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Herbicidal Activity of Brassicaceae Seed Meal on Wild Oat (Avena fatua), Italian Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), Redroot Pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus), and Prickly Lettuce (Lactuca serriola)

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  20 January 2017

Maxwell Handiseni*
Affiliation:
Department of Plant Soil and Entomological Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844-2339
Jack Brown
Affiliation:
Department of Plant Soil and Entomological Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844-2339
Robert Zemetra
Affiliation:
Department of Plant Soil and Entomological Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844-2339
Mark Mazzola
Affiliation:
USDA-ARS, 1104 N. Western Avenue, Wenatchee, WA 98801
*
Corresponding author's E-mail: mhandiseni@vandals.uidaho.edu

Abstract

The need for sustainable agricultural-production systems has generated demand for effective, nonsynthetic, alternative weed-control strategies. For some vegetable crops there are few herbicide options available, and there is little prospect of new herbicides being registered for vegetable crops. Brassicaceae seed meal, a residue product of the seed oil extraction process, can provide a resource for supplemental nutrients, disease control, and weed suppression. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different Brassicaceae seed meals and application rates on the emergence of wild oat, Italian ryegrass, prickly lettuce, and redroot pigweed, which are some of the major weeds in vegetable production systems. White mustard seed, Indian mustard seed, and rapeseed meals were used with (intact) or without a functional myrosinase enzyme (denatured). Intact white mustard seed meals applied at a rate of 2000 kg ha−1 significantly reduced weed seedling emergence and weed dry biomass compared with intact rapeseed-meal–amended treatments. Indian mustard showed significantly better herbicidal efficacy on the grassy weeds than did white mustard, which was most effective in controlling broadleaf weeds. In all instances, a 1000 kg ha−1 application rate of either Indian mustard or white mustard exhibited greater herbicidal effect than did the 2000 kg ha−1 application rate of rapeseed meal. These results demonstrate that all glucosinolates are not equal in herbicidal effects. The herbicidal effects of the mustard seed meal could offer vegetable growers a new option for weed control, particularly in organic production systems. In practice, it would seem feasible to treat soils with a blend of Indian mustard and white mustard seed meals so that both grass and broadleaf weeds could be effectively controlled.

La necesidad de sistemas de producción agrícola sostenibles ha generado una demanda por estrategias alternativas de control de malezas que sean efectivas pero no sintéticas. Para algunos cultivos hortícolas hay pocas opciones disponibles de herbicidas, y hay muy pocos prospectos de que nuevos herbicidas sean registrados para estos cultivos. La semilla molida de Brassicaceae es un producto residual del proceso de extracción de aceite de la semilla que puede proporcionar un recurso como suplemento de nutrientes, control de enfermedades y supresión de malezas. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto de diferentes tipos de semilla molida de Brassicaceae y de sus dosis de aplicación en la emergencia de Avena fatua, Lolium multiflorum, Lactuca serriola y Amaranthus retroflexus, las cuales son algunas de las principales malezas en los sistemas de producción de hortalizas. Los molidos de semilla de mostaza amarilla, mostaza oriental y colza, se usaron con (intacta) o sin una enzima myrosinasa funcional (desnaturalizada). Las semillas molidas de mostaza amarilla intactas aplicadas a una dosis de 2000 kg ha−1, redujeron significativamente la emergencia de las plántulas de las malezas y su biomasa seca, comparada con los tratamientos de semilla molida intacta de colza. La mostaza oriental mostró significativamente mayor eficacia como herbicida de gramíneas que la mostaza amarilla, que fue más efectiva en el control de malezas de hoja ancha. En todas las instancias, una dosis de aplicación de mostaza oriental o de mostaza amarilla de 1000 kg ha−1, mostró mejores efectos herbicidas en relación a una dosis de aplicación de 2000 kg ha−1 de semilla molida de colza. Estos resultados demuestran que no todos los glucosinolates son iguales en sus efectos como herbicida. El efecto herbicida de la semilla molida de mostaza podría ofrecer a los productores de hortalizas una nueva opción para el control de malezas, particularmente en los sistemas orgánicos de producción. En la práctica, parecería factible tratar suelos con una mezcla de semillas molidas de mostaza oriental y amarilla para poder controlar con efectividad tanto malezas gramíneas como las de hoja ancha.

Type
Weed Management—Techniques
Copyright
Copyright © Weed Science Society of America 

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References

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Herbicidal Activity of Brassicaceae Seed Meal on Wild Oat (Avena fatua), Italian Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), Redroot Pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus), and Prickly Lettuce (Lactuca serriola)
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Herbicidal Activity of Brassicaceae Seed Meal on Wild Oat (Avena fatua), Italian Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), Redroot Pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus), and Prickly Lettuce (Lactuca serriola)
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Herbicidal Activity of Brassicaceae Seed Meal on Wild Oat (Avena fatua), Italian Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), Redroot Pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus), and Prickly Lettuce (Lactuca serriola)
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