Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-nmvwc Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-06-19T09:30:20.819Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Barley in poultry feeding: a review*

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  18 September 2007

H. Jeroch
Institute of Animal Nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Emil-Abderhalden-Strasse 25b, 06108 Halle (Saale), Germany
S. Dänicke
Institute of Animal Nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Emil-Abderhalden-Strasse 25b, 06108 Halle (Saale), Germany
Get access


In most European countries barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is an important feedstuff for poultry, and its use could increase with changes in economic circumstances. Compared with wheat, barley contains more fibre and less energy. The nutritive value and suitability of this grain as a feedstuff for growing poultry are more or less affected by varying β-glucan concentrations. The anti-nutritive effects of β-glucan in the gastrointestinal tract of young chicks can be avoided by adding β-glucanase of microbial origin to barley-containing or barley-based diets, thus making this grain crop acceptable for broiler fattening diets. Feed mixtures for layers may contain a higher proportion of barley without negative effects on egg production. When formulating diets, the low content of linoleic acid has to be considered.

Research Article
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1995

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Aastrup, S. and Munck, L. (1985) A β-glucan mutant in barley with thin cell walls. In: New Approaches to Research on Cereal Carbohydrates (Eds Hill, R.D. and Munck, L.), Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 291296Google Scholar
Aboud, M. (1988) Gerste und Maiskorn-Spindel-Gemisch Silage als Futtermittel für Broilerküken. Dissertation, University of LeipzigGoogle Scholar
Aboud, M., Müller, A. and Jeroch, M. (1990) Ernährungsphysiologische Bewertung von Enzymzusätzen beim Geflügel. In: International Tagung Schweine- und Geflgelernährung, Dezember, Leipzig, pp. 121125Google Scholar
Aimonen, E.M.J. and Näsi, M. (1991) Replacement of barley by oats by an enzyme supplementation in diets for laying hens. 1. Performance and balance trial results. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica 41: 179192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Al Bustany, Z. and Elwinger, K. (1988) Whole grains, unprocessed rapeseed and β-glucanase in diets for laying hens. Swedish Journal of Agricultural Research 18: 3140Google Scholar
Åman, P. and Graham, H. (1987) Analysis of total and insoluble mixed-linked (1–3) (1–4)-β-D-glucans in barley and malt. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 35: 704709CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Åman, P., Hesselman, K. and Tilly, A.-Ch. (1985) The variation in chemical composition of Swedish barleys. Journal of Cereal Science 3: 7377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Anderson, J.O., Dobson, D.C. and Wagstaff, R.K. (1961) Studies on the value of hull-less barley in chick diets and means of increasing the value. Poultry Science 40: 15711584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Arendt, K. (1976) Untersuchungen zum Futterwert verschiedener Getreidearten in der Broilermast und Maβnahmen zur Verbesserung ihrer Futtereignung. Dissertation, University of LeipzigGoogle Scholar
Arscott, G.H. (1963) Use of barley in high-efficiency broiler rations. 6. Influence of small amounts of corn on improvement of barley. Poultry Science 42: 301304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Balaravi, S.P., Bansal, H.C., Eggum, B.O. and Bhaskaran, S. (1976) Characterisation of induced high protein and high lysine mutants in barley. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 27: 545552CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Banks, W., Greenwood, C.T. and Walker, J.T. (1970) Studies on the starches of barley genotypes: the waxy starch. Starch 22: 149152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bansal, H.S., Srivastava, K.N., Eggum, B.O. and Mehata, S.L. (1977) Nutritional evaluation of high protein genotypes of barley. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 28: 157160CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Benabdeljelil, K. (1991) Effects of enzyme supplementation of barley based diets on hen performance and egg quality. Proceedings 8th European Symposium on Poultry Nutrition,14–17 October,Venezia-Mestre, Italy, pp. 337–342Google Scholar
