Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-pftt2 Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-05-29T04:59:47.837Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Herbicide Resistance: Toward an Understanding of Resistance Development and the Impact of Herbicide-Resistant Crops

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  20 January 2017

William K. Vencill*
Affiliation:
Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, University of Georgia, 3111 Miller Plant Science Building, 120 Carlton Street, Athens, GA 30502
Robert L. Nichols
Affiliation:
Cotton Incorporated, 6399 Weston Parkway, Cary, NC 27513
Theodore M. Webster
Affiliation:
Crop Protection and Management Research Unit, USDA–Agricultural Research Service, Tifton, GA 31794
John K. Soteres
Affiliation:
Department of Scientific Affairs, Monsanto Company, 800 N. Lindburgh Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63167
Carol Mallory-Smith
Affiliation:
Department of Crop and Soil Science, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331
Nilda R. Burgos
Affiliation:
Department of Crop, Soil, and Environmental Sciences, University of Arkansas, 1366 West Atheimer Drive, Fayetteville, AR 72704
William G. Johnson
Affiliation:
Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1155
Marilyn R. McClelland
Affiliation:
Department of Crop, Soil, and Environmental Sciences, University of Arkansas, 1366 West Atheimer Drive, Fayetteville, AR 72704
*
Corresponding author's E-mail: wvencill@uga.edu
Rights & Permissions [Opens in a new window]

Extract

Core share and HTML view are not available for this content. However, as you have access to this content, a full PDF is available via the ‘Save PDF’ action button.

Development of herbicide-resistant crops has resulted in significant changes to agronomic practices, one of which is the adoption of effective, simple, low-risk, crop-production systems with less dependency on tillage and lower energy requirements. Overall, the changes have had a positive environmental effect by reducing soil erosion, the fuel use for tillage, and the number of herbicides with groundwater advisories as well as a slight reduction in the overall environmental impact quotient of herbicide use. However, herbicides exert a high selection pressure on weed populations, and density and diversity of weed communities change over time in response to herbicides and other control practices imposed on them. Repeated and intensive use of herbicides with the same mechanisms of action (MOA; the mechanism in the plant that the herbicide detrimentally affects so that the plant succumbs to the herbicide; e.g., inhibition of an enzyme that is vital to plant growth or the inability of a plant to metabolize the herbicide before it has done damage) can rapidly select for shifts to tolerant, difficult-to-control weeds and the evolution of herbicide-resistant weeds, especially in the absence of the concurrent use of herbicides with different mechanisms of action or the use of mechanical or cultural practices or both.

Type
Weed Biology and Ecology
Creative Commons
Creative Common License - CCCreative Common License - BYCreative Common License - NCCreative Common License - ND
This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-No Derivatives licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/), which permits noncommercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is unaltered and is properly cited.
Copyright
Copyright © Weed Science Society of America

References

Literature Cited

Abraham, C. T. and Singh, S. P. 1984. Weed management in sorghum-legume intercropping systems. J. Agric. Sci. 103:103115.Google Scholar
Akemo, M. C., Regnier, E. E., and Bennett, M. A. 2000. Weed suppression in spring-sown rye (Secale cereale)—pea (Pisum sativum) cover crop mixes. Weed Technol. 14:545549.Google Scholar
Aldrich, R. J. 1984. Weed-crop ecology: principles in weed management. North Scituate, MA Breton. 465 p.Google Scholar
Alkämper, N. 1976. Influences of weed infestation on effect of fertilizer dressings. Pflschutz. Nachr. Bayer. 29:191235.Google Scholar
American Soybean Association. 2001. Conservation Tillage Study. St. Louis, MO ASA. http://www.soygrowers.com. Accessed: August 19, 2010.Google Scholar
Amrhein, N., Deus, B., Gehrke, P., and Steinrücken, H. C. 1980. The site of the inhibition of the shikimate pathway by glyphosate, II: interference of glyphosate with chorismate formation in vivo and in vitro. Plant Physiol. 66:830834.Google Scholar
Anaele, A. O. and Bishnoi, U. R. 1992. Effects of tillage, weed control method and row spacing on soybean yield and certain soil properties. Soil Tillage Res. 23:333340.Google Scholar
Anderson, B. 1986. Influence of crop density and spacing on weed competition and grain yield in wheat and barley. Pages 121128 in Proceedings of the European Weed Research Society Symposium: Economic Weed Control. Stuttgart, Germany EWRS.Google Scholar
Anderson, M. P. and Gronwald, J. W. 1991. Atrazine resistance in a velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti) biotype due to enhanced glutathione-S-transferase activity. Plant Physiol. 96:104109.Google Scholar
Anderson, R. L., Bowman, R. A., Nielsen, D. C., Vigil, M. F., Aiken, R. M., and Benjamin, J. D. 1999. Alternative crop rotations for the central great plains. J. Prod. Agric. 12:9599.Google Scholar
Appleby, A. P. 2005. A history of weed control in the United States and Canada—a sequel. Weed Sci. 53:762768.Google Scholar
Arce, G. D., Pedersen, P., and Hartzler, R. G. 2009. Soybean seeding rate effects on weed management. Weed Technol. 23:1722.Google Scholar
Arriola, P. E. and Ellstrand, N. C. 1996. Crop-to-weed gene flow in the genus Sorghum (Poaceae): spontaneous interspecific hybridization between Johnsongrass, Sorghum halepense, and crop sorghum, S. bicolor . Am. J. Bot. 83:11531160.Google Scholar
Ateh, C. M. and Doll, J. D. 1996. Spring-planted winter rye (Secale cereale) as a living mulch to control weeds in soybean (Glycine max). Weed Technol. 10:347353.Google Scholar
Avila, L. A., Lee, D. J., Senseman, S. A., McCauley, G. N., Chandler, J. M., and Cothren, J. T. 2005a. Assessment of acetolactate synthase (ALS) tolerance to imazethapyr in red rice ecotypes (Oryza spp.) and imidazolinone tolerant/resistant rice (Oryza sativa) varieties. Pest Manag. Sci. 61:171178.Google Scholar
Avila, L. A., Senseman, S. A., McCauley, G. N., Chandler, J. M., and O'Barr, J. H. 2005b. Effect of flood timing on red rice (Oryza spp.) control with imazethapyr applied at different dry-seeded rice growth stages. Weed Technol. 19:476480.Google Scholar
Ballare, C. L. and Casal, J. J. 2000. Light signals perceived by crop and weed plants. Field Crops Res. 67:149160.Google Scholar
Bangarwa, S. K., Norsworthy, J. K., and Gbur, E. E. 2009. Integration of a Brassicaceae cover crop with herbicides in plasticulture tomato. Weed Technol. 23:280286.Google Scholar
Bangarwa, S. K., Norsworthy, J. K., Gbur, E. E., Zhang, J., and Habtom, T. 2011. Allyl isothiocyanates: a methyl bromide replacement in polyethylene-mulched bell pepper. Weed Technol. 25:9096.Google Scholar
Barberi, P. 2002. Weed management in organic agriculture: are we addressing the right issues? Weed Res. 42:177193.Google Scholar
Barnes, J. P. and Putnam, A. R. 1986. Evidence of residues by residues and aqueous extract in rye (Secale cereale). Weed Sci. 34:384390.Google Scholar
Bartels, P. G. and Watson, W. 1978. Inhibition of carotenoid synthesis by fluridone and norflurazon. Weed Sci. 26:198203.Google Scholar
Beckie, H. J. 2007. Beneficial management practices to combat herbicide-resistant grass weeds in the northern Great Plains. Weed Technol. 21:290299.Google Scholar
Beckie, H. J. and Gill, G. S. 2006. Strategies for managing herbicide-resistant weeds. Pages 581625 in Singh, H. P., Batish, D. R., and Kohli, R. K., eds. Handbook of Sustainable Weed Management (Crop Science). Binghamton, NY Haworth.Google Scholar
Beckie, H. J., Hall, L. M., Meers, S., Laslo, J. J., and Stevenson, F. C. 2004. Management practices influencing herbicide resistance in wild oat. Weed Technol. 18:853859.Google Scholar
Beckie, H. J., Harker, K. N., Hall, L. M., Warwick, S. I., Legere, A., Sikkema, P. H., Clayton, G. W., Thomas, A. G., Leeson, J. Y., Seguin-Swartz, G., and Simard, M. J. 2006. A decade of herbicide-resistant crops in Canada. Can. J. Plant Sci. 86:12431264.Google Scholar
Beckie, H. J., Johnson, E. N., Blackshaw, R. E., and Gan, Y. 2008. Weed suppression by canola and mustard cultivars. Weed Technol. 22:182185.Google Scholar
Beckie, H. J., Warwick, S. I., Nair, H., and Séguin-Swartz, G. 2003. Gene flow in commercial fields of herbicide-resistant canola (Brassica napus). Ecol. Appl. 13:12761294.Google Scholar
Belz, R. G. 2007. Allelopathy in crop/weed interactions—an update. Pest Manag. Sci. 63:308326.Google Scholar
