Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-5c569c448b-9hjnw Total loading time: 0.192 Render date: 2022-07-05T06:37:45.955Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

Manipulating the fatty acid composition of poultry meat and eggs for the health conscious consumer

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  18 September 2007

Pamela S. Hargis
Affiliation:
Department of Poultry Science, Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, The Texas A&M University System College Station, Texas 77843-2472, USA
Mary E. Van Elswyk
Affiliation:
Department of Poultry Science, Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, The Texas A&M University System College Station, Texas 77843-2472, USA
Get access

Abstract

Consumer demand for food products of superior health quality has renewed interest in modifying the lipid composition of poultry meat and eggs. While work involving the reduction of the cholesterol content of poultry products has met with little success, dietary fatty acid modification has proved to be a viable method of adding value to poultry products for the health conscious consumer. Because of the association with a decreased risk of coronary heart disease, recent dietary fat studies have centred on the manipulation of specific fatty acids, i.e. 20-carbon omega-3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid 20:5n3, decosahexaenoic acid 22:6n3) found in marine sources. Seasonal availability, affordability and consumer preference often limit fish consumption, thereby excluding the primary source of 20-carbon omega-3 fatty acids. Enrichment of poultry meat and eggs with these fatty acids might provide an excellent alternative source. The omega-3 fatty acid content of both poultry meat and eggs can be readily increased by the inclusion of marine oils/meals in the diet. However, off-flavours associated with carcass and egg samples enriched in this way have prompted investigations into the use of terrestrial sources of omega-3 fatty acids. While effective in enriching meat and egg products with linoleic acid (18:3n3), plant sources result in only minor changes in the content of 20-carbon omega-3 fatty acids. Various methods of oil refinement and extraction, as well as alterations in production practices and the use of dietary antioxidants have been examined as ways to improve flavour quality and storage stability of omega-3 fatty acid enriched products. Continued investigation in the areas of sensory evaluation and product stability are needed if significant improvements in the health quality of foods available to the consumer are to be made.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1993

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Adams, R.L., Pratt, D.L., Lin, J.H. and Stadelman, W.J. (1989) Introduction of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids into eggs. Poultry Science 68: (Suppl. 1): 166 (Abstract)Google Scholar
Asmundson, V.S., Jukes, T.H., Tyler, H.M. and Maxwell, M.L. (1938) The effects of certain fish meals and fish oils in the ration on the flavor of the turkey. Poultry Science 17: 147151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Atkinson, A, Swart, L.G., Van Der Merwe, R.P. and Wessels, J.P.H. (1972a) Flavor studies with different levels and times of fish meal feeding and some flavor-imparting additives in broiler diets. Agroanimalia 4: 5362Google Scholar
Atkinson, A., Van Der Merwe, R.P. and Swart, L.G. (1972b) The effect of high levels of different fish meals, of several antioxidants and poultry byproduct meal on the flavor and fatty acid composition of broilers. Agroanimalia 4: 6368Google Scholar
Barlow, S. and Pike, I.H. (1991) Humans, animals benefit from omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Feedstuffs 63: 1826Google Scholar
Barlow, S.M., Young, F.V.K. and Duthie, I.F. (1990) Nutritional recommendations for omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and the challenge to the food industry. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 49: 1321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Beyer, R.S. and Jensen, L.S. (1989) Tissue cholesterol levels and performance of chickens fed ketoisocaproic acid. Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology Journal 3: 5998Google Scholar
Carlson, D., Potter, L.M., Matteson, L.D., Singsen, E.P., Gilpin, B.L., Redstrom, R.A. et al. (1957) Palatability of chickens fed diets containing different levels of fish oil or tallow. Food Technology 11: 615620Google Scholar