Berg, L.R. (1959) Enzyme supplementation of barley diets for laying hens. Poultry Science 38: 11321139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Berg, L.R. (1961) Effect of adding enzymes to barley diets at different ages on pullet and laying hen performance. Poultry Science 40: 34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bhatty, R.S., Macgregor, A.W. and Rossnagel, B.G. (1991) Total and acid-soluble β-glucan content of hull-less barley and its relationship to acid extract viscosity. Cereal Chemistry 68: 221227Google Scholar
Blum, J. and Leclercq, B. (1980) Valeur alimentare comparee de cino varietes d'orge differentes pour la production du broiler. Proceedings 6th European Geflügelkonferenz, Hamburg, pp. 489496Google Scholar
Britzman, G. (1985) Barley and wheat as alternative grains in laying diets. Feedstuffs, Minneapolis 57: 1719Google Scholar
Broz, J. (1993) Enzymes as feed additives in poultry nutrition – current applications and future trends. Monatshefte Veterinärmedizin 48: 213217Google Scholar
Brufau, J., Nogareda, C., Perez-Vendrell, A., Francesch, M. and Esteve-Garcia, E. (1991) Effects of Trichoderma viride enzymes in pelleted broiler diets based on barley. Animal Feed Science and Technology 34: 193202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brufau, J., Francesch, M., Perez-Vendrell, A.M. and Esteve-Garcia, E. (1993) Effects of post-harvest storage on nutritive value of barley in broilers. Proceedings of the 1st Symposium on Enzymes in Animal Nutrition,13–16 October,Kartause Ittingen, Switzerland, pp. 125–128Google Scholar
Campbell, G.L. (1987) Gerste als alternative Getreidesorte in der Geflgelproduktion. Vortragsmanuskript Messekolloquium der AHB, Nahrung, 17 March, LeipzigGoogle Scholar
Campbell, G.L. and Bedford, M.R. (1992) Enzyme applications for monogastric feeds. A review. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 72: 449466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Campbell, T.D. (1984) Low energy barley based diets for laying hens. Proceedings of the Western Nutritional Conference,Calgary, Alberta, pp. 102–121Google Scholar
Chesson, A. (1992) Feed enzymes. Proceedings of the Third Spring Conference,20 March,Edinburgh, pp. 61–76Google Scholar
Choct, M. and Annison, G. (1990) Anti-nutritive activity of wheat pentosans in broiler diets. British Poultry Science 31: 811821CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Classen, H.L. and Bedford, M.R. (1991) The use of enzymes to improve the nutritive value of poultry feeds. In: Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition (Eds Haresign, W. and Cole, D.J.A.), Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, pp. 95116Google Scholar
Classen, H.L., Campbell, G.L. and Grootwassink, J.W.D. (1988) Improved feeding value of Saskatchewan-grown barley for broiler chickens with dietary enzyme supplementation. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 68: 12531259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clickner, F.H. and Follwell, E.H. (1926) Cited by Wünsche, J. (1972) Enzyme. In: Mineralstoffe, Vitamine, Ergotropika (Ed. Hennig, A.), Deutscher Landwirtschaftsverlag, BerlinGoogle Scholar
Coon, C.N., Shepler, R., Macfarland, D. and Nordheim, J. (1979) The nutritional evaluation of barley selection and cultivars from Washington State. Poultry Science 58: 913918CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Coon, C.N., Obi, J. and Hamre, M.L. (1988) Use of barley in laying hen diets. Poultry Science 67: 13061313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dänicke, S. (1988) Futterwert und Einsatzmöglichkeiten inländischer Getreidearten und Körnerle-guminosen in der Legehennenfütterung. Diplomarbeit, University of LeipzigGoogle Scholar