Bhagat, R. M., Bhuiyan, S. I., and Moody, K. 1996. Water, tillage and weed interactions in lowland tropical rice: a review. Agric. Water Manag. 31:165184.Google Scholar
Bing, D. J., Downey, R. K., and Rakow, G. F. W. 1996. Hybridations among Brassica napus, B. rapa and B. juncea and their two weedy relatives B. nigra and Sinapis arvensis under open pollination conditions in the field. Plant Breed. 115:470473.Google Scholar
Blackshaw, R. E. and Brandt, R. N. 2008. Nitrogen fertilizer rate effect on weed competitiveness is species dependent. Weed Sci. 56:743747.Google Scholar
Blackshaw, R. E. and O'Donovan, J. T. 1993. Higher crop seed rates can aid weed management. Proc. Brighton Crop Prot. Conf. 3:10031008.Google Scholar
Blackshaw, R. E., Brandt, R. N., Janzen, H., and Entz, T. 2004a. Weed species response to phosphorus fertilization. Weed Sci. 52:406412.Google Scholar
Blackshaw, R. E., Brandt, R. N., Janzen, H., Entz, T., Grant, C., and Derksoen, C. A. 2003. Differential of weed species to added nitrogen. Weed Sci. 51:532539.Google Scholar
Blackshaw, R. E., Harker, K. N., O'Donovan, J. T., Beckie, H. J., and Smith, E. G. 2008. Ongoing development of integrated weed management systems on the Canadian prairies. Weed Sci. 56:146150.Google Scholar
Blackshaw, R. E., Molnar, L. J., and Janzen, H. H. 2004b. Nitrogen fertilizer timing and application method affect weed growth and competition with spring wheat. Weed Sci. 52:614622.Google Scholar
Blackshaw, R. E., Moyer, J. R., Harker, K. N., and Clayton, G. W. 2005. Integration of agronomic practices and herbicides for sustainable weed management in zero-till barley-field pea rotation. Weed Technol. 19:190196.Google Scholar
Boerboom, C. and Owen, M. D. 2006. Facts about glyphosate-resistant weeds. in The Glyphosate, Weeds, and Crops Series. GWC-1. West Lafayette, IN Purdue University. 5 p. http://www.extension.purdue.edu/extmedia/GWC/GWC-1.pdf. Accessed: September 1, 2010.Google Scholar
Böger, P., Matthes, B., and Schmalfuβ, J. 2000. Toward the primary target of chloroacetamides: new findings pave the way. Pest. Manag. Sci. 56:497508.Google Scholar
Brittan, K. 2006. Methods to enable the coexistence of diverse corn production systems. in Agricultural Biotechnology in California Series. Oakland, CA University of California Publication 8192.Google Scholar
Brookes, G. and Barfoot, P. 2005. GM crops: The global economic and environmental impact – the first nine years 1996–2004. Agbioforum. 8:187196. http://www.agbioforum.org. Accessed: November 4, 2011.Google Scholar
Brookes, G. and Barfoot, P. 2006. Global impact of biotech crops: Socio-economic and environmental effects in the first ten years of commercial use. Agbioforum. 9:139151. http://www.agbioforum.org. Accessed: August 24, 2010.Google Scholar
Brookes, G. and Barfoot, P. 2009. GM Crops: Global Socio-Economic and Environmental Impacts 1996–2007. Dorchester, UK PG Economics.Google Scholar
Brookes, G. and Barfoot, P. 2011a. GM Crops: Global Socio-Economic and Environmental Impacts 1996–2008. Dorchester, UK PG Economics.Google Scholar
Brookes, G. and Barfoot, P. 2011b. Global impact of biotech crops: environmental effects 1996–2009. GM Crops Food. 2:116.Google Scholar
Bryant, K. J. 2007. What will glyphosate-resistant pigweed cost mid-south cotton? Delta Farm Press. May 11.Google Scholar
Buhler, D. D. 1997. Effects of tillage and light environment on emergence of 13 annual weeds. Weed Technol. 11:496501.Google Scholar
Buhler, D. D. 2002. Challenges and opportunities for integrated weed management. Weed Sci. 50:273280.Google Scholar
Burgos, N. L. 2004. Introduction to the symposium on metabolic mechanisms conferring resistance to herbicides. Weed Sci. 52:440.Google Scholar
Burgos, N. R. and Talbert, R. E. 2000. Differential activity of allelochemicals from Secale cereale in seedling bioassays. Weed Sci. 48:302310.Google Scholar
Burgos, N. R., Shivrain, V. K., English, L., Gbur, E., Sales, M. A., Lamego, F., and Bradley, E. 2010. Field scale pollen flow from ‘CL171’ herbicide-resistant rice to conventional rice in Arkansas. Abstract O-65. in Working Landscapes: Providing for the Future; Denver, CO. Lawrence, KS Society for Range Management and Weed Science Society of America. Vol. 50.Google Scholar
Burton, J. D., Gronwald, J. W., Somers, D. A., Gengenbach, B. G., and Wyse, D. L. 1989. Inhibition of corn acetyl-CoA carboxylase by cyclohexanedione and arylphenoxypropionate herbicides. Pest. Sci. 34:7685.Google Scholar
Busbice, T. H., Hill, R. R. Jr., and Carnahan, H. L. 1972. Genetics and breeding procedures. Pages 283318 in Hanson, C. H., ed. Alfalfa Science and Technology. Madison, WI American Society of Agronomy.Google Scholar
Carey, V. F., Hoagland, R. E., and Talbert, R. E. 1997. Resistance mechanism of propanil-resistant barnyardgrass: II. In-vivo metabolism of the propanil molecule. Pestic. Sci. 49:333338.Google Scholar
Carpenter, J. and Gianessi, L. 1999. Herbicide tolerant soybeans: why growers are adopting Roundup Ready varieties. Agbioforum. 2:6572. http://www.agbioforum.org/v2n2/v2n2a02-carpenter.htm. Accessed: August 24, 2010.Google Scholar
Carrier, L. 1923. Vegetative planting. Bull. Green Sect. U. S. Golf Assoc. 3:102113.Google Scholar
Casida, J. E., Gray, R. A., and Tilles, H. 1974. Thiocarbamate sulfoxides: potent, selective, and biodegradable herbicides. Science. 184:573574.Google Scholar
Caton, B. P., Hill, J. E., Mortimer, M., Foin, T. C., and Lubigan, R. T. 2002. Canopy development of direct-seeded rice and some important grass and sedge weeds in response to water management. Agric. For. Meteorol. 111, 3953.Google Scholar
Caviness, C. E. 1966. Estimates of natural cross-pollination in Jackson soybeans in Arkansas. Crop Sci. 6:211212.Google Scholar
Cerdeira, A. L. and Duke, S. O. 2006. The current status and environmental impacts of glyphosate-resistant crops: a review. J. Environ. Qual. 35:16331658.Google Scholar
Chen, L. J., Lee, D. S., Song, Z. P., Suh, H. S., and Lu, B. R. 2004. Gene flow from cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) to its weedy and wild relatives. Ann. Bot. (Lond.) 93:6773.Google Scholar
Chèvre, A. M., Eber, F., Baranger, A., Hureau, G., Barret, P., Picault, H., and Renard, M. 1998. Characterization of backcross generations obtained under field conditions from oilseed rape-wild radish F1 interspecific hybrids: an assessment of transgene dispersal. Theor. Appl. Genet. 97:9098.Google Scholar
Chèvre, A. M., Eber, F., Darmency, H., Fleury, A., Picault, H., Letanneur, J. C., and Renard, M. 2000. Assessment of interspecific hybridization between transgenic oilseed rape and wild radish under normal agronomic conditions. Theor. Appl. Genet. 100:12331239.Google Scholar
Clewis, S. B., Thomas, W. E., Everman, W. J., and Wilcut, J. W. 2008. Glufosinate-resistant corn interference in glufosinate-resistant cotton. Weed Technol. 22:211216.Google Scholar
Colquhoun, J. B., Konieczka, C. M., and Rittmeyer, R. A. 2009. Ability of potato cultivars to tolerate and suppress weeds. Weed Technol. 23:287291.Google Scholar
Crutchfield, D. A., Wicks, G. A., and Burnside, O. C. 1985. Effect of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) straw mulch level on weed control. Weed Sci. 34:110114.Google Scholar
Cummins, I. and Edwards, R. 2010. The biochemistry of herbicide-resistance in weeds. Outlooks Pest Manag. 21:7377.Google Scholar
Darmency, H., Lefol, E., and Fleury, A. 1998. Spontaneous hybridizations between oilseed rape and wild radish. Mol. Ecol. 7:14671473.Google Scholar
de Almeida, F. S. 1985. Effect of some winter crop mulches on the soil weed infestation. Pages 651659 in Proceedings of the British Crop Conference. Brighton, UK British Crop Protection Council.Google Scholar
DeBruin, S. L. and Bork, E. W. 2006. Biological control of Canada thistle in temperate pastures using high density rotational cattle grazing. Biol. Control. 36:305315.Google Scholar
De Carvalho, S. J. P., Nicoliai, M., Ferreira, R. R., de Oiveiera Figueira, A. V., and Christoffoleti, P. J. 2009. Herbicide selectivity by differential metabolism: considerations for reducing crop damages. Sci. Agric. (Piracicaba, Braz.) 66:136142.Google Scholar
Deem, W., Hamill, A., Shropshire, C., Soltani, N., and Sikkema, P. H. 2006. Control of volunteer glyphosate-resistant corn (Zea mays) in glyphosate-resistant soybean (Glycine max). Weed Technol. 20:261266.Google Scholar
Deleye, C., Menchari, Y., Michel, S., and Darmency, H. 2004. Molecular basis for sensitivity to tubulin-binding herbicides in green foxtail. Plant Physiol. 136:3920–32.Google Scholar
Delouche, J. C., Burgos, N. R., Gealy, D. R., de San-Martin, G. Z., Labrada, R., Larinde, M., and Rosell, C. 2007. Weedy Rices: Origin, Biology, Ecology and Control. Rome Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 144 p.Google Scholar