Carrick, C.W. and Hauge, S.M. (1926) The effect of cod liver oil upon flavor in poultry meat.Poultry Science 5: 213215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cartwright, A.L. (1991) Adipose cellularity in Gallus domesticus: investigations to control body composition in the growing chicken. Journal of Nutrition 121: 14861497Google Scholar
Caston, L. and Leeson, S. (1990) Research note: dietary flax and egg composition. Poultry Science 69: 16171620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chen, T.C. and Hsu, S.Y. (1981) Quality attributes of whole egg and albumen mixtures cooked by different methods. Journal of Food Science 46: 984988CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cherian, G. and Sim, J.S. (1991) Effect of feeding full fat flax and canola seeds to laying hens on the fatty acid composition of eggs, embryos and newly hatched chicks. Poultry Science 70: 917922CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Couch, J.R, and Soloma, A.E. (1973) Effect of diet on triglyceride structure and composition of egg yolk lipids. Lipids 8: 385392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Crawford, M.A., Doyle, W., Williams, G. and Drury, P.J. (1989) Fats and EFAs in early development. In: The Role of Fats in Human Nutrition, 2nd edn. (Eds Vergrosesen, A.J. and Crawford, M.), Academic Press, London, pp. 185198Google ScholarPubMed
Cruickshank, E.M. (1934) Studies in fat metabolism in the fowl I. The composition of the egg fat and depot fat of the fowl as affected by the ingestion of large amounts of different fats. Biochemistry Journal 28: 9652977CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Daggy, B., Arost, C. and Bensadoun, A. (1987) Dietary fish oil decreases VLDL production rates. Biochemica Biophysica Acta 920: 293300CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dean, P., Proudfoot, F.G., Larmond, E. and Aitken, J.R. (1971) The effect of feeding diets containing white fish meal on acceptability and flavor intensity of roasted broiler chickens. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 51: 1520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dean, P., Lamoreaux, W.F., Aitken, J.R. and Proudfoot, F.G. (1969) Flavor associated with fish meal in diets fed to broiler chickens. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 49: 1115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Edwards, H.M. Jr. and May, K.N.. (1965) Studies with menhaden oil in practical-type broiler rations. Poultry Science 44: 685688CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
El-Hussainy, O., Asker, N.E., Ghazalah, A. and Hamid, A. (1983) Effect of dietary lipid on egg production and fatty acid contents in liver and egg yolk. Annals of Agricultural Society, Moshtohor 20: 289310Google Scholar
Evans, R.J., Davidson, J.A. and Bandemer, S.L. (1961) Fatty acids and lipids distribution in egg yolks from hens fed cottonseed oil or Stericulia foetida seeds. Journal of Nutrition 73: 282290Google Scholar
Fry, J.L., Van Walleghem, P., Waldroup, P.W. and Harms, R.H. (1965) Fish meal studies: efrects of levels and sources of ‘fishy flavor’ in broiler meat. Poultry Science 44: 10161019CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hargis, P.S. (1988) Modifying egg yolk cholesterol in the domestic fowl: a review. World's Poultry Science Journal 44: 1729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hargis, P.S., Van Elswyk, M.E. and Hargis, B.M. (1991) Dietary manipulation of yolk lipid with menhaden oil. Poultry Science 70: 874883CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harris, W.S. (1989) Fish oils and plasma lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in humans: a critical review. Journal of Lipid Research 30: 785807Google Scholar
Hawrysh, Z.J., Steedman-Douglas, C.D., Robblee, A.R., Hardin, R.T. and Sam, R.M. (1980) Influence of low glucosinolate (cv. Tower) rapeseed meal on the eating quality of broiler chickens. I. Subjective evaluation by a trained test panel and objective measurements. Poultry Science 59: 550557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hawrysh, Z.J., Sam, R.M., Robblee, A.R. and Hardin, R.T. (1982) Influence of low glucosinolate canola meals (cv. Regent and Candle) on the eating quality of broiler chickens. Poultry Science 61: 23752384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Huang, Z., Leibovitz, H., Lee, C.M. and Millar, R. (1990) Effect of dietary fish oil on n-3 fatty acid levels in chicken eggs and thigh flesh. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 38: 743747CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hulan, H.W., Ackman, R.G, Ratnayake, W.M.N. and Proudfoot, F.G. (1988) Omega-3 fatty acid levels and performance of broiler chickens fed redfish meal or redfish oil. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 68: 533547CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hulan, H.W., Ackman, R.G., Ratnayake, W.M.N. and Proudfoot, F.G. (1989) Omega-3 fatty acid levels and general performance of commercial broilers fed practical levels of redfish meal. Poultry Science 68: 153162CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Klose, A.A., Hanson, H.L., Mecchi, E.P., Anderson, J.H., Streeter, I.V. and Lineweaver, H. (1953) Quality and stability of turkeys as a function of dietary fat. Poultry Science 32: 8288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Klose, A.A., Mecchi, E.P., Hanson, H.L. and Lineweaver, H. (1951) The role of dietary fat in the quality of fresh and frozen storage turkeys. Journal of American Oil Chemists' Society 28: 162164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Koehler, H.H. and Bearse, G.E. (1975) Egg flavor quality as affected by fish meals or fish oils in laying rations. Poultry Science 54: 881889CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kromhout, D., Bosschieter, E.B. and Coulander, C.D.L. (1985) The inverse relation between fish consumption and 20-year mortality from coronary heart disease. New England Journal of Medicine 312: 12051209CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lands, W.E.M. (1986) Overall supply of n-3 fatty acids. In: Fish and Human Health. Academic Press, New York, pp. 129135Google Scholar
Leaf, A. and Weber, P.C. (1988) Cardiovascular effects of n-3 fatty acids. New England Journal of Medicine 318: 549555CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lin, C.F., Asghar, A., Gray, J.I., Buckley, D.J., Booren, A.M., Crackel, R.L. et al. (1989) Effects of oxidized dietary oil and antioxidant supplementation on broiler growth and meat stability. British Poultry Science 30: 855864CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marion, J.E. and Woodroof, J.G. (1963) The fatty acid composition of breast, thigh, and skin tissues of chicken broilers as influenced by dietary fats. Poultry Science 48: 12021207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Matiella, J.E. and Hsieh, T.C.Y. (1991) Volatile compounds in scrambled eggs. Journal of Food Science 56: 387390, 426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Miller, D., Gruger, E.H. Jr., Leong, K.C. and Knobl, G.M. Jr. (1967) Effect of refined menhaden oils on the flavor and fatty acid composition of broiler flesh. Journal of Food Science 32: 342345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Miller, D. and Robisch, P. (1969) Comparative effect of herring, menhaden and safflower oils on broiler tissues' fatty acid composition and flavor. Poultry Science 48: 21462157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Miller, D., Leong, K.C. and Smith, P. (1969) Effect of feeding and withdrawal of menhaden oil on the w3 and w6 fatty acid content of broiler tissue. Journal of Food Science 34: 136141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Murty, N.L. and Reiser, R. (1961) Influence of graded levels of dietary linoleic and linolenic acids on the fatty acid composition of hens' eggs. Journal of Nutrition 75: 287294Google ScholarPubMed
Naber, E.C. (1979) The effect of nutrition on the composition of eggs. Poultry Science 58: 518528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Naber, E.C. (1991) Cholesterol content of eggs: can and should it be changed? In: Fat and Cholesterol Reduced Foods. Technologies and Strategies, (Eds Haberstroh, C. and Morris, C.E.), Portfolio Publishing Company, The Woodlands, Texas, pp. 261276Google Scholar
Navarro, J.G., Saavedra, J.C., Borie, F.B. and Caiozzi, M.M. (1972) Influence of dietary fish meal on egg fatty acid composition. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 23: 12871292CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nettleton, J.A. (1991) N-3 fatty acids: comparison of plant and seafood sources in human nutrition. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 91: 331337Google ScholarPubMed
Ohtake, Y. and Hoshino, Y. (1976) Influences of dietary fat and oil on the fatty acid distribution in egg yolk lipids of laying hens. Japanese Journal of Zootechnical Science 47: 430440Google Scholar