Dänicke, S., Jeroch, H. and Pingel, H. (1993) Untersuchungen zum Einfluβ gestaffelter Energie- und Proteinstufen im Broiler mastfutter auf Mast- und Schlachtleistung, chemische Tierkörperzusammensetzung und ausgewählte Fleischqualitätsmerkmale bei Masthähnchen. VDLUFA-Schriftenreihe 37: 321324Google Scholar
Dierick, N.A. (1989) Biotechnology aids to improve feed and feed digestion: enzymes and fermentation. Archives of Animal Nutrition 39: 248261Google ScholarPubMed
Deutsche Landwirtschafts-Gesellschaft (1991) DLG-Futterwerttabellen-Schweine. 6., erweiterte und völlig neugestaltete Auflage, Frankfurt am Main, DLG-VerlagGoogle Scholar
Dokumentationsstelle Der Universität Hohenheim (1992) Nährstoff-, Mineralstoff-und Aminosäurentabellen zur Geflügelfütterung. In: Jahrbuch für die Geflügelwirtschaft 1993 (Ed. Petersen, J.), Verlag Eugen Ulmer, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
Eggum, B.O. and Christensen, K.D. (1975) Influence of tannin on protein utilization in feedstuffs with special reference in barley. In: Breeding for Seed Protein Improvement Using Nuclear Techniques, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, pp. 135143Google Scholar
Elsinger, K. (1977) Effect of nitrogen fertilization of nutritional value of barley. 1. Experiments with laying hens. Swedish Journal of Agricultural Research 7: 97103Google Scholar
Elwinger, K. and Teglöf, B. (1991) Performance of broiler chickens as influenced by a dietary enzyme complex with and without antibiotic supplementation. Archiv für Geflügelkunde 55: 6973Google Scholar
Engstom, D.F., Mathison, G.W. and Goonewardene, L.A. (1992) Effect of β-glucan, starch and fibre content and steam vs. dry rolling of barley grains on its degradability and utilisation by steers. Animal Feed Science and Technology 37: 3346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ewertson, G. (1977) Protein content and grain quality relations in barley. PhD Thesis. Swedish University of Agricultural Science, UppsalaGoogle Scholar
FAO (1993) Production Yearbook, Vol. 46, Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
Flachowsky, G. (1971) Einfluβ eines variierenden Rohprotein- und Energiegehaltes im Futter auf das Mastergebnis, die Schlachtkörperzusammensetzung und die Verwertung des Proteins und der Energie bei männlichen und weiblichen Broilern. Dissertation, Friedrich-Schiller Universität JenaGoogle Scholar
Flamme, W. (1985) Beiträge zue Chemie des Roggens (Secale cerale) Teil 3: 5-n-Alkylresorcinole. Dissertation B, Akademie der Landwirtschaftswissenschaften, BerlinGoogle Scholar
Francesch, M., Perez-Vendrell, A.M., Esteve-Garcia, E. and Brufau, J. (1992) Prediction of metabolizable energy of Spanish barleys from chemical and physical characteristics. Proceedings of 19th World's Poultry Congress,Amsterdam,20-24 September 3: 539Google Scholar
Fry, R.E., Allred, J.B., Jensen, L.S. and McGinnis, J. (1957) Influence of cereal grain component of the diet on the response of chicks and poults to dietary enzymes supplements. Poultry Science 36: 1120Google Scholar
Fuller, M.F., Woodham, A.A. and Henderson, W.M.T. (1979) The amino acid supplementation of barley for chicks. Var foda 31: 174Google Scholar
Gohl, B. (1977) Effects of hydrocolloids on productive value and feeding characteristics of barley. PhD Thesis, Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Uppsala, SwedenGoogle Scholar
Gohl, B. and Thomke, S. (1976) Digestibility coefficients and metabolizable energy of barley diets for layers as influenced by geographical area of production. Poultry Science 55: 23692374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goodman, T., Wyatt, C. and Wood, B. (1993) Effects of feeding high β-glucan barleys on metabolizable energy value in young and adult chickens. Journal of Animal Science 71: 181Google Scholar
Graham, H. and Pettersson, D. (1992) A note on the effect of a geta-glucanase and a multienzyme on production in broiler chicks fed a barley-based diet. Swedish Journal of Agricultural Research 22: 3942Google Scholar
Gruhn, K. and Zander, R. (1984) Besgimmung der scheinbaren Verdaulichkeit der Rohnährstoffe, basischen und schwefelhaltigen Aminosäuren von Futtermitteln und Rationen beim Geflügel. Forschungsbericht, Universität LeipzigGoogle Scholar
Gruhn, K. and Zander, R. (1989) Verdaulichkeit der Rohnährstoffe und Aminosäuren von Rationen aus Gerste und Fischmehl, Hafer und Fischmehl sowie von Gerste und Hafer bei Geflügel. Monatshefte Veterinärmedizin 44: 572576Google Scholar
Gruzauskas, R. (1993) Habilitationsschrift. Veterinärmedizinische Akademic Kaunas, LitauenGoogle Scholar
Gruzauskas, R. and Jeroch, H. (1992) Nichtstärkepolysaccharide und Futterwert von Gerste für ads Geflügel. In: Internationale Tagung Schweine- und Geflügelernährung, 1–3 Dezember, Halle, pp. 129136Google Scholar
Gruzauskas, R., Jeroch, H., Jeroch, K., Siryydis, V., Danius, S. and Bobina, A. (1991) Der Einfluβ verschiedener Enzympräparate auf die Legeleistung bei der Fütterung von Futtermischungen auf Gerstebasis. Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference on Industrial Enzymes, Probiotics and Biological Additives,Kaunas,14–16 May, pp. 32–35Google Scholar
Hastings, W.H. (1946) Enzyme supplements to poultry feeds. Poultry Science 25: 584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Henry, R.J. (1987) Pentosan and (1-3)(1-4)-β-glucan concentrations in endosperm and whole grain of wheat, barley, oats and rye. Journal of Cereal Science 6: 253258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Herstad, O. (1987) Cereal with higher fiber content (barley, oats, millet). Proceedings of 6th European Symposium on Poultry Nutrition,11–15 October,Königslutter, Germany, A15–A23Google Scholar
Hesselman, K. (1983) Effects of the β-glucanase supplementation to barley based diets for broiler chickens. Dissertation, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, UppsalaGoogle Scholar
Hesselman, K. (1989) The use of enzymes in poultry diets. Proceedings of the 7th European Symposium on Poultry Nutrition,18–21 June,Lloret de Mar Girona (Spain), pp. 31–48Google Scholar
Hesselman, K. and Thomke, S. (1982) Influence of some factors on development of viscosity in the water-extract of barley. Swedish Journal of Agricultural Research 12: 1722Google Scholar
Hesselman, K., Elwinger, K., Nilson, M. and Thomke, S. (1981) The effect of β-glucanase supplementation, stage ripeness and storage treatment of barley in diets fed for broiler chickens. Poultry Science 60: 26642671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Huisman, J. (1991) Antinutritional factors in poultry feeds and their management. Proceedings of the 8th European Symposium on Poultry Nutrition,14–17 October,Venezia-Mestre, Italy, pp. 42–59Google Scholar
Institut National De La Recherche Agronomique (INRA) (1984) L'Alimentation des Animaux Monogastriques: Porc, Lapin, VolaillesGoogle Scholar
Jensen, L.S., Fry, R.E., Allred, J.B. and McGinnis, J. (1957) Improvement in the nutritional value of barley for chicks by enzyme supplementation. Poultry Science 36: 919921CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jeroch, H. (1964) Untersuchungen über den Eiweiβ- und Energieanatz beim wachsenden Küken. Dissertation, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität JenaGoogle Scholar
Jeroch, H. (1991a) Gerste als Futtermittel für Legehennen. Archiv für Tierzucht 34: 581590Google Scholar
Jeroch, H. (1991b) Application of enzymes in laying hens rations based on barley. Proceedings of the 8th European Symposium on Poultry Nutrition.14–17 October,Venezia-Mestre, Italy, pp. 361–363Google Scholar
Jeroch, H. (1991c) Enzyme in der Tierernährung. Tagungsbericht 3. Symposium Vitamine und weitere Zusatzstoffe bei Mensch und Tier 26–27.September,Stadtroda bei Jena/Thüringen, pp. 334–341Google Scholar