Derksen, D. A., Lafond, G. P., Swanton, C. J., Thomas, A. G., and Loeppky, H. A. 1993. The impact of agronomic practices on weed communities: tillage systems. Weed Sci. 41:409417.Google Scholar
de Vida, F. B. P., Saca, E. A., Mackill, D. J., Fernandez, G. M., and Fischer, A. J. 2006. Relating rice traits to weed competitiveness and yield: a path analysis. Weed Sci. 54:11221131.Google Scholar
Devine, M. D., Duke, S. O., and Fedtke, C. 1993. Physiology of Herbicide Action. Englewood Cliffs, NJ Prentice Hall. 441 p.Google Scholar
Dhima, K. V., Vasilakoglou, I. B., Eleftherohorinos, I. G., and Lethourgidis, A. S. 2006. Allelopathic potential of winter cereals and their cover crop mulch effect on grass weed suppression and corn development. Crop Sci. 46:345352.Google Scholar
Dill, G. M. 2005. Glyphosate-resistant crops: history, status and future. Pest Manag. Sci. 61:219224.Google Scholar
Dill, G. M., CaJacob, C. A., and Padgette, S. R. 2008. Glyphosate-resistant crops: adoption, uses and future considerations. Pest Manag. Sci. 64:326331.Google Scholar
Dollacker, A. and Rhodes, C. 2007. Integrating crop productivity and biodiversity conservation pilot initiatives developed by Bayer CropScience. Crop Prot. 26:408416.Google Scholar
Donaghy, D. I. 1980. Effects of tillage systems on weed species. Pages 153158 in Fanning, C. D., ed. Proceedings of the Tillage Symposium. Fargo, ND North Dakota State University.Google Scholar
Duke, S. O. 2005. Taking stock of herbicide-resistant crops ten years after introduction. Pest Manag. Sci. 61:211218.Google Scholar
Duke, S. O. 2012. Why have no new herbicide modes of action appeared in recent years? Pest Manag. Sci. 68:505512. DOI: 10.1002/ps.2333 [published ahead of print December 22, 2011].Google Scholar
Duke, S. O. and Powles, S. B. 2009. Glyphosate-resistant crops and weeds: now and in the future. Agbioforum. 12:346357.Google Scholar
Duke, S. O., Lydon, J. L., Beccerril, J. M., Sherman, T. D., Lehnen, L. P., and Mausumoto, H. 1991. Protoporphyrinogen oxidase-inhibiting herbicides. Weed Sci. 39:465473.Google Scholar
Dunfield, K. E. and Germida, J. J. 2004. Impact of genetically modified crops on soil- and plant-associated microbial communities. J. Environ. Qual. 33:806815.Google Scholar
Elmore, C. D. and Moorman, T. B. 1988. Tillage related changes in weed species and other soil properties. Proc. South. Weed Sci. Soc. Am. 41:290.Google Scholar
[FAO] Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2003. Report of the FAO Expert Consultation on Environmental Effects of Genetically Modified Crops. http://www.fao.org/DOCREP/FIELD/006/AD690E/AD690E05.htm. Accessed: November. 4, 2011.Google Scholar
Fawcett, R. and Towery, D. 2002. Conservation tillage and plant biotechnology: how new technologies can improve the environment by reducing the need to plow. West Lafayette, IN Conservation Technology Information Center. http://croplife.intraspin.com/Biotech/papers/35%20Fawcett.pdf. Accessed: August 19, 2010.Google Scholar
Fay, P. K. 1990. A brief overview of the biology and distribution of weeds in wheat. Pages 3350 in Donald, W. W., ed. Systems of Weed Control in Wheat in North America. Champaign, IL Weed Science Society of America.Google Scholar
Fedtke, C. 1982. Biochemistry and Physiology of Herbicide Action. New York Springer-Verlag. 202 p.Google Scholar
Ferhatoglu, Y. and Barrett, M. 2006. Studies of clomazone mode of action. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 85:714.Google Scholar
Ferrando, J. C., Smith, J. E., Donato de Cobo, L. B., and Benefico, A. 1982. Investigacion en labranza reducida en el area de Castelar. Pages 7893 in Caballero, H. and Diaz, R., eds. Seminario Labranza Reducida en el Cono Sur. Colonia, Uruguay Instituto Interamericano de Cooperation par la Agricultera/Centro de Investigaciones Agricolas Alberto Boerger.Google Scholar
Fisk, J. W., Hesterman, O. B., Shrestha, A., Kells, J. J., Harwood, R. R., Squire, J. M., and Sheaffer, C. C. 2001. Weed suppression by annual legume cover crops in no-tillage corn. Agron. J. 93:319325.Google Scholar
Fitzpatrick, S., Reisen, P., and McCaslin, M. 2003. Pollen-mediated gene flow in alfalfa: a three year summary of field research. In: Proceedings of the 2003 Central Alfalfa Improvement Conference, Virtual Meeting July 21–25, 2003. http://www.foragegenetics.com/pdf/3RRA2003CAICAbstractGeneFlow.pdf. Accessed: September 8, 2010.Google Scholar
Focke, M. and Lichtenthaler, H. K. 1987. Inhibition of the acetyl-CoA carboxylase of barley chloroplasts by cycloxydim and sethoxydim. Z. Naturforsch. 42:13611363.Google Scholar
Foes, M. J., Liu, L., Vigue, G., Stller, E. W., Wax, L. M., and Tranel, P. J. 1999. A kochia (Kochia scoparia) biotype resistant to triazine and ALS-inhibiting herbicides. Weed Sci. 47:2027.Google Scholar
Forcella, F., Eradat-Oskoui, K., and Wagner, S. W. 1993. Application of weed seedbank ecology to low-input crop management. Ecol. Appl. 3:7483.Google Scholar
Foresman, C. and Glasgow, L. 2008. US grower perceptions and experiences with glyphosate-resistant weeds. Pest Manag. Sci. 64:388391.Google Scholar
Freed, B. E., Oplinger, E. S., and Buhler, D. D. 1987. Velvetleaf control for solid-seeded soybean in three corn residue management systems. Agron. J. 79:119123.Google Scholar
Frisvold, G. B., Hurley, T. M., and Mitchell, P. D. 2009. Adoption of best management practices to control weed resistance by cotton, corn, and soybean growers. in The 2009 Annual Meeting, July 26–28, 2009. Milwaukee, WI Agricultural and Applied Economics Association. Agbioforum. 12:370381.Google Scholar
Froud-Williams, R. J. 1981. Potential changes in weed floras associated with reduced-cultivation systems for cereal production in temperate regions. Weed Res. 21:99109.Google Scholar
Froud-Williams, R. J. 1988. Changes in weed flora with different tillage and agronomic management systems. Pages 213236 in Altieri, M. A., and Liebman, M., editors. Weed Management in Agroecosystems: Ecological Approaches. Boca Raton, FL. CRC.Google Scholar
Froud-Williams, R. J., Drennan, D. S. H., and Chancellor, R. J. 1983. Influence of cultivation regime on weed floras of arable cropping systems. J. Appl. Ecol. 20:187197.Google Scholar
Fuerst, E. P. 1987. Understanding the mode of action of chloroacetamide and thiocarbamate herbicides. Weed Technol. 1:270277.Google Scholar
Gaines, T. A., Zhang, W., Wang, D., Bukun, B., Chisholm, S. T., Shaner, D. L., Nissen, S. J., Patzoldt, W. L., Tranel, P. J., Culpepper, A. S., Grey, T. L., Webster, T. M., Vencill, W. K., Sammons, R. D., Jiang, J., Preston, C., Leach, J. E., and Westra, P. 2010. Gene amplification confers glyphosate resistance in Amaranthus palmeri . Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 107:10291034.Google Scholar
Ge, X., d'Avignon, D. A., Ackerman, J. H., and Sammons, R. D. 2010. Rapid vacuolar sequestration: the horseweed glyphosate resistance mechanism. Pest. Manag. Sci. 66:345348.Google Scholar
Gealy, D. R. 2005. Gene movement between rice (Oryza sativa) and weedy rice (Oryza sativa) – a U.S. temperate rice perspective. Pages 323354 in Gressel, J., ed. Crop Ferality and Volunteerism. Boca Raton, FL CRC.Google Scholar
Gealy, D. R., Bradford, K. J., Hall, L., Hellmich, R., Raybould, A., Wolt, J., and Zilberman, D. 2007. Implications of gene flow in the scale-up and commercial use of biotechnology-derived crops: economic and policy considerations. Ames, IA CAST (Council for Agricultural Science and Technology) Issue Paper 37. 24 p.Google Scholar
Gealy, D. R., Wailes, E. J., Estoninos, L. E., and Chavez, R. S. C. 2003. Rice cultivar differences in suppression of barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) and economics of reduced propanil rates. Weed Sci. 51:601609.Google Scholar
Georghiou, G. P. and Taylor, C. E. 1986. Factors influencing the evolution of resistance. Pages 157169 in Committee on Strategies for the Management of Pesticide Resistant Pest Populations, ed. Pesticide Resistance: Strategies and Tactics for Management. Washington, DC National Academies.Google Scholar
Giddings, G. 2000. Modeling the spread of pollen from Lolium perenne. The implications for the release of wind-pollinated transgenics. Theor. Appl. Genet. 100:971974.Google Scholar
Giddings, G. D., Sackville Hamilton, N. R., and Hayward, M. D. 1997a. The release of genetically modified grasses, part 1: pollen dispersal to traps in Lolium perenne . Theor. Appl. Genet. 94:10001006.Google Scholar
Giddings, G. D., Sackville Hamilton, N. R., and Hayward, M. D. 1997b. The release of genetically modified grasses. Part 2: the influence of wind direction on pollen dispersal. Theor. Appl. Genet. 94:10071014.Google Scholar
Gill, G. S. and Holmes, J. E. 1997. Efficacy of cultural control methods for combating herbicide-resistant Lolium rigidum . Pestic. Sci. 51:352358.Google Scholar