Olomu, J.M. and Baracos, V.E. (1991) Influence of dietary flaxseed oil on the performance, muscle protein deposition and fatty acid composition of broiler chicks. Poultry Science 70: 14031411CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Phetteplace, H.W. and Watkins, B.A. (1989) Effects of various n-3 lipid sources on fatty acid composition in chicken tissues. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 2: 104117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ratnayake, W.M.N., Ackman, R.G. and Hulan, H.W. (1989) Effect of redfish meal enriched diets on the taste and n-3 PUFA of 42-day-old broiler chickens. Journal of Science and Food Agriculture 49: 5974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sala, J.C. and Chiarella, C. (1963) Effects of using varying quantities of anchovy meal (Engraub vingens) on the flavor of chicken meat. International Association of Fish Meal Manufacturers, Lima, PeruGoogle Scholar
Salmon, R.E., Gardiner, E.E., Rlein, K.K. and Larmond, E. (1981) Effect of canola (low glucosinolate rapeseed) meal, protein and nutrient density on performance, carcass grade, and meat yield of canola meal on sensory quality of broilers. Poultry Science 60: 25192528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Salmon, R.E., Froehlich, D. and Butler, G. (1984) Effect of canola meal, fish meal and choline plus methionine on the sensory quality of broiler chickens. Poultry Science 63: 19941998CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sell, J.L., Choo, S.H. and Kondra, P.A. (1968) Fatty acid composition of egg yolk and adipose tissue as influenced by dietary fat and strain of hen. Poultry Science 47: 12961302CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sim, J.S., Bragg, D.B. and Hodgson, G.C. (1973) Effect of dietary animal tallow and vegetable oil on fatty acid composition of egg yolk, adipose tissue and liver of laying hens. Poultry Science 52: 5157CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Smith, S.B. (1991) Dietary modification for altering fat composition of meat. In: Fat and Cholesterol Reduced Foods: Technologies and Strategies, (Eds Haberstroh, C. and Morris, C.E.), The Portfolio Publishing Company, The Woodlands, Texas, pp. 7597Google Scholar
Stansby, M.E. (1962) Speculations on ‘fishy’ odor. Food Technology 16: 2832Google Scholar
Stansby, M.E. (1990) Deterioration. In: Fish Oils in Nutrition, (Ed. Stansby, M.E.), Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, pp. 120139Google Scholar
Van Elswyk, M.E., Schake, L.S., Hargis, B.M. and Hargis, P.S. (1991) Effects of dietary menhaden oil on serum lipid parameters and hepatic lipidosis in laying hens. Poultry Science 70 (Suppl. 1): 122Google Scholar
Van Elswyk, M.E., Sams, A.R. and Hargis, P.S. (1992) Composition, functionality, and sensory evaluation of eggs from hens fed dietary menhaden oil. Journal of Food Science, 57: 342344, 349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wessels, J.P.H., Atkinson, A., Van Der Merve, R.P. and De Jongh, J.H. (1973) Flavor studies with fish meals and with fish oil fractins in broiler diets. Journal of Science and Food Agriculture 24: 451461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wiseman, J. (1990) Broiler production: market trends, meat quality and nutrition in the light of changing consumer requirements. In: Biotechnology in the Feed Industry (Ed. Lyons, T.P.), Nicholasville, KentuckyGoogle Scholar
Wong, S.H., Nestel, R.P., Trimble, R.P., Storer, G.B., Illman, R.J. and Topping, D.L. (1984) The adaptive effects of dietary fish and safflower oil on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in perfused rat liver. Biochimica Biophysica Acta 792: 103109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yamazaki, R.K. and Schade, G.B. (1987) A diet rich in (n-3) fatty acids increases peroxisomal B-oxidation activity and lowers plasma triglycerols without inhibiting glutathione-dependent detoxication activities in the rat liver. Biochimica Biophysica Acta 920: 6267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yau, J.C., Denton, J.H., Bailey, C.A. and Sams, A.R. (1991) Customizing the fatty acid content of broiler tissues. Poultry Science 70: 167172CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Manipulating the fatty acid composition of poultry meat and eggs for the health conscious consumer
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Manipulating the fatty acid composition of poultry meat and eggs for the health conscious consumer
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Manipulating the fatty acid composition of poultry meat and eggs for the health conscious consumer
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *