page 121 note 2 Ibid., No. X.

page 121 note 3 Simeon of Durham, II, p. 361.

page 121 note 4 Farrer, Itinerary of Hy. I (E.H.R., 1919), No. 114.

page 121 note 5 Ibid., No. 115.

page 121 note 6 Ibid., No. III.

page 122 note 1 Davis, Normans and Angevins, p. 128.

page 122 note 2 Ep. 157.

page 122 note 3 Suger, Vita Ludovici (Soc. de l'hist. de Fr.), p. 57.

page 123 note 1 Craster, Nos. XXIX, XXX. These, however, may be part of a later episode. See Anglia Sacra, i, p. 699, Anno 1113. Henricus rex, Ranulpho Dunelmensi Episcopo insensus, villam et Ecclesiam Hagustandensem ab Ecclesia Dunelmensi abripuit, etc.

page 123 note 2 Craster, No. XXV.

page 123 note 3 Ibid., No. XXIII.

page 123 note 4 Eccl. Hist., Bk. XI, Chap. 31.

page 124 note 1 Farrer, No. III.

page 124 note 2 Hist, of Ch. of York, ii, 132.

page 124 note 3 Ibid., ii, 196.

page 124 note 4 Simeon of Durham, i, 138.

page 124 note 5 Hist, of Ch. of York, ii, 121–2.

page 124 note 6 Ibid., ii, 124, where he is said to have offered Henry 1,000 marks of silver and the Queen 100.

page 125 note 1 Roger of Hoveden, R.S., I, p. 174.

page 125 note 2 Hist, of Ch. of York, ii, 166.

page 125 note 3 Simeon of Durham, i, 260.

page 126 note 1 Lapsley, County Palatine of Durham, p. 94.

page 126 note 2 Ibid., p. 81.

page 126 note 3 Durham, Original Charters and Cartularium Vetus, ff. 9–10, with their witnesses, Osbert ‘nepos’ (later sheriff), Robert ‘nepos,’ William fitz Rannulf, Ranulf ‘nepos’ and archdeacon.

page 126 note 4 Durham Charters, No. 6. Cf. Regesta, No. 322.

page 126 note 5 Durham, Cart. Vet., fol. 68. Regal Charters, Nos. X and XI.

page 126 note 6 John of Hexham in Simeon of Durham, ii, p. 312.

page 127 note 1 Lapsley, op. cit., p. 316.

page 127 note 2 Feodarium Prioratus Dunelmensis, p. 145 (Surtees Soc, Vol. 58).

page 127 note 3 Durham Charters, Nos. 1 and 2.

page 127 note 4 Simeon of Durham, ii, p. 231.

page 127 note 5 D.B., i, 120 b, for complaints of his thefts from the church of Exeter.

page 127 note 6 Hist. of Abingdon, R.S., ii, p. 43, for the depredations of these two.

page 128 note 1 Suger, Vita Ludovici, pp. 10–11.

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