Givens, W. A., Shaw, D. R., Kruger, G. R., Johnson, W. G., Weller, S. C., Young, B. G., Wilson, R. G., Owen, M. D. K., and Jordan, D. 2009. Survey of tillage trends following the adoption of glyphosate-resistant crops. Weed Technol. 23:150156.Google Scholar
Gliddon, C. 1994. The impact of hybrids between genetically modified crop plants and their related species: biological models and theoretical perspectives. Mol. Ecol. 3:4144.Google Scholar
Green, J. M. and Jones, M. D. 1953. Isolation of cotton for seed increase. Agron. J. 45:366368.Google Scholar
Gressel, J. 2009. Evolving understanding of the evolution of herbicide resistance. Pest Manag. Sci. 65:11641173.Google Scholar
Gressel, J. and Segel, L. A. 1990. Modelling the effectiveness of herbicide rotations and mixtures as strategies to delay or preclude resistance. Weed Technol. 4:186198.Google Scholar
Grossmann, K. 2010. Auxin herbicides: current status of mechanism and mode of action. Pest Manag. Sci. 66:113120.Google Scholar
Grundy, A. C., Froud-Williams, R. J., and Boatman, N. D. 1992. The effects of nitrogen rate on weed occurrence in a spring barley crop. Asp. Appl. Biol. 30:377380.Google Scholar
Gulden, R. H., Shirtliffe, S. J., and Thomas, A. G. 2003a. Harvest losses of canola (Brassica napus) cause large seedbank inputs. Weed Sci. 51:8386.Google Scholar
Gulden, R. H., Shirtliffe, S. J., and Thomas, A. G. 2003b. Secondary seed dormancy prolongs persistence of volunteer canola in western Canada. Weed Sci. 51:904913.Google Scholar
Gunn, C. R. 1972. Seed characteristics. Pages 677687 in Hanson, C. H., ed. Alfalfa Science and Technology. Madison, WI American Society of Agronomy.Google Scholar
Gunsolus, J. L. 1990. Mechanical and cultural weed control in corn and soybeans. Am. J. Altern. Agric. 5:114119.Google Scholar
Gustafson, D. I. 2008. Sustainable use of glyphosate in North American cropping systems. Pest Manag. Sci. 64:409416.Google Scholar
Hall, J. C., Vanderloo, M. J., and Hume, D. J. 1996. Triazine-resistant crops: the agronomic impact and physiological consequences of chloroplast mutation. Pages 107126 in Duke, S. O., ed. Herbicide-Resistant Crops: Agricultural, Environmental, Economic, Regulator and Technical Aspects. Boca Raton, FL CRC.Google Scholar
Hall, L., Topinka, K., Huffman, J., Davis, L., and Good, A. 2000. Pollen flow between herbicide-resistant Brassica napus is the cause of multiple-resistant B. napus volunteers. Weed Sci. 48:688694.Google Scholar
Halsey, M. E., Remund, K. M., Davis, C. A., Qualls, M., Eppard, P. J., and Berberich, S. A. 2005. Isolation of maize from pollen-mediated gene flow by time and distance. Crop Sci. 45:21722185.Google Scholar
Hanson, D. E., Ball, D. A., and Mallory-Smith, C. A. 2002. Herbicide resistance in jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica): simulated responses to agronomic practices. Weed Technol. 16:156163.Google Scholar
Haramoto, E. R. and Gallandt, E. T. 2005. Brassica cover cropping, I: effects on weed and crop establishment. Weed Sci. 53:605701.Google Scholar
Harder, D. B., Sprague, C. L., and Renner, K. A. 2007. Effect of soybean row width and population on weeds, crop yield, and economic return. Weed Technol. 21:744752.Google Scholar
Harker, K. N., Clayton, G. W., Blackshaw, R. E., O'Donovan, J. T., and Stevenson, F. C. 2003. Seeding rate, herbicide timing, and competitive hybrids contribute to integrated weed management in canola (Brassica napus). Can. J. Plant Sci. 83:433440.Google Scholar
Hartmann, K. M. and Nezadal, W. 1990. Photocontrol of weeds without herbicides. Naturwissenschaften. 77:158163.Google Scholar
Heap, I. 2011. The International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds. http://www.weedscience.com. Accessed: December 5, 2011.Google Scholar
Heap, I. 2012. The International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds. http://www.weedscience.com. Accessed: January 29, 2012.Google Scholar
Heim, D. R., Skomp, J. R., Tschabold, E. E., and Larrinua, I. 1990. Isoxaben inhibits the synthesis of acid-insoluble cell wall materials in Arabidopsis thaliana . Plant Physiol. 93:695700.Google Scholar
Hill, J. E. and Bayer, D. E. 1990. Integrated systems for rice weed control. Pages 8589 in The 42nd Proceedings of the Annual California Weed Conference. Salinas, CA California Weed Science Society.Google Scholar
Hilton, H. W. 1957. Herbicide tolerant strains of weeds. in Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association Annual Report, 69 p, Honolulu, HI University of Hawaii, Manoa Library.Google Scholar
Hoagland, R. E., Norsworthy, J. K., Carey, F., and Talbert, R. E. 2004. Metabolically based resistance to the herbicide propanil in Echinochloa species. Weed Sci. 52:475486.Google Scholar
Holtum, J. A. M., Osmond, G., Matthews, J. M., Hausler, R. E., Ligegren, D. R., and Powles, S. B. 1991. Cross-resistance to herbicides in annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum), III: on the mechanism of resistance to diclofop-methyl. Plant Physiol. 97:10261034.Google Scholar
[HRAC] Herbicide Resistance Action Committee. 2009a. Guideline to Management of Herbicide Resistance. http://www.hracglobal.com/Publications/ManagementofHerbicideResistance. Accessed: November 10, 2011.Google Scholar
[HRAC] Herbicide Resistance Action Committee. 2009b. Glossary. http://www.hracglobal.com/Glossary/tabid/369/Default.aspx. Accessed: November 11, 2011.Google Scholar
Husted, R. F., Olin, J. F., and Upchurch, R. P. 1966. A new selective preemergence herbicide: CP-50144. in Proceedings of the Northern Central Weed Control Conference. 21:44.Google Scholar
Isik, D., Kaya, E., Ngouajio, M., and Mennan, H. 2009. Weed suppression in organic pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) with winter cover crops. Crop Prot. 28:356363.Google Scholar
Jasa, P. 2002. Conservation Tillage Systems. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska. http://agecon.okstate.edu/isct/labranza/jasa/tillagesys.doc. Accessed: September 15, 2010.Google Scholar
Johnson, W. G. and Gibson, K. D. 2006. Glyphosate-resistant weeds and resistance management strategies: an Indiana grower perspective. Weed Technol. 20:768772.Google Scholar
Johnson, W. G., Owen, M. D. K., Kruger, G. R., Young, B. G., Shaw, D. R., Wilson, R. G., Wilcut, J. W., Jordan, D. L., and Weller, S. C. 2009. U.S. farmer awareness of glyphosate-resistant weeds and resistance management strategies. Weed Technol. 23:308312.Google Scholar
Jones, R. E. and Medd, R. W. 2005. A methodology for evaluating risk and efficacy of weed management technologies. Weed Sci. 53:505514.Google Scholar
Jørgenson, R. B. and Andersen, B. 1994. Spontaneous hybridization between oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and weedy B. campestris (Brassicaceae) a risk of growing genetically modified oilseed rape. Amer. J. Bot. 81:16201626.Google Scholar
Jørgenson, R. B., Andersen, B., Landbo, L., and Mikkelsen, T. R. 1996. Spontaneous hybridization between oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and weedy relatives. Acta Hortic. 407:193200.Google Scholar
Julien, M. H. and Griffiths, M. W. 1998. Biological Control of Weeds: A world catalogue of agents and their targets. 4th ed. Wallingford, UK CABI. 223 p.Google Scholar
Kaminski, D. 2001. A year in review: 2001 pest problems across Manitoba. Pages 2226 in Proceedings of the Manitoba Agronomists Conference. Winnipeg, Manitoba University of Manitoba.Google Scholar
Kidd, B. R., Stephen, N. H., and Duncan, H. J. 1982. The effect of asulam on purine biosynthesis. Plant Sci. Lett. 26:211217.Google Scholar
Kimber, G. and Sears, E. R. 1987. Evolution in the genus Triticum and the origin of cultivated wheat. Pages 154164 in Heyne, E. G., ed. Wheat and Wheat Improvement. Agronomy Monograph No. 13. Madison, WI ASA, CSSA, SSSA.Google Scholar
King, L. D. and Buchanan, M. 1993. Reduced chemical input cropping systems in the Southeastern United States, I: effect of rotations, green manure crops and nitrogen fertilizer on crop yields. Am. J. Altern. Agric. 8:5877.Google Scholar
Kirkland, K. J. and Beckie, H. J. 1998. Contribution of nitrogen fertilizer placement to weed management in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum). Weed Technol. 12:507514.Google Scholar
Kleter, G. A., Harris, C., Stephenson, G., and Unsworth, J. 2008. Comparison of herbicide regimes and the associated potential environmental effects of glyphosate-resistant crops versus what they replace in Europe. Pest Manag. Sci. 64:479488.Google Scholar
Kovach, J., Petzoldt, C., Degni, J., and Tette, J. 1992. A method to measure the environmental impact of pesticides. New York's Food and Life Sciences Bulletin. Geneva, NY NYS Agricultural Experiment Station, Cornell University. Updated annually. http://www.nysipm.cornell.edu/publications/EIQ.html. Accessed: September 16, 2010.Google Scholar
Kreuz, K., Tommasini, R., and Martinoia, E. 1996. Old enzymes for a new job: herbicide detoxification in plants. Plant Physiol. 111:349353.Google Scholar
Krueger, R. W. 2001. The public debate on agrobiotechnology: A biotech company's perspective. Agbioforum. 4:209220.Google Scholar
Krutz, L. J., Locke, M. A., and Steinriede, W. Jr. 2009. Interactions of tillage and cover crop on water, sediment, and preemergence herbicide loss in glyphosate-resistant cotton: implications for the control of glyphosate-resistant biotypes. J. Environ. Qual. 38:12401247.Google Scholar
Labrada, R. 2006. Weed management: a basic component of modern crop production. Chapter 2. in Singh, H. P., Batish, D. R., and Kohli, R. K., eds. Handbook of Sustainable Weed Management (Crop Science). Binghamton, NY Haworth.Google Scholar
Lea, P. J., Joy, K. W., Ramos, J. L., and Guerroro, M. G. 1984. The action of 2-amino-4-(methylphosphiny])-butanoic acid (phosphinothricin) and its 2-oxo-derivative on the metabolism of cyanobacteria and higher plants. Phytochemistry. 23:16.Google Scholar
Lee, D. L., Prisbylla, M. P., Cromartie, T. H., Dagarin, D. P., Howard, S. W., Provan, W. M., Ellis, M. K., Fraser, T., and Mutter, L. C. 1997. The discovery and structural requirements of inhibitors of p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase. Weed Sci. 45:601609.Google Scholar
Lefol, E., Danielou, V., and Darmency, H. 1996. Predicting hybridization between transgenic oilseed rape and wild mustard. Field Crops Res. 45:153161.Google Scholar
Lefol, E., Danielou, V., Darmency, H., Boucher, F., Maillet, J., and Renard, M. 1995. Gene dispersal from transgenic crops. I. Growth of interspecific hybrids between oilseed rape and the wild hoary mustard. J. Appl. Ecol. 32:803808.Google Scholar
Legere, A., Beckie, H. J., Stevenson, F. C., and Thomas, A. G. 2000. Survey of management practices affecting the occurrence of wild oat (Avena fatua) resistance to acetyl-CoA carboxylase inhibitors. Weed Technol. 14:366376.Google Scholar
Legleiter, T. R. and Bradley, K. W. 2008. Glyphosate and multiple herbicide resistance in common waterhemp (Amaranthus rudis) populations from Missouri. Weed Sci. 56:582587.Google Scholar
Lemerle, D. R., Cousens, D., Gill, G. S., Pelzer, J., Moerkerd, M., Murphy, E. E., Collins, D., and Cullis, B. R. 2004. Reliability of higher seeding rates of wheat for increased competitiveness with weeds in low rainfall environments. J. Agric. Sci. 142:395409.Google Scholar
Lentini, Z. and Espinoza, A. M. 2005. Coexistence of weedy rice and rice in tropical America - gene flow and genetic diversity. Pages 305322 in Gressel, J., ed. Crop Ferality and Volunteerism. Boca Raton, FL CRC.Google Scholar
Levin, D. A. 1981. Dispersal versus gene flow in plants. Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard. 68:233253.Google Scholar
Levy, J. R. Jr., Bond, J. A., Webster, E. P., Griffin, J. L., Zhang, W. P., and Linscombe, S. D. 2006. Imidazolinone-tolerant rice response to imazethapyr application. Weed Technol. 20:389393.Google Scholar
Liebman, M. and Davis, A. S. 2000. Integration of soil, crop and weed management in low-external-input farming systems. Weed Res. 40:2747.Google Scholar
Liebman, M. and Dyck, E. 1993a. Crop rotation and intercropping strategies for weed management. Ecol. Appl. 3:92122.Google Scholar
Liebman, M. and Dyck, E. 1993b. Weed management: a need to develop ecological approaches. Ecol. Appl. 3:3941.Google Scholar
Llewellyn, R. S., Lindner, R. K., Pannell, D. J., and Powles, L. B. 2004. Grain grower perceptions and use of integrated weed management. Aust. J. Exp. Agric. 44:9931001.Google Scholar
Lorraine-Colwll, , Powles, S. B., Hawkins, T. R., Hollinshead, P. H., Warner, S. A. J., and Preston, C. 2002. Investigation into the mechanism of glyphosate resistance in Lolium rigidum . Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 74:6272.Google Scholar
Lotz, L. A. P., Groeneveld, R. M. W., Habekotteé, B., and Van Oene, H. 1991. Reduction of growth and reproduction of Cyperus esculentus by specific crops. Weed Res. 31:153160.Google Scholar
Lutman, P. J. W. 1991. Weed control in linseed: a review. Asp. Appl. Biol. 28:137144.Google Scholar
Malhi, S. S., Mumey, G., O'Sullivan, P. A., and Harker, K. N. 1988. An economic comparison of barley production under zero and conventional tillage. Soil Tillage Res. 11:159166.Google Scholar
Malik, M. S., Norsworthy, J. K., Culpepper, A. S., Riley, M. B., and Bridges, W. 2008. Use of wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum) and rye cover crops for weed suppression in sweet corn. Weed Sci. 56:588595.Google Scholar
Mallory-Smith, C. and Zapiola, M. 2008. Gene flow from glyphosate-resistant crops. Pest Manag. Sci. 64:428440.Google Scholar
Mancinelli, A. L. 1994. The physiology of phytochrome action. Pages 211269 in Kendrick, R. and Kronenberg, G., eds. Photomorphogenesis in Plants. 2nd ed. Dordrecht, The Netherlands Kluwer.Google Scholar
Melander, B. and Rasmussen, G. 2001. Effects of cultural methods and physical weed control on intrarow weed numbers, manual weeding and marketable yield in direct-sown leek and bulb onion. Weed Res. 41:491508.Google Scholar
Melander, B., Cirujeda, A., and Jorgensen, M. H. 2003. Effects of interrow hoeing and fertiliser placement on weed growth and yield of winter wheat. Weed Res. 43:428438.Google Scholar
Melander, B., Rasmussen, I. A., and Barberi, P. 2005. Integrating physical and cultural methods of weed control—examples from European research. Weed Sci. 53:369381.Google Scholar
Meredith, W. R. Jr. and Bridge, R. R. 1973. Natural crossing in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in the Delta of Mississippi. Crop Sci. 13:551552.Google Scholar
Mesquida, J. and Renard, M. 1982. Study of the pollen dispersal by wind and of the importance of wind pollination in rapeseed (Brassica napus var. oleifera metzger). Apidologie. 4:353366 [English summary].Google Scholar
Messeguer, J., Fogher, C., Guiderdoni, E., Marfà, V., Català, M. M., Baldi, G., and Melé, E. 2001. Field assessments of gene flow from transgenic to cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) using a herbicide resistance gene as tracer marker. Theor. Appl. Genet. 103:11511159.Google Scholar
Messeguer, J., Marfà, V., Català, M. M., Guiderdoni, E., and Melé, E. 2004. A field study of pollen-mediated gene flow from Mediterranean GM rice to conventional rice and the red rice weed. Mol. Breed. 13:103112.Google Scholar
Mirsky, S. B., Gallandt, E. R., Mortensen, D. A., Curran, W. S., and Shumway, D. L. 2010. Reducing the germinable weed seedbank with soil disturbance and cover crops. Weed Res. 50:341352.Google Scholar
Molisch, H. 1937. Der Einfluss einer Pflanze auf die Andere—Allelopathie. Jena, Germany Fischer. 106 p.Google Scholar
Moore, M. J., Gillespie, T. J., and Swanton, C. J. 1994. Effect of cover crop mulches on weed emergence, weed biomass, and soybean (Glycine max) development. Weed Technol. 8:512518.Google Scholar
Moss, S. R. 1979. The influence of tillage and method of straw disposal on the survival and growth and blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides) and its control by chlortoluron and isoproturon. Ann. Appl. Biol. 91:91100.Google Scholar
Moss, S. R. 1980. A study of populations of blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides) in winter wheat, as influenced by seed shed in the previous crop, cultivation system and straw disposal method. Ann. Appl. Biol. 94:121126.Google Scholar
Moss, S. R. 1985. The effect of drilling date, pre-drilling cultivations and herbicides on Alopecurus myosuroides (blackgrass) populations in winter cereals. in 9th Proceedings of the Biology and Control of Weeds in Cereals Conference. Asp. Appl. Biol. 9:3140.Google Scholar
Moss, S. R., Perryman, S. A. M., and Tatnell, L. V. 2007. Managing herbicide-resistant blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides): theory and practice. Weed Technol. 21:300309.Google Scholar
Muenscher, W. C. 1936. Storage and germination of seeds of aquatic plant. Pages 1624 in Weeds. New York, NY MacMillan.Google Scholar
Myers, D. F., Hanrahan, R., Michel, J., Monke, B., Mudge, L., Norton, L., Olsen, C., Parker, A., Smith, J., and Spak, D. 2009. Indaziflam/BCS-AA10717—a new herbicide for pre-emergent control of grasses and broadleaf weeds for turf and ornamentals. Abstr. Weed Sci. Soc. Am. No. 386.Google Scholar
Nair, M. 2005. Biosecurity and Bioterrorism:. Biodefense, Strategy, Practice, and Science. 3:175179 DOI:10.1089/bsp.2005.3.175. http://www.usda.gov/agencies/biotech/ac21/reports/tlpaperv37final.pdf.Google Scholar
Nandula, V. K. 2010. Herbicide resistance: definitions and concepts. Chapter 2. in Nandula, V. K., ed. Glyphosate Resistance in Crops and Weeds. Hoboken, NJ J. Wiley.Google Scholar
Neve, P. 2007. Challenges for herbicide resistance evolution and management: 50 years after Harper. Weed Res. 47:365369.Google Scholar
