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Published online by Cambridge University Press: 18 July 2011
The heartbreaking plight in which a bipolarized and atom bomb-blessed world finds itself today is but the extreme manifestation of a dilemma with which human societies have had to grapple since the dawn of history. For it stems from a fundamental social constellation, one where a plurality of otherwise interconnected groups constitute ultimate units of political life, that is, where groups live alongside each other without being organized into a higher unity.
Wherever such anarchic society has existed—and it has existed in most periods of known history on some level—there has arisen what may be called the ‘security dilemma’ of men, or groups, or their leaders. Groups or individuals living in such a constellation must be, and usually are, concerned about their security from being attacked, subjected, dominated, or annihilated by other groups and individuals. Striving to attain security from such attack, they are driven to acquire more and more power in order to escape the impact of the power of others. This, in turn, renders the others more insecure and compels them to prepare for the worst. Since none can ever feel entirely secure in such a world of competing units, power competition ensues, and the vicious circle of security and power accumulation is on.
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2 The following, under I through VII, condenses a chapter of a larger manuscript, entitled “Political Realism and Political Idealism, A Study in Theories and Realities.”
3 See Ideen zur Philosophie der Geschichte der Menschheit, Riga and Leipzig, 1784, Book IX, Chapter IV.
5 The Duties of Man, New York, Everyman's Library, Dutton, 1907 p. 52.
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16 Baraillon, January 13, 1793, quoted in Mathiez, Albert, La révolution et les étrangers, Paris, 1918, p. 88.Google Scholar
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25 Nowhere, perhaps, has the tragic situation confronting internationalists during those days been more poignantly portrayed than in Martin du Gard's Les Thxbaults.
27 Resolution on “The Present Situation and the War,” adopted by the Sixth Party Congress. I owe this and the following references to Ossip K. Flechtheim, who kindly made available to me a manuscript entitled “The Struggle of Bolshevism for World Dominion.”
28 Cf. resolution of the Central Committee of the Party of October 23. 1917.
29 Quoted in Flechtheim MS cited above.
31 Text in International Conciliation, No. 371, June 1941, pp. 585 ff.
34 Salutati, quoted by Gilbert, Felix in his chapter “Machiavelli,” in Makers of Modem Strategy, ed. by Earle, Edward M., Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1943, p. 21.Google Scholar
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43 Aristotle, Politics, Book II, Chapter 7, with regard to the theories of Phaleas the Chalcedonian.
45 Huxley, Thomas H., Evolution and Ethics and Other Essays, New York, Appleton, 1896, pp. 81 ff.Google Scholar
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