Jeroch, H. and Berger, H. (1983) Nutritional value of field beans in chickens. Proceedings 4th European Symposium on Poultry Nutrition,17–20 October,Tours, France, p. 114Google Scholar
Jeroch, H. and Engerer, K.-H. (1992) Effect of a β-glucanase-containing multienzyme preparation to geese fattening mixtures on barley basis. Proceedings of 9th International Symposium on Waterfowl,16–18 September,Pisa, Italy, pp. 159–161Google Scholar
Jeroch, H. and Müller, A. (1992) Futterenzyme in der Geflügelernährung. Lohmann Information, Sept/Okt, 511Google Scholar
Jeroch, H. and Peter, V. (1987) Ernährung und Fütterung. In: Internationales Handbuch der Tierproduktion - Geflügel (Eds, Schwark, H.-J., Peter, V. and Mazanowski, A.), Deutscher Landwirtschaftsverlag, BerlinGoogle Scholar
Jeroch, H. and Richter, G. (1975) Energie- und Proteinbedarfsnormen für Legehybriden und deren Nachzucht. Forschungsbericht, Universität LeipzigGoogle Scholar
Jeroch, H., Aboud, M., Engerer, K.-H. and Gebhardt, G. (1990a) Einfluβ einer mechanischen Bearbeitung von Wintergerste auf die Futterqualität für Broilerküken. Archives of Animal Nutrition 40: 4754Google Scholar
Jeroch, H., Köhler, R., Jänsch, S., Dänicke, S. and Gruzauskas, R. (1990b) Futterqualität und Fütterungseignung von Gerste für Geflügel. In: Internationale Tagung Schweine-und Geflügelernährung, Leipzig, 11–13 Dezember, pp. 155160Google Scholar
Jeroch, H., Helander, E., Schlöffel, H.-J., Engerer, K.-H., Pingel, H. and Gebhardt, G. (1991) Prüfung der Wirksamkeit des Beta-Glucanase enthaltenden Enzympräparates “Avizyme” zu einer Broilermastmischung auf Gerstebasis. Archiv für Geflgelkunde 55: 2225Google Scholar
Jeroch, H., Gruzauskas, R. and Völker, L. (1992) The effect of variety on the feeding value of barley for broiler chickens and the efficiency of enzyme preparation containing β-glucanase. In: Proceedings of XIX World's Poultry Congress, 20–24 09 1992, Amsterdam, Vol. 3, 451Google Scholar
Jeroch, H., Schurz, M. and Müller, A. (1993) Einfluβ des Beta-Glucanase enthaltenden Enzympräparates “Avizyme” auf die Futterwirkung von Broilermastmischungen mit unterschiedlichem Gersteanteil. Kühn-Archiv 87: 7487Google Scholar
Jeroch, H., Schurz, M., Skindzera, A., Müller, A. and Völker, L. (1995) The influence of enzyme additions to a barley based ration on the fattening performance of muscovy ducks. Archiv für Geflügelkunde 59: 223227Google Scholar
Kesting, S., Heinz, D. (1990) Zum Futterwert verschiedener Gersten beim Geflügel. In: Internationale Tagung zur Schweine- und Geflügelernährung, 11–13 Dezember, Leipzig, 219221Google Scholar
Knuckles, B.E., Chiu, M.M. and Betschart, A.A. (1992) β-glucan enriched fractions from laboratory-scale drymilling and sieving of barley and oats. Cereal Chemistry 69: 198202Google Scholar
Køie, B., Ingversen, J., Andersen, A.J., Doll, H. and Eggum, B.O. (1976) Composition and nutritional quality of barley protein. In: Evaluation of Seed Protein Alteration by Mutation Breeding, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, pp. 5561Google Scholar
McNab, J.M. and Smithard, R.R. (1992) Barley β-glucan: an antinutritional factor in poultry feeding. Nutrition Research Reviews 5: 4560CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Marlett, J.A. (1991) Dietary fiber content and effect of processing on two barley varieties. Cereal Foods World Research 36: 576578Google Scholar
Meixner, B. (1974) Erste Untersuchungen über die Anforderungen des Broilers an den Energie- und Proteingehalt des Mastfutters bei Käfighaltung unter Berücksichtigung der Ansprüche in einzelnen Wachstumsabschnitten. Dissertation, Universität LeipzigGoogle Scholar
Metayer, J.P., Seroux, M., Castaing, J. and Grosjean, F. (1993) Studies of variability in French cereals. Animal Feed Science and Technology 43: 87108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Näsi, M. (1988) Enzyme supplementation of laying hen diets based on barley and oats. In: Proceedings of Alltech's Fourth Annual Symposium (Ed. Lyons, T.P.), Alltech Technical Publications, pp. 199204Google Scholar
National Research Council (NRC) (1984) Nutrient Requirements of Poultry, 8th revised edition, National Academy Press, Washington D.C.Google Scholar
Nwokolo, E. and Sim, J. (1989) Barley and full-fat canola feed in layer diets. Poultry Science 68: 14851489CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Petersen, C.F. and Sauter, E.A. (1968) Enzyme sources and their value in barley rations for chicks growth and egg production. Poultry Science 47: 12191224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Richter, G. and Jeroch, H. (1978) Untersuchungen zum optimalen Energiegehalt im Legehennenfutter. Archives of Animal Nutrition 28: 709715Google Scholar
Richter, G., Köhler, H. and Gruhn, K. (1988/1989) Untersuchungen zum Einsatz von bearbeiteter Gerste bei Broilern und Legehennen. Tierern. und Fütterung 16: 184190Google Scholar
Rickaby, C.D., Higginson, G., Policott, D. and Morrison, J.B. (1971) Barley for layers. Agriculture 78: 960963Google Scholar
Rotter, B.A. (1990) Cited by Broz, J. (1993) Enzymes as feed additives in poultry nutrition – current applications and future trends. Monatshefte Verterinärmedizin 48: 213217Google Scholar
Rotter, B.A., Friesen, O.D., Guenter, W. and Marquardt, R.R. (1990) Influence of enzyme on the bioavailable energy of barley. Poultry Science 69: 11741181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Saastamoinen, M., Plaami, S., Kumpalainen, J. and Rantanen, O. (1991) Concentrations of water soluble and insoluble β-glucan and phytic acid in 6-row and 2-row barley varieties. Cereal Research Communications 19: 391397Google Scholar
Salih, M.E., Classen, H.L. and Campbell, G.L. (1991) Response of chickens fed on hull-less barley to dietary β-glucanase at different ages. Animal Feed Science and Technology 33: 139149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Scott, M.L., Nesheim, M.C. and Young, R.J. (1982) Nutrition of the Chicken, 3rd edition, W.F. Humphrey Press Inc., New YorkGoogle Scholar
Stekar, J. and Stibilj, Y. (1988) The chemical composition of different barley varieties. Proceedings of 4th World Conference of Animal Production,June 27–July 1,Helsinki, Finland, pp. 173–178Google Scholar
Stock, H.-G. and Jeroch, H. (1995) Anbauchancen für zweizeilige Wintergerste bei Berücksichtigung von Ertrag und Qualität. Die Bodenkultur 45 (in press)Google Scholar
Tallberg, A. and Eggum, B.O. (1981) The nutritional value of high-lysine barley genotypes. Qualitas Platarum – Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 31: 151161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thomke, S. (1970) Über die Veränderung des Aminosäuregehaltes der Gerste mit steigendem Stickstoffgehalt. Zeitschrift Tierphysiologie, Tierernährung und Futtermittelkunde 27: 2331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Whitehead, C.C. (1981) The response of egg weight to the inclusion of different amounts of vegetable oil and linoleic acid in the diet of laying hens. British Poultry Science 22: 525532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Willingham, H.E., Jensen, L.S. and McGinnes, J. (1959) Studies on the role on enzyme supplements and water treatment for improving the nutritional value of barley. Poultry Science 43: 1376Google Scholar
Willingham, H.E., Leon, K.C. and Jensen, L.S. (1960) Influence of geographical area of production on response of different barley samples to enzyme supplements or water treatment. Poultry Science 39: 103108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wünsche, J. (1972) Enzyme. In: Mineralstoffe, Vitamine, Ergotropika (Ed. Hennig, A.), Deutscher Landwirtschaftsverlag, BerlinGoogle Scholar
WPSA (1989) European table energy values for poultry feedstuffs. European Federation of Branches of the WPSA, Working Group no. 2 (Nutrition)Google Scholar
WPSA (1992) European amino acid table. WPSA, Working Group no. 2 (Nutrition)Google Scholar
Xue, O., Newman, R.K., Newman, C.W. and McGuire, C.F. (1990) Waxy gene effects on β-glucan, dietary fibre content and viscosity of barley. Cereal Research Communications 19: 399404Google Scholar