Neve, P. 2008. Simulation modelling to understand the evolution and management of glyphosate resistance in weeds. Pest Manag. Sci. 64:392401.Google Scholar
Neve, P. and Powles, S. 2005. High survival frequencies at low herbicide use rates in populations of Lolium rigidum result in rapid evolution of herbicide resistance. Heredity. 95:485492.Google Scholar
Neve, P., Diggle, A. J., Smith, F. P., and Powles, S. B. 2003. Simulating evolution of glyphosate resistance in Lolium rigidum, I: population biology of a rare resistance trait. Weed Res. 43:404417.Google Scholar
Neve, P., Norsworthy, J. K., Smith, K. L., and Zelaya, I. A. 2010. Modeling evolution and management of glyphosate resistance in Palmer amaranth . Weed Res. 51:99112.Google Scholar
Neve, P., Norsworthy, J. K., Smith, K. L., and Zelaya, I. A. 2011. Modeling glyphosate resistance management strategies for Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) in cotton. Weed Technol. 25:335343.Google Scholar
Niggli, U., Weibe, F. P., and Gut, W. 1990. Weed control from organic mulch materials in orchards: results from 8 year field experiments. Acta Hortic. 285:97102.Google Scholar
Noldin, J. A., Yokoyama, S., Antunes, P., and Luzzardi, R. 2002. Outcrossing potential of glufosinate-resistant rice to red rice. Planta Daninha. 20:243251.Google Scholar
Nordby, D. E., Alderks, D. L., and Nafziger, E. D. 2007. Competitiveness with weeds of soybean cultivars with different maturity and canopy width characteristics. Weed Technol. 21:10821088.Google Scholar
Norsworthy, J. K. 2003. Allelopathic potential of wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum). Weed Technol. 17L307313.Google Scholar
Norsworthy, J. K. and Meehan, J. T. IV. 2005. Use of isothiocyanates for suppression of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri), pitted morningglory (Ipomoea lacunosa), and yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus). Weed Sci. 53:884890.Google Scholar
Norsworthy, J. K. and Oliveira, M. J. 2004. Comparison of the critical period of weed control in wide- and narrow-row corn. Weed Sci. 52:802807.Google Scholar
Norsworthy, J. K., Burgos, N. R., and Oliver, L. R. 2001. Differences in weed tolerance to glyphosate involve different mechanisms. Weed Technol. 15:725731.Google Scholar
Norsworthy, J. K., Jha, P., and Bridges, W. Jr. 2007. Sicklepod survival and fecundity in wide- and narrow-row glyphosate-resistant soybean (Glycine max). Weed Sci. 55:252259.Google Scholar
Norsworthy, J. K., McClelland, M., Griffith, G., Bangarwa, S., and Still, J. 2011. Evaluation of cereal and Brassicaceae cover crops in conservation-tillage, enhanced glyphosate-resistant cotton. Weed Technol. 25:613.Google Scholar
Norsworthy, J. K., Neve, P., Smith, K. L., Foresman, C., Glasgow, L., and Zelaya, I. A. 2008. Use of a model to develop practical solutions for reducing risks of glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth in cotton. Fayetteville, AR: Arkansas Agric. Exp. Sta. Res. Ser. 573:97102.Google Scholar
Norsworthy, J. K., Smith, K. L., Steckel, L. E., and Koger, C. H. 2009. Weed seed contamination of cotton gin trash. Weed Technol. 23:574580.Google Scholar
O'Donovan, J. T., Blackshaw, R. E., Harker, K. N., Clayton, G. W., Moyer, J. R., Dosdall, L. M., Maurice, D. C., and Turkington, T. K. 2007. Integrated approaches to managing weeds in spring-sown crops in western Canada. Crop Prot. 26:390398.Google Scholar
[OECD] Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. 2000. Consensus Document on the Biology of Glycine max (L.) Merr. (Soybean). No. 15. Paris OECD.Google Scholar
Oettmeier, W. 1999. Herbicide resistance and supersensitivity in photosystem II. CMLS Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 55:1255–77.Google Scholar
Ottis, B. V., O'Barr, J. H., McCauley, G. N., and Chandler, J. M. 2004. Imazethapyr is safe and effective for imidazolinone-tolerant rice grown on coarse-textured soils. Weed Technol. 8:10961100.Google Scholar
Owen, M. D. K. 2008. Weed species shifts in glyphosate-resistant crops. Pest Manag. Sci. 64:377387.Google Scholar
Owen, M. D. K. and Zelaya, I. A. 2005. Herbicide-resistant crops and weed resistance to herbicides. Pest Manag. Sci. 61:301311.Google Scholar
Owen, M. D. K., Young, B. G., Shaw, D. R., Wilson, R. G., Jordan, D. L., Dixon, P. M., and Weller, S. C. 2011. Benchmark study on glyphosate-resistant crop systems in the United States, part 2: perspectives. Pest Manag. Sci. 67:747757.Google Scholar
Patzoldt, W. L., Hager, A. G., McCormick, J. S., and Tranel, P. J. 2006. A codon deletion confers resistance to herbicides inhibiting protoporphyrinogen oxidase. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 103:12329–34.Google Scholar
Pekrun, C. and Lutman, P. J. W. 1998. The influence of post-harvest cultivation on the persistence of volunteer oilseed rape. Asp. Appl. Biol. 51:113118.Google Scholar
Perez-Jones, A., Martins, B., and Mallory-Smith, C. A. 2010. Hybridization in a commercial production field between imidazolinone-resistant wheat (Triticum aestivum) and Aegilops cylindrica results in pollen-mediated gene flow of Imi1 . Weed Sci. 58:395401.Google Scholar
Place, G. T., Reberg-Horton, S. C., and Jordan, D. L. 2010. Interaction of cultivar, planting pattern, and weed management tactics in peanut. Weed Sci. 58:442448.Google Scholar
Powles, S. B. and Preston, C. 1995. Herbicide Cross Resistance and Multiple Resistance in Plants. http://www.hracglobal.com/Publications/HerbicideCrossResistanceandMultipleResistance/tabid/224/Default.aspx. Accessed: November 11, 2011.Google Scholar
Powles, S. B. and Preston, C. 2006. Evolved glyphosate resistance in plants: biochemical and genetic basis of resistance. Weed Technol. 20:282289.Google Scholar
Powles, S. B. and Yu, Q. 2010. Evolution in action: plants resistant to herbicides. Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 61:317347.Google Scholar
Prather, M. S., Di Tomaso, J. M., and Holt, J. S. 2000. Herbicide Resistance: Definition and Management Strategies. http://anrcatalog.ucdavis.edu/pdf/8012.pdf. Accessed: November 26, 2011.Google Scholar
Price, A. J., Balkcom, K. S., Culpepper, S. A., Kelton, J. A., Nichols, R. L., and Schomberg, H. 2011. Glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth: a threat to conservation tillage. J. Soil Water Conserv. 66:265275.Google Scholar
Puricelli, E. and Tuesca, D. 2005. Weed density and diversity under glyphosate-resistant crop sequences. Crop Prot. 24:533542.Google Scholar
Purvis, C. E., Jessop, R. S., and Lovett, J. V. 1985. Selective regulation of germination and growth of annual weeds by crop residues. Weed Res. 25:415421.Google Scholar
Putnam, A. R. 1994. Phytotoxicity of plant residues. Pages 286314 in Unger, P. W., ed. Managing Agricultural Residues. Boca Raton, FL CRC.Google Scholar
Putnam, A. R. and DeFrank, J. 1985. Use of phytotoxic plant residues for selective weed control. Crop Prot. 2:173181.Google Scholar
Pyšek, P. and Lepš, J. 1991. Response of a weed community to nitrogen fertilizer: a multivariate analysis. J. Veg. Sci. 2:237244.Google Scholar
Radosevich, S. R., Holt, J. S., and Ghersa, C. M. 1997. Weed Ecology, Implications for Management. New York J. Wiley.Google Scholar
Rajguru, S. N., Burgos, N. R., Shivrain, V. K., and Stewart, J. McD. 2005. Mutations in the red rice ALS gene associated with resistance to imazethapyr. Weed Sci. 53:567577.Google Scholar
Rao, A. N., Johnson, D. E., Sivaprasad, B., Ladha, J. K., and Mortimer, A. M. 2007. Weed management in direct-seeded rice. Adv. Agron. 93:153255.Google Scholar
Rasmussen, K., Rasmussen, J., and Petersen, J. 1996. Effects of fertilizer placement on weeds in weed harrowed spring barley. Acta Agric. Scand. Sect. B Soil Plant Sci. 46:192196.Google Scholar
Reddy, K. N. 2001. Effects of cereal and legume cover crop residues on weeds, yield, and net return in soybean (Glycine max). Weed Technol. 15:660668.Google Scholar
Reichman, J. R., Waltrud, L. S., Lee, E. H., Burdick, C. A., Bollman, M. A., Storm, M. J., King, G. A., and Mallory-Smith, C. 2006. Establishment of transgenic herbicide-resistant creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) in nonagronomic habitats. Mol. Ecol. 15:42434255.Google Scholar
Retzinger, E. J. and Mallory-Smith, C. 1997. Classification of herbicides by site of action for weed resistance management strategies. Weed Technol. 11:384393.Google Scholar
Richards, M. C. 1989. Crop competitiveness as an aid to weed control. Pages 755762 in Proceedings of the 2nd British Crop Conference. Brighton, UK British Crop Protection Council.Google Scholar
Richards, M. C. and Whytock, G. 1993. Varietal competitiveness with weeds. Asp. Appl. Biol. 34:345354.Google Scholar
Rieger, M. A., Potter, T. D., Preston, C., and Powles, S. B. 2001. Hybridisation between Brassica napus L. and Raphanus raphanistrum L. under agronomic field conditions. Theor. Appl. Genet. 103:555560.Google Scholar
Rogers, N. K., Buchanan, G. A., and Johnson, W. C. 1976. Influence of row spacing on weed competition with cotton. Weed Sci. 24:410413.Google Scholar
Ryan, G. F. 1970. Resistance of common groundsel to simazine and atrazine. Weed Sci. 18:614616.Google Scholar
Sammons, R. D., Herring, D. C., Dinicola, N., Glick, H., and Elmore, G. A. 2007. Sustainability and stewardship of glyphosate and glyphosate-resistant crops. Weed Technol. 21:347354.Google Scholar
Sandmann, G. and Böger, P. 1989. Inhibition of carotenoid biosynthesis by herbicides. Pages 2544 in Böger, P. and Sandmann, G., eds. Target Sites of Herbicide Action. Boca Raton, FL CRC.Google Scholar
Sankula, S., Braverman, M. P., and Oard, J. H. 1998. Genetic analysis of glufosinate resistance in crosses between transformed rice (Oryza sativa L.) and red rice (Oryza sativa L.). Weed Technol. 12:209214.Google Scholar
Sauer, H., Wild, A., and Rühle, W. 1987. The effect of phosphinothricin (glufosinate) on photosynthesis II: the causes of inhibition of photosynthesis. Z. Naturforsch. 42C:270278.Google Scholar
Scott, B. A. and VanGessel, M. J. 2007. Delaware soybean grower survey on glyphosate-resistant horseweed (Conyza canadensis). Weed Technol. 21:270274.Google Scholar
Service, R. F. 2007. Glyphosate—the conservationist's friend? Science. 316:11161117.Google Scholar
Shem-Tov, S., Fennimore, S. A., and Lanini, W. T. 2006. Weed management in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) with preplant irrigation. Weed Technol. 20:10581065.Google Scholar
Shivrain, V. K., Burgos, N. R., Agrama, H. A., Lawton-Rauh, A., Lu, B., Sales, M. A., Boyett, V., Gealy, D. R., and Moldenhauer, K. A. K. 2010a. Genetic diversity of weedy rice (Oryza sativa) in Arkansas, USA. Weed Res. 50:289302.Google Scholar
Shivrain, V. K., Burgos, N. R., Anders, M. M., Rajguru, S. N., Moore, J. W., and Sales, M. A. 2007. Gene flow between Clearfield™ rice and red rice. Crop Prot. 26:349356.Google Scholar
Shivrain, V. K., Burgos, N. R., Gealy, D. R., Moldenhauer, K. A. K., and Baquireza, C. J. 2008. Maximum outcrossing rate and genetic compatibility between red rice (Oryza sativa) biotypes and Clearfield™ rice. Weed Sci. 56:807813.Google Scholar
Shivrain, V. K., Burgos, N. R., Gealy, D. R., Sales, M. A., and Smith, K. L. 2009a. Gene flow from weedy red rice (Oryza sativa L.) to cultivated rice and fitness of hybrids. Pest Manag. Sci. 65:11241129.Google Scholar
Shivrain, V. K., Burgos, N. R., Moldenhauer, K. A. K., McNew, R. W., and Baldwin, T. L. 2006. Characterization of spontaneous crosses between Clearfield™ rice (Oryza sativa) and red rice (Oryza sativa). Weed Technol. 20:576584.Google Scholar
Shivrain, V. K., Burgos, N. R., Sales, M. A., Mauromoustakos, A., Gealy, D. R., Smith, K. L., Black, H. L., and Jia, M. 2009b. Factors affecting the outcrossing rate between Clearfield™ rice and red rice (Oryza sativa L.). Weed Sci. 57:394403.Google Scholar
Shivrain, V. K., Burgos, N. R., Scott, R. C., Gbur, E. E. Jr., Estorninos, L. E. Jr., and McClelland, M. R. 2010b. Diversity of weedy red rice (Oryza sativa L.) in Arkansas, USA in relation to management. Crop Prot. 29:721730.Google Scholar
Shrestha, A., Mitchell, J. P., and Lanini, W. T. 2007. Subsurface drip irrigation as a weed management tool for conventional and conservation-tillage tomato production in semi-arid agroecosystems. J. Sustain. Agric. 31:91112.Google Scholar
Siddiqi, M. Y., Glass, A. D. M., Hsiao, A. I., and Minjas, A. N. 1985. Wild oat/barley interactions: Varietal differences in competitiveness in relation to K+ supply. Ann. Bot. (Lond.) 56:18.Google Scholar
Simpson, D. M. and Duncan, E. N. 1956. Cotton pollen dispersal by insects. Agron. J. 48:305308.Google Scholar
Singh, H. P., Batish, D. R., and Kohli, R. K. 2003. Allelopathic interactions and allelochemicals: New possibilities for sustainable weed management. Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. 22:239311.Google Scholar
Singh, V., Burgos, N. R., Tseng, T. M., Black, H. L., Estorninos, L. Jr., Salas, R. A., Alcober, E. A., Botha, G. M., Batoy, S. M. A. B., and Gealy, D. R. 2012. Differentiation of weedy traits in ALS-resistant red rice. in The 65th Annual Meeting of the Southern Weed Science Society conference. In press.Google Scholar
Slatkin, M. 1987. Gene flow at the geographic structure of natural populations. Science. 236:787792.Google Scholar
Smeda, R. J. and Putnam, A. R. 1988. Cover crop suppression of weeds and influence on strawberry yields. Hortscience. 23:132134.Google Scholar
Smeda, R. J. and Vaughn, K. C. 1994. Resistance to dinitroaniline herbicides. Pages 215228 in Powles, S. B. and Holtum, J.A.M., eds. Herbicide Resistance in Plants. Boca Raton, FL CRC.Google Scholar
Smith, H. 1995. Physiological and ecological function within the phytochrome family. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 46:289315.Google Scholar
Smyth, S. J., Gusta, M., Belcher, K., Phillips, P. W. B., and Castle, D. 2011. Changes in herbicide use after adoption of HR canola in Western Canada. Weed Technol. 25:492500.Google Scholar
Snapp, S. S., Swinton, S. M., Labarta, R., Mutch, D., Balck, R. J., Leep, R., Nyiraneza, J., and O'Neil, K. 2005. Evaluating cover crops for benefits, costs and performance within cropping system niches. Agron. J. 97:322332.Google Scholar
Song, Z. P., Lu, B-R., Zhu, Y. G., and Chen, J. K. 2003. Gene flow from cultivated rice to the wild species Oryza rufipogon under experimental field conditions. New Phytol. 157:657665.Google Scholar
Sosnoskie, L. M., Kichler, J. M., Wallace, R. D., and Culpepper, A. S. 2011. Multiple resistance in Palmer amaranth to glyphosate and pyrithiobac confirmed in Georgia. Weed Sci. 59:321325.Google Scholar
Squire, G. R. 2005. Contribution to gene flow by seed and pollen. Pages 7377 in Messean, A., ed. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Coexistence of Genetically Modified and non-GM based Agricultural Supply Chains. Montpellier, France Agropolis.Google Scholar
St. Amand, P. C., Skinner, D. Z., and Peaden, R. N. 2000. Risk of alfalfa transgene dissemination and scale-dependent effects. Theor. Appl. Genet. 101:107114.Google Scholar
Standifer, L. C. and Beste, C. E. 1985. Weed control methods for vegetable production with limited tillage. Pages 9399 in Wiese, A. F., ed. Weed Control in Limited Tillage Systems. Champaign, IL Weed Science Society of America.Google Scholar
Steele, G. L., Chandler, J. M., and McCauley, G. N. 2002. Control of red rice (Oryza sativa) in imidazolinone-tolerant rice (O. sativa). Weed Technol. 16:627630.Google Scholar
Sterrett, R. B. and Fretz, T. A. 1975. Asulam-induced mitotic irregularities in onion root-tips. Hortscience. 10:161162.Google Scholar
Switzer, C. M. 1957. The existence of 2,4-D resistant strains of wild carrot. Pages 315318 in Proceedings of the 11th Northeastern Weed Control Conference. Columbia, MO NEWSS.Google Scholar
Tachibana, K., Watanabe, T., Sekizawa, Y., and Takematsu, T. 1986. Action mechanism of bialaphos II: accumulation of ammonia in plants treated with bialaphos. J. Pestic. Sci. 11:3337.Google Scholar
Tan, S. and Bowe, S. J. 2009. Developing herbicide-tolerant crops from mutations. in Shu, Q. Y., ed. Induced Plant Mutations in the Genomics Era. Rome Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. http://www.fao.org/docrep/012/i0956e/i0956e10.pdf. Accessed: September 23, 2011.Google Scholar
Teasdale, J. R. 1998. Cover crops, smother plans, and weed management. Pages 247270 in Hatfield, J. L., Buhler, D. D., and Stewart, B. A., eds. Integrated Weed and Soil Management. Chelsea, MI Ann Arbor.Google Scholar
Tharayil-Santhakumar, N. 2004. Mechanism of Herbicide Resistance in Weeds. http://www.weedscience.org/paper/MechanismofHerbicideResistance.pdf. 38 pp. Accessed: January 10, 2012.Google Scholar
Thill, D. C. and Mallory-Smith, C. A. 1996. Management of ALS-inhibitor herbicide-resistant Kochia scoparia in North America. Pages 14 and 399–405 in Brown, H., Cussans, G. W., Devine, M. D., Duke, S. O., Fernandez Quintanilla, C., Helweg, A., Labrada, R. E., Landes, M., Kudsk, P., and Streibig, J. C., eds. Proceedings of the 2nd International Weed Control Congress, Copenhagen, Denmark, 25–28 June 1996.Google Scholar
Thomas, A. G., Frick, B. L., and Hall, L. M. 1998. Alberta weed survey of cereal and oilseed crops in 1997. Saskatoon, Canada Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Weed Survey Service. Publ. 98–2.283 p.Google Scholar
Thompson, C. E., Squire, G., Mackay, G. R., Bradshaw, J. E., Crawford, J., and Ramsay, G. 1999. Regional patterns of gene flow and its consequences for GM oilseed rape. Pages 95100 in Lutman, P., ed. Gene Flow and Agriculture: Relevance for Transgenic Crops. Brighton, UK British Crop Protection Council Symposium Proceedings No. 72.Google Scholar
Timmons, A. M., O'Brien, E. T., Charters, Y. M., Dubbels, S. J., and Wilkinson, M. K. 1995. Assessing the risks of wind pollination from fields of genetically modified Brassica napus ssp. oleifera . Euphytica. 85:417423.Google Scholar
Timmons, F. L. 1970. A history of weed control in the United States and Canada. Weed Sci. 18:294307.Google Scholar
Tolstrup, K., Anderson, S. B., Boelt, B., Buus, M., Gylling, M., Holm, P. B., Kjellssin, G., Pedersen, S., Østergård, H., and Mikkelsen, S. A. 2003. Report form the Working Group on ‘The Co-existence of Genetically Modified Crops with Conventional and Organic Crops’. Copenhagen Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries. 275 p.Google Scholar
Tranel, P. J. and Wright, T. R. 2002. Resistance of weeds to ALS-inhibiting herbicides: what have we learned? Weed Sci. 50:700712.Google Scholar
Tuesca, D., Puricelli, E., and Papa, J. C. 2001. A long-term study of weed flora shifts in different tillage systems. Weed Res. 41:369382.Google Scholar
Van Deynze, A., Putnam, D. H., Orloff, S., Lanini, T., Canevari, M., Vargas, R., Hembree, K., Mueller, S., and Teuber, L. 2004. Roundup Ready Alfalfa: An Emerging Technology. Oakland, CA University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources Publication 8153.Google Scholar
Vaughan, D. A., Morishima, H., and Kadowaki, K. 2003. Diversity in the Oryza genus. Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 6:139146.Google Scholar
Vaughan, D. A., Sanchez, P. L., Ushiki, J., Kaga, A., and Tomooka, N. 2005. Asian rice and weedy rice—evolutionary perspectives. Pages 257277 in Gressel, J., ed. Crop Ferality and Volunteerism. Boca Raton, FL CRC.Google Scholar
Veerasekaran, P., Kerkwood, R. C., and Parnell, E. W. 1981. Studies of the mechanism of action of asulam in plants, part I: antagonistic interaction of asulam and 4-amino-benzoic acid. Pestic. Sci. 12:325329.Google Scholar
Vengris, J., Colby, W. G., and Drake, M. 1955. Plant nutrient competition between weeds and corn. Agron. J. 47:213216.Google Scholar
Vories, E. D., Valco, T. D., Bryant, K. J., and Glover, R. E. 2001. Three-year comparison of conventional and ultra narrow row cotton production systems. Appl. Eng. Agric. 17:583589.Google Scholar
Wakelin, A. M., Lorraine-Colwill, D. F., and Preston, C. 2004. Glyphosate resistance in four different populations of Lolium rigidum is associated with reduced translocation of glyphosate to meristematic zones. Weed Res. 44:453459.Google Scholar
Walker, R. H. 1995. Preventative weed management. Pages 3550 in Smith, A. E., ed. Handbook of Weed Management Systems. New York Marcel Dekker.Google Scholar
Walsh, M. J. and Powles, S. B. 2007. Management strategies for herbicide-resistant weed populations in Australian dryland crop production systems. Weed Technol. 21:332338.Google Scholar
Warwick, S. I., Beckie, H. J., and Small, S. 1999. Transgenic crops: new weed problems for Canada? Phytoprotection. 80:7184.Google Scholar
Warwick, S. I., Simard, M. J., Légère, A., Beckie, H. J., Braun, L., Zhu, B., Mason, P., Séguin-Swartz, G., and Stewart, C. N. 2003. Hybridization between transgenic Brassica napus L. and its wild relatives: Brassica rapa L., Raphanus raphanistrum L., Sinapis arvensis L., and Erucastrum gallicum (Willd.) O.E. Schulz. Theor. Appl. Genet. 107:528539.Google Scholar
Watrud, L. S., Lee, E. H., Fairbrother, A., Burdick, C., Reichman, J. R., Bollman, M., Storm, M., King, G., and Van de Water, P. K. 2004. Evidence for landscape-level, pollen-mediated gene flow from genetically modified creeping bentgrass with CP4 EPSPS as a marker. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 101:1453314538.Google Scholar
Weersink, A., Llewellyn, R. S., and Pannell, D. J. 2005. Economics of pre-emptive management to avoid weed resistance to glyphosate in Australia. Crop Prot. 24:659665.Google Scholar
Weston, L. A. and Duke, S. O. 2003. Weed and crop allelopathy. Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. 22:367389.Google Scholar
Weston, L. A. 2007. Inderjit. 2007. Allelopathy: a potential tool in the development of strategies for biorational weed management. Chapter 5. in Upadhyaya, M. K. and Blackshaw, R. E., eds. Non-Chemical Weed Management. Cambridge, MA CABI.Google Scholar
Wicks, G. A., Burnside, O. C., and Felton, W. L. 1994. Weed control in conservation tillage systems. Pages 211244 in Unger, P. W., ed. Managing Agricultural Residues. Boca Raton, FL CRC.Google Scholar
Wicks, G. A., Nordquist, P. T., Baenziger, P. S., Klein, R. N., Hammons, R. H., and Watkins, J. E. 2004. Winter wheat cultivar characteristics affect annual weed suppression. Weed Technol. 18:988998.Google Scholar
Wiese, A. F. and Chandler, J. M. 1988. Weed control in conservation tillage systems. Pages 2153 in Conservation Tillage in Texas, Res. Monogr. 15. College Station, TX The Texas A&M University System.Google Scholar
Williams, I. H., Martin, A. P., and White, R. P. 1986. The pollination requirements of oil-seed rape (Brassica napus L.). J. Agric. Sci. 106:2730.Google Scholar
Williams, J. F., Roberts, S. R., Hill, J. E., Scardaci, S. C., and Tibbits, G. 1990. Managing water for weed control in rice. http://ucanr.org/repository/cao/landingpage.cfm?article=ca.v044n05p7&fulltext=yes. Accessed: January 28, 2012.Google Scholar
Williams, M. M. II. 2006. Planting date influences critical period of weed control in sweet corn. Weed Sci. 54:928933.Google Scholar
Wilson, B. J. and Phipps, P. A. 1985. A long-term experiment on tillage, rotation and herbicide use for the control of A. fatua in cereals. Pages 3237 in Proceedings of the British Crop Conference. Brighton, UK British Crop Protection Council.Google Scholar
Wilson, R. S., Tucker, M. A., Hooker, N. H., LeJune, J. T., and Doohan, D. 2008. Perceptions and beliefs about weed management: Perspectives of Ohio grain and produce farmers. Weed Technol. 22:339350.Google Scholar
Woo, J-C. 1935. Genome analysis in Brassica with special reference to the experimental formation of Brassica napus and peculiar mode of fertilization. Jpn. J. Bot. 7:389452.Google Scholar
Wozniak, C. A. 2002. Gene flow assessment for plant-incorporated protectants by the biopesticide and pollution prevention division, U.S. EPA. Pages 162177 in Proceedings of the Scientific Methods Workshop: Ecological and Agronomic Consequences of Gene Flow from Transgenic Crops to Wild Relatives. Columbus, Ohio The Ohio State University.Google Scholar
Wruke, M. A. and Arnold, W. E. 1985. Weed species distribution as influenced by tillage and herbicides. Weed Sci. 33:853856.Google Scholar
[WSSA] Weed Science Society of America. 1998. Resistance and tolerance definitions. Weed Technol. 12:789.Google Scholar
[WSSA] Weed Science Society of America. 2007. WSSA Position Statement on Biological Control of Weeds. http://wssa.net/Weeds/Tools/Biological/BCPositionStmt.htm. Accessed: January 25, 2012.Google Scholar
[WSSA] Weed Science Society of America. 2010. Common and chemical names approved by the Weed Science Society of America. Weed Sci. 58:511518.Google Scholar
York, A. C., Beam, J. B., and Culpepper, A. S. 2005. Control of volunteer glyphosate-resistant soybean in cotton. J. Cotton Sci. 9:102109.Google Scholar
York, A. C., Stewart, A. M., Vidrine, P. R., and Culpepper, A. S. 2004. Control of volunteer glyphosate-resistant cotton in glyphosate-resistant soybean. Weed Technol. 18:532539.Google Scholar
Yoshimura, Y., Beckie, H. J., and Matsuo, K. 2006. Transgenic oilseed rape along transportation routes and port of Vancouver in western Canada. Environ. Biosafety Res. 5:6775.Google Scholar
Young, B. G. 2006. Changes in herbicide use patterns and production practices resulting from glyphosate-resistant crops. Weed Technol. 20:301307.Google Scholar
Yuan, J. S., Tranel, P. J., and Stewart, C. N. Jr. 2007. Non-target-site herbicide resistance: a family business. Trends Plant Sci. 12:613.Google Scholar
Zapiola, M. L., Campbell, C. K., Butler, M. D., and Mallory-Smith, C. A. 2008. Escape and establishment of transgenic glyphosate-resistant creeping bentgrass Agrostis stolonifera in Oregon, USA: a 4-year study. J. Appl. Ecol. 45:486494.Google Scholar
Zemetra, R. S., Hansen, J., and Mallory-Smith, C. A. 1998. Potential for gene transfer between wheat and jointed goatgrass. Weed Sci. 46(3):313317.Google Scholar
Zentner, R. P., Lindwall, C. W., and Carefoot, J. M. 1988. Economics of rotations and tillage systems for winter wheat production in southern Alberta. Can. Farm Econ. 22:313.Google Scholar
Zhang, N., Linscombe, S. D., and Oard, J. 2003. Outcrossing frequency and genetic analysis of hybrids between transgenic glufosinate herbicide-resistant rice and the weed, red rice. Euphytica. 130:3545.Google Scholar
Zimdahl, R. L. 1971. Weed control research in Colorado potatoes—a review. Am. J. Potato Res. 48:323327.Google Scholar