Published online by Cambridge University Press: 13 June 2011
Contradictory findings, that economic inequality may have a positive, negative, or no impact on political conflict, are a puzzle for conflict studies. Three approaches have been used t o explain the inconsistent findings of the EI-PC (Economic Inequality-Political Conflict) nexus: statistical modeling, formal modeling, and theory building. Because analysts have tended to possess different research skills, these three approaches have been employed in isolation from one another. Singly, however, all three approaches have proved deficient and are unlikely to solve the EI-PC puzzle. The most fruitful approach is to combine the assumptions of the theory builders and the deductive approach of the formal modelers with the various empirical tests of the statistical modelers. Such an approach to the EI-PC puzzle produces a crucial test of the Deprived Actor and Rational Actor theories of conflict. The approach is also our best hope for solving the other long-standing puzzles in conflict studies.
1 Popper, Karl J., Conjectures and Refutations: The Growth of Scientific Knowledge (New York: Harper Torchbooks, 1965)Google Scholar.
3 Hibbs, Douglas A. Jr., Mass Political Violence: A Cross-National Causal Analysis (New York: Wiley, 1973), 196–98Google Scholar.
4 See Hassan M. Nejad, “Inequality in an Urban Revolution: The Case of Iran”; Clive Kileff and Leland W. Robinson, “The Elitist Thesis and the Rhodesian Revolution: Implications for South Africa”; and Russell R. Hamby, “Coffee and Conflict in Colombia: Spatial, Temporal and Class Patterns of La Violencia.” All three studies appear in Midlarsky, Manus I., ed., Inequality and Contemporary Revolutions, Monograph Series in World Affairs (Denver, CO: Graduate School of International Affairs, University of Denver, 1986)Google Scholar.
6 Zimmerman, Ekkart, Political Violence, Crises, and Revolutions: Theories and Research (Cambridge, MA: Schenkman, 1983)Google Scholar, esp. 134–39.
7 There is also a tradition that studies the PC-EI nexus, or how political conflict influences economic inequality. For a formalization, see Usher, D. and Engineer, M., “The Distribution of Income in a Despotic Society,” Public Choice 54, No. 3 (1987), 261–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar; for a cross-national empirical analysis, see Jackman, Robert W., Politics and Social Equality: A Comparative Analysis (New York: Wiley, 1975)Google Scholar: and for a more general consideration of the consequences of revolution for stratification in the postrevolutionary society, the question of “who gets what” from the revolution, see Kelly, Jonathan and Klein, Herbert S., Revolution and the Rebirth of Inequality: A Theory Applied to the National Revolution in Bolivia (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1981)Google Scholar.
8 See Zimmerman (fn. 6).
11 Verba, Sidney and Orren, Gary R., Equality in America: The View from the Top (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1985), 21Google Scholar.
13 Russett, Bruce M., “Inequality and Insurgency: The Relation of Land Tenure to Politics,” World Politics 16 (April 1964), 442–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Mitchell, Edward J., “Inequality and Insurgency: A Statistical Study of South Vietnam,” World Politics 20 (April 1968), 421–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Nagel, Jack H., “Inequality and Discontent: A Nonlinear Hypothesis,” World Politics 26 (July 1974), 453–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Sigelman, Lee and Simpson, Miles, “A Cross-National Test of the Linkage Between Economic Inequality and Political Violence,” Journal of Conflict Resolution 21 (March 1977), 105–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Muller, Edward N., “Income Equality, Regime Repressiveness, and Political Violence,” American Sociological Review 50 (February 1985), 47–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Midlarsky, Manus I. and Roberts, Kenneth, “Class, State, and Revolution in Central America: Nicaragua and El Salvador Compared,” Journal of Conflict Resolution 29 (June 1985), 163–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Kang Hoon Park, “Income Inequality and Political Violence,” in Midlarsky (fn. 4). Also see Sualastoga, Kaare, On Deadly Violence (Oslo: Universitetsforlaget, 1982), 108–9Google Scholar.
14 Lakatos, Imre, “Falsification and the Methodology of Scientific Research Programs,” in Lakatos, Imre and Musgrave, Alan, eds., Criticism and the Growth of Knowledge (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1974)Google Scholar.
15 Related distinctions have been made by Snyder, David, “Collective Violence: A Research Agenda and Some Strategic Considerations,” Journal of Conflict Resolution 22 (September 1978), 499–534CrossRefGoogle Scholar, who distinguished between “resource mobilization” and “relative deprivation” approaches; and by Eckstein, Harry, “Theoretical Approaches to Explaining Collective Political Violence,” in Gurr, Ted Robert, ed., Handbook of Political Conflict: Theory and Practice (New York: Free Press, 1980)Google Scholar, who distinguished between “contingency” and “inherency” approaches.
16 This review is limited to macro-level studies. I shall return to this limitation in the conclusion.
17 Of all these studies, only Parvin's, Manoucher“Economic Determinants of Political Unrest: An Econometric Approach,” Journal of Conflict Resolution 17 (June 1973), 271–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar, bothered to predict the magnitude of the EI-PC relationship, namely the elasticity of the parameter estimate.
18 See Russett (fn. 13); Tanter, Raymond and Midlarsky, Manus I., “A Theory of Revolution,” Journal of Conflict Resolution 11 (September 1967), 264–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Prosterman, Roy L., “IRI: A Simplified Predictive Index of Rural Instability,” Comparative Politics 8 (April 1976), 339–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Nagel, Jack H., “Erratum,” World Politics 28 (January 1976), 315CrossRefGoogle Scholar. Sigelman and Simpson (fn. 13); Park (fn. 13).
22 Gurr, Ted Robert, “A Causal Model of Civil Strife: A Comparative Analysis Using New Indices,” American Political Science Review 62 (December 1968), 1104–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Gurr, Ted Robert and Duvall, Raymond, “Civil Conflict in the 1960's: A Reciprocal Theoretical System with Parameter Estimates,” Comparative Political Studies 6 (July 1973), 135–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Gurr, Ted Robert and Lichbach, Mark Irving, “Forecasting Domestic Political Conflict,” in Singer, J. David and Wallace, Michael D., eds., To Augur Well: Early Warning Indicators in World Politics (Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, 1979)Google Scholar.
24 Muller (fn. 13), 53.
25 Quoted in Rae, Douglas W. et al. , Equalities (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1981), 1Google Scholar.
26 Ophuls, William, Ecology and the Politics of Scarcity (San Francisco: W. H. Freeman, 1977)Google Scholar; Boulding, Kenneth E., Ecodynamics: A New Theory of Societal Evolution (Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, 1978)Google Scholar; Dennis C. Pirages, “Political Stability and Conflict Management,” in Gurr (fn. 15).
27 Muller (fn. 13).
29 Quoted in Verba and Orren (fn. 11), xiv.
31 Mitchell (fn. 13); Parvin (fn. 17).
32 Davis (fn. 12).
33 Havrilesky, Thomas, “The Discordance-Inequality Tradeoff,” Public Choice 35, No. 3 (1980), 371–77Google Scholar, at 371.
34 Parvin (fn. 17), 281.
36 Nagel (fn. 13).
37 Sigelman and Simpson (fn. 13), 119.
38 Parvin (fn. 17); Nagel (fn. 13); Hardy, Melissa A., “Economic Growth, Distributional Inequality, and Political Conflict in Industrial Societies,” Journal of Political and Military Sociology 7 (Fall 1979), 209–27Google Scholar; Weede, Erich, “Income Inequality, Average Income, and Domestic Violence,” Journal of Conflict Resolution 25 (December 1981), 639–54Google Scholar; Weede, Erich, “Some New Evidence on Correlates of Political Violence; Income Inequality, Regime Repressiveness, and Economic Development,” European Sociological Review 3 (September 1987), 97–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar.
39 Duff, Ernest A. and McCamant, John F., Violence and Repression in L-atin America: A Quantitative and Historical Analysis (New York: Free Press, 1976), 83Google Scholar.
40 Powell, G. Bingham Jr., Contemporary Democracies: Participation, Stability, and Violence (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1982), 47–51Google Scholar.
41 Russo, Anthony J., Jr., “Economic and Social Correlates of Government Control in South Vietnam,” in Feierabend, Ivo K., Feierabend, Rosalind L., and Gurr, Ted Robert, eds., Anger, Violence and Politics: Theories and Research (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1972)Google Scholar.
42 McAdam, DougPolitical Process and the Development of Black Insurgency, 1930–1970 (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1982)Google Scholar; Spilerman, Seymour, “The Causes of Racial Disturbances: Tests of an Explanation,” American Sociological Review 36 (June 1971), 427–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar.
45 Mitchell (fn. 13), 422; emphasis added.
46 Zimmerman (fn. 6).
47 Zinnes, Dina A., Contemporary Research in International Relations: A Perspective and a Critical Appraisal (New York: Free Press, 1976), 212Google Scholar.
48 Duvall, Raymond, “Issues in the Theory and Assessment of Social Inequality,” in Grove, John D., ed., Global Inequality: Political and Socioeconomic Perspectives (Boulder, CO: West-view, 1979)Google Scholar; Rae et al. (fn. 25).
49 Alker, Hayward Jr., and Russett, Bruce M., “Indices for Comparing Inequality,” in Merritt, Richard L. and Rokkan, Stein, eds., Comparing Nations: The Use of Quantitative Data In Cross-National Research (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1966)Google Scholar; Atkinson, Anthony B., “On the Measurement of Inequality,” Journal of Economic Theory 2 (September 1970), 244–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Ray, James Lee and Singer, J. David, “Measuring Concentration of Power,” Sociological Methods and Research 1 (May 1973), 404–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Allison, Paul D., “Measures of Inequality,” American Sociological Review 43 (December 1978), 865–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Ward, Michael Don, The Political Economy ofDistribution: Equality versus Inequality (New York: Elsevier, 1978)Google Scholar; Russett, Bruce M. et al. , “Health and Population Patterns as Indicators of Income Inequality,” Economic Development and Cultural Change 29 (July 1981), 759–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Coulter, Philip B., “Distinguishing Inequality and Concentration: The Exponentiation Principle,” Political Methodology 10, No. 3 (1984), 323–35Google Scholar; Kanbur, S. M. Ravi, “The Measurement and Decomposition of Inequality and Poverty,” in Ploeg, F. Van Der, ed., Mathematical Methods in Economics (New York: Wiley, 1984)Google Scholar; Grove, D. John and Hannum, Robert, “On Measuring Intergroup Inequality,” Sociological Methods and Research 15 (August-November 1986), 142–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar.
50 Rae, Douglas W. and Taylor, Michael, The Analysis of Political Cleavages (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1970)Google Scholar.
51 Park (fn. 13).
52 Prosterman (fn. i8), at fn. 3 on 349.
53 Ford, William Freithaler and Moore, John H., “Additional Evidence on the Social Characteristics of Riot Cities,” Social Science Quarterly 51 (September 1970), 339–48Google Scholar; Jiobu, Robert M., “City Characteristics, Differential Stratification, and the Occurrence of Interracial Violence,” Social Science Quarterly 52 (December 1971), 508–20Google Scholar; Spilerman (fn. 42); Spilerman, Seymour, “Structural Characteristics of Cities and the Severity of Racial Disorders,” American Sociological Review 41 (October 1976), 771–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar; McElroy, Jerome L. and Singell, Larry D., “Riot and Nonriot Cities: An Examination of Structural Contours,” Urban Affairs Quarterly 8 (March 1973), 281–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar.
54 Gurr (fn. 22).
56 Barrows (fn. 23), 154–55.
58 Havrilesky (fn. 33).
59 Rae et al. (fn. 25), 20.
60 Ruhl, Mark J., “Social Mobilization and Political Instability in Latin America: A Test of Huntington's Theory,” Inter-American Economic Affairs 29 (Summer 1975), 3–21Google Scholar, at 10.
61 Geller, Daniel S., “Modeling the Conflict Patterns of Nations,” in Singer, J. David and Stoll, Richard J., eds., Quantitative Indicators in World Politics: Timely Assurance and Early Warning (New York: Praeger, 1984)Google Scholar.
62 See Eckstein, Harry and Gurr, Ted Robert, Patterns of Authority: A Structural Basisfor Political Inquiry (New York: Wiley, 1975)Google Scholar.
64 Russett, Bruce M. et al. , World Handbook of Political and Social Indicators (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1964)Google Scholar; Taylor, Charles Lewis and Hudson, Michael C., World Handbook of Political and Social Indicators, 2d ed. (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1972)Google Scholar; Taylor, Charles Lewis and Jodice, David C., The World Handbook of Political and Social Indicators, 3d ed. (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1983)Google Scholar.
65 Russett (fn. 13).
66 Hardy (fn. 38).
67 Gurr (fn. 22).
68 Barrows (fn. 23).
69 Ruhl (fn. 60).
70 Sigelman and Simpson (fn. 13).
71 Midlarsky, Manus I., “The Revolutionary Transformation of Foreign Policy: Agrarianism and Its International Impact,” in Kegley, Charles W. and McGowan, Pat, eds., The Political Economy of Foreign Policy Behavior (Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, 1981)Google Scholar.
72 Morgan and Clark (fn. 21); Spilerman (fn. 42); McAdam (fn. 42).
74 Ziegenhagen, Eduard A., The Regulation of Political Conflict (New York: Praeger, 1986)Google Scholar.
75 Mitchell (fn. 13).
76 Mitchell (fn. 19).
77 Duff and McCamant (fn. 39).
78 Havrilesky (fn. 33).
79 Powell (fn. 40).
80 Russett (fn. 13).
81 Powell (fn. 40).
82 Ruhl (fn. 60).
83 Russett (fn. 13).
84 Tanter and Midlarsky (fn. 18).
85 Powell (fn. 40); Duff and McCamant (fn. 39); Midlarsky (fn. 43); and Barrows (fn. 23), respectively.
86 Rae et al. (fn. 25), 128.
87 Russett (fn. 13), 452.
88 Huntington, Samuel P., Political Order in Changing Societies (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1968), 375Google Scholar.
89 Sigelman and Simpson (fn. 13), 108–9.
90 Zimmerman (fn. 6), 137.
91 Parvin (fn. 17); Muller (fn. 13); Muller and Seligson (fn. 63).
92 Sigelman and Simpson (fn. 13), 109.
93 Weede (fn. 38, 1981), 640.
94 Gurr (fn. 2).
95 Barrows (fn. 23), 166.
96 Zimmerman (fn. 6), 135.
97 Midlarsky and Roberts (fn. 13); Kenneth Roberts and Manus I. Midlarsky, “Inequality, the State, and Revolution in Central America,” in Midlarsky (fn. 4).
98 Parvin (fn. 17); Hardy (fn. 38).
100 Muller and Seligson (fn. 63), 431.
101 Sigelman and Simpson (fn. 13), 109.
103 Huntington (fn. 88), 58–59; Parvin (fn. 17).
104 Zinnes (fn. 47), 112.
105 Nagel (fn. 18).
106 Paige (fn. 102, 1970); Paranzino (fn. 20); Russo (fn. 41); Nagel (fn. 13); Mitchell (fn. 13). For a critique that led to many of the replications, see Sansom, Robert L., The Economics of Insurgency: In the Mekong Delta of Vietnam (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1970), 230–32Google Scholar.
107 Hardy (fn. 38), 224; Sigelman and Simpson (fn. 13).
109 Hardy (fn. 38), 212.
110 Muller (fn. 13), 52, emphasis in original.
111 Weede (fn. 38, 1987), 98.
112 For an excellent collection of alternative approaches to “theory,” see Suppe, Frederick, ed., The Structure of Scientific Theories, 2d ed. (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1977)Google Scholar.
113 Eckstein (fn. 15).
114 Hibbs (fn. 3).
115 Moon, J. Donald, “The Logic of Political Inquiry: A Synthesis of Opposed Perspectives,” in Greenstein, Fred I. and Polsby, Nelson W., eds., Handbook of Political Science, Vol. 1, Political Science, Scope and Theory (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1975), 194Google Scholar.
116 Gurr (fin. 22); Nagel (fn. 13).
117 Tilly (fn. 2), 23.
118 Tanter and Midlarsky (fn. 18).
119 Parvin (fn. 17).
121 Muller and Seligson (fn. 63).
122 In conflict studies, only the EI-PC, repression-dissent, and diffusion of conflict puzzles have been treated in formalized models. See Lichbach, Mark Irving, “Deterrence or Escalation? The Puzzle of Aggregate Studies of Repression and Dissent,” Journal of Conflict Resolution 31 (June 1987), 266–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Midlarsky, Manus I., “Analyzing Diffusion and Contagion Effects: The Urban Disorders of the 1960's,” American Political Science Review 72 (September 1978), 996–1008CrossRefGoogle Scholar.
124 Rae and Taylor (fn. 50).
125 Kort (fn. 35); Davis (fn. 12); Nagel (fn. 13).
126 Yitzhaki, Shlomo, “Relative Deprivation and the Gini Coefficient,” Quarterly Journal of Economics 93 (May 1979), 321–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Yitzhaki, Shlomo, “Reply,” Quarterly Journal of Economics 95 (November 1980), 575–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Hey, John D. and Lambert, Peter J., “Comment,” Quarterly Journal of Economics 95 (November 1980), 567–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Panning, William H., “Inequality, Social Comparison, and Relative Deprivation,” American Political Science Review 77 (June 1983), 323–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Berrebi, Z. M. and Silber, Jacques, “Income Inequality Indices and Deprivation: A Generalization,” Quarterly Journal of Economics 100 (August 1985), 807–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar.
127 Davis, James A., “A Formal Interpretation of the Theory of Relative Deprivation,” Sociometry 22 (December 1959), 280–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Boudon, Raymond, The Unintended Consequences of Social Action (New York: Macmillan, 1982)Google Scholar; Kosaka, Kenji, “A Model of Relative Deprivation,” Journal of Mathematical Sociology 12, No. 1 (1986), 35–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar.
130 Havrilesky (fn. 33).
132 Midlarsky (fn. 71); Midlarsky (fn. 99); Midlarsky (fn. 43); Midlarsky and Roberts (fn. 13); Roberts and Midlarsky (fn. 97); Midlarsky, Manus I., “Rulers and the Ruled: Patterned Inequality and the Onset of Mass Political Violence,” American Political Science Review 82 (June 1988), 491–509CrossRefGoogle Scholar.
133 Midlarsky (fn. 43), 25.
134 Midlarsky (fn. 99), 20.
135 Midlarsky (fn. 71), 48.
137 Midlarsky (fn. 43), 23.
138 Midlarsky and Roberts (fn. 13).
139 Panning (fn. 126), 323.
140 Olson, Mancur, The Logic of Collective Action: Public Goods and the Theory of Groups (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1965)Google Scholar.
141 Popper (fn. 1).
142 One can also derive EI-PC propositions from other research programs. Michael Timber-lake and Kirk R. Williams attempt to do so from a world systems/dependency perspective in “Structural Position in the World-System, Inequality, and Political Violence,” Journal of Political and Military Sociology 15 (Spring 1987), 1–15Google Scholar. The literature in international relations offers many theories about how balances and imbalances, disparities and concentrations of international power lead to international war. See Allan, Pierre, Crisis Bargaining and the Arms Race: A Theoretical Model (Cambridge, MA: Ballinger, 1983), 71Google Scholar. Finally, the relationship between inequality and conflict is also considered in economics and game theory. See Aranson, Peter H., “Political Inequality: An Economic Approach,” in Ordershook, Peter C. and Shepsle, Kenneth A., eds., Political Equilibrium (Boston, MA: Kluwer-Nijhoff, 1982)Google Scholar.
143 Weede (fn. 108), 438.
144 Muller (fn. 13), 48.
145 Gurr (fn. 2).
147 Adams, J. Stacy, “Inequity in Social Exchange,” in Berkowitz, Leonard, ed., Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (New York: Academic Press, 1965)Google Scholar; Miles, Edward W., “Selection of an Equity Formula Appropriate for Organizational Behavior Research,” Sociological Methods and Research 15 (May 1987), 447–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar.
148 Zimmerman (fn. 6), 84–86.
149 Moore (fn. 28).
150 Muller, Edward N., Aggressive Political Participation (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1979)Google Scholar.
151 Barnes, Samuel H. and Kaase, Max, Political Action (Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, 1979)Google Scholar.
152 Tilly, Charles, “Food Supply and Public Order in Modern Europe,” in Tilly, , ed., The Formation of National States in Western Europe (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1975), 389Google Scholar.
153 Zimmerman (fn. 6), 138.
154 Sigelman and Simpson (fn. 13), 125.
155 Hirschman (fn. 129).
156 Edward N. Muller, “The Psychology of Political Protest and Violence,” in Gurr (fn. 15); Zimmerman (fn. 6), chap. 4.
157 Scott, James C., The Moral Economy of the Peasant (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1976)Google Scholar.
158 Gurr (fn. 2).
160 Billig, Michael, Social Psychology and Intergroup Relations (London: Academic Press, 1976), 343–52Google Scholar.
161 Horowitz, Donald L., Ethnic Groups in Conflict (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985), 197Google Scholar.
164 Taylor, Michael, The Possibility of Cooperation (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987), 33Google Scholar.
167 Rae et al. (fn. 25), 32.
168 Moore (fn. 28).
171 Lichbach (fn. 122).
174 Mason (fn. 169).
175 Weede (fn. 38, 1987), 99.
176 Lakatos (fn. 14).
177 Eckstein (fn. 15). For an instance where formalization leads to crucial tests, see Lichbach (fn. 122).
178 Eckstein (fn. 15).
180 Olson (fn. 140).
182 Miles (fn. 147).
183 Berrebi and Silber (fn. 126).
184 Lawler, Edward J., “Bilateral Deterrence and Conflict Spiral: A Theoretical Analysis,” Advances in Group Processes 3 (1986), 107–30Google Scholar, at 124.
185 Moon(fn. 115), 187.
186 Eckstein (fn. 15), 156.
187 It is interesting to note that the two most successful and widely cited analysts of the EI-PC nexus have combined two out of the three approaches. Both have had corresponding successes and failures. Manus Midlarsky combines statistical models with formal models, but his work, for the most part, lacks connections to an SRP in conflict studies. Ted Gurr combines statistical models with an SRP, but his work, for the most part, lacks parsimonious assumptions and deductive reasoning. Gurr begins a formalization of his work in Gurr, Ted Robert and Duvall, Raymond D., “Introduction to a Formal Theory of Political Conflict,” in Coser, Lewis A. and Larsen, Otto N., eds., The Uses of Controversy in Sociology (New York: Free Press, 1976)Google Scholar.
188 I wholeheartedly echo Eckstein's (fn. 15) call for simpler versions of DA and RA theories.
189 Recall that Aristotle and Plato offered much more than the citations and more than most of their contemporary admirers have offered: explanations of the EI-PC nexus (i.e., theories of jtistice). Perhaps we should declare a moratorium on EI-PC citations from Aristotle and Plato.
190 Zimmerman (fn. 6).
191 Gurr's (fn. 22) work on discriminated against and separatist groups is thus seminal and crucial.
193 Muller and Seligson (fn. 63).
194 Gurr and Lichbach (fn. 22).
195 See Zagoria, Donald S., “The Ecology of Peasant Communism in India,” American Political Science Review 65 (March 1971), 144–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Linz, Juan J., “Patterns of Land Tenure, Division of Labor, and Voting Behavior in Europe,” Comparative Politics 8 (April 1976), 364–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar.
197 See Muller (fn. 156); also see Maurice D. Simon, “Inequality and the Formation of the Solidarity Movement in Poland,” in Midlarsky (fn. 4).
198 Verba, Sidney, Nie, Norman H., and Kim, Jae-On, Participation and Political Equality: A Seven-Nation Comparison (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1978)Google Scholar.
199 Lipset, Seymour Martin and Bendix, Reinhard, Social Mobility in Industrial Society (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1959), 64–72Google Scholar.
200 Zimmerman (fn. 6).