ABOU-ELKHAIR, R., AHMED, H.A. and SELIM, S. (2014) Effects of black pepper (Piper nigrum), turmeric powder (Curcuma longa) and coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum) and their combinations as feed additives on growth performance, carcass traits, some blood parameters and humoral immune response of broiler chickens. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 27 (6): 847-854.
ABUDABOS, A.M., ALYEMNI, A.H., DAFALLA, Y.M. and KHAN, R.U. (2017) Effect of organic acid blend and Bacillus subtilis alone or in combination on growth traits, blood biochemical and antioxidant status in broilers exposed to Salmonella typhimurium challenge during the starter phase. Journal of Applied Animal Research 45 (1): 538-542.
ADITYA, S., AHAMMED, M., JANG, H.S. and OHH, J.S. (2017) Effect of dietary onion (Allium cepa) extract supplementation on performance, apparent total tract retention of nutrients, blood profile and meat quality of broiler chicks. Asia-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 30 (2): 229-235.
AFONSO, C. and MILLER, P.J. (2013) Newcastle disease: progress and gaps in the development of vaccines and diagnostic tools. Developmental Biology (Basel) 135: 95-106.
AKTHAR, M.S., DEGAGA, B. and AZAM, T. (2014) Antimicrobial activity of essential oils extracted from medicinal plants against the pathogenic microorganisms: a review. Issues in Biological Sciences and Pharmaceutical Research 2 (1): 001-007.
ALEXANDER, D.J. (2011) Newcastle disease in the European Union 2000 to 2009. Avian Pathology 40: 547-558.
ALLOUI, N.M., AGABOU, A. and ALLOUI, N. (2014) Application of herbs and phytogenic feed additives in poultry production - a review. Global Journal of Animal Scientific Research 2 (3): 234-243.
AL-SULTAN, S.I., ABDEL-RAHEEM, S.M., EL-GHAREEB, W.R. and MOHAMED, M.H.A. (2016) Comparative effects of using prebiotic, probiotic, synbiotic and acidifier on growth performance, intestinal microbiology and histomorphology of broiler chicks. Japanese Journal of Veterinary Research 64 (2): S187-S195.
AMAGASE, H., PETESCH, L.B., MATSUURA, H., KASUGA, S. and ITAKURA, Y. (2001) Intake of garlic and its bioactive components. Journal of Nutrition 131: S955-S962.
ANKRI, S. and MIRELMAN, D. (1999) Antimicrobial properties of allicin from garlic. Microbes and Infection 2: 125-129.
ARNOLD, M., DURAIRAJ, V., MUNDT, E., SCHULZE, K., BREUNIG, K.D. and BEHRENS, S.E. (2012) Protective vaccination against infectious bursal disease virus with whole recombinant Kluyveromyces lactis yeast expressing the viral VP2 subunit. PLoS ONE 7(9): e42870.
BAYAN, L., KOULIVAND, P.H. and GORJI, A. (2014) Garlic: a review of potential therapeutic effects. Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine 4 (1): 1-14.
BENKEBLIA, N. and SHIOMI, N. (2006) Fructooligosaccharides of edible Alliums: Occurrence, chemistry and health benefits. Current Nutrition and Food Science 2 (2): 181-191.
BLOCK, E. (1985) Chemistry of garlic and onions. Scientific American 252: 94-99.
BORLINGHAUS, J., ALBRECHT, F., GRUHLKE, C.H.M., NWACHUKWU, D.I. and SLUSARENKO, J.A. (2014) Allicin: chemistry and biological properties. Molecules 19: 12591-12618.
BOYLSTON, T.D., VINDEROLA, C.G., GHODDUSI, H.B. and REINHEIMER, J.A. (2004) Incorporation of Bifidobacteria into cheeses: Challenges and rewards. International Dairy Journal 14: 375-387.
CATTOLI, G., SUSTA, L., TERREGINO, C. and BROWN, C. (2011) Newcastle disease: a review of field recognition and current methods of laboratory detection. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 23 (4): 637-656.
CHEN, L., JIANG, T., LI, X., WANG, Q., WANG, Y. and LI, Y. (2016) Immunomodulatory activity of β- glucan and mannan-oligosaccharides from Saccharomyces cerevisiae on broiler chickens challenged with feed-borne Aspergillus fumigatus. Pakistan Veterinary Journal 36 (3): 297-301.
CHUGHTAI, S.A., KHAN, A.R., HUSSAIN, S. and IQBAL, S. (2015) Effect of multistrain probiotic on immune response and growth of broilers vaccinated against Newcastle disease. Pakistan Journal of Science 67 (3): 225-229.
CUMMINGS, J.H. and MACFARLANE, G.T. (2002) Gastrointestinal effects of prebiotics. British Journal of Nutrition 87 (2): 145-151.
DEMIR, E., ŞENAY, S., ÖZCAN, M.A. and SUIÇMEZ, M. (2005) The use of natural feed additives as alternative to an antibiotic growth promoter in broiler diets. Archiv für Geflügelkunde 69 (3): 110-116.
DIMITROV, K.M., RAMEY, A.M., QUI, X., BAHL, J. and AFONSO, C.L. (2016) Temporary, geographic, and host distribution of avian paramyxovirus 1 (Newcastle disease virus). Infection, Genetics and Evolution 39: 22-34.
DWIVEDI, S., SAHRAWAT, K., PUPPALA, N. and ORTIZ, R. (2014) Plant prebiotics and human health: biotechnology to breed prebiotic-rich nutritious food crops. Electronic Journal of Biotechnology 17 (5): 1-12.
EID, K.M. and IRAQI, M.M. (2014) Effect of garlic powder on growth performance and immune response for newcastle and avian influenza virus diseases in broiler of chickens. Animal Biotechnology (Poultry and Fish) 1: 7-13.
EZE, C.D., OKWOR, C.E., OKOYE, J.O.A., ONAH, D.N. and SHOYINKA, S.V.O. (2012) Effects of Moringa oleifera methanolic leaf extract on the morbidity and mortality of chickens experimentally infected with Newcastle disease virus (Kudu 113) strain. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 6 (27): 1-7.
EZE, I.A. and IKE, A.C. (2015) The serological status for Newcastle disease in local chickens of live bird markets and households in Nsukka, Enugu state, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Microbiology 29: 3096-3104.
FAYED, R.H., RAZEK, A.H.A. and JEHAN, M.O. (2011) Effect of dietary garlic supplementation on performance, carcass traits, and meat quality in broiler chickens. Proceedings of the XVth International Congress of the International Society for Animal Hygiene, Vienna, Austria, pp. 471-474.
FOREMAN, P.M., FRIEDMAN, G.K., CASSADY, K.A. and MARKERT, J.M. (2017) Oncolytic viriotherapy for the treatment of malignant glioma. Neurotherapeutics 14 (2): 333-344.
FULLER, R. (1989) Probiotics in man and animals. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 66: 365-378.
GALDON, R.B., RODRIGUEZ, T.C., RODRIGUEZ, R.M.E. and ROMERO, D.C. (2008) Fructans and major compounds in onion cultivars (Allium cepa). Journal of Food Composite Analysis 22: 25-32.
GARCIA, S.C., LOPEZ, R.N., MORALES, R., OLVERA, M.A., MARQUEZ, M.A., MERINO, R., MILLER, P.J. and AFONSO, C.L. (2013) Molecular epidemiology of Newcastle disease in Mexico and the potential spillover of viruses from poultry into wild bird species. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 79 (16): 4985-4992.
GBENDA, O.E., ADEBISI, O.E., FAJEMISIN, A.N. and ADETUNJI, A.V. (2009) Response of broiler chickens in terms of performance and meat quality to Garlic (Allium sativum) supplementation. African Journal of Agricultural Research 4 (5): 511-517.
GOODARZI, M., LANDY, N. and NANEKRANI, S. (2013) Effect of onion (Allium cepa L.) as an antibiotic growth promoter substitution on performance, immune responses and serum biochemical parameters in broiler chicks. Health 5 (8): 1210-1215.
HARTWELL, H.L. (1974) Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell cycle. Bacteriological Reviews 38 (2): 164-198.
HASSAN, E.R., ELBAYOUMI, K.M., MEKKY, H.M., SEDEEK, D., RABIE, N.S. and GIRH, Z.M.S.A. (2013) Comparative study on effect of garlic extract and probiotics on the productivity and immune response of broiler chickens to live Newcastle disease vaccine. Global Veterinaria 11 (5): 630-633.
ICIEK, M., KWIECIEŃ, I. and WŁODEK, L. (2009) Biological Properties Of Garlic And Garlic-Derived Organosulfur Compounds. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 50 (3): 247-265.
JAFARI, R.A., JALAI, M.R., GHORBANPOOR, M. and SARAEI, S.M. (2008) Effect of dietary garlic on immune response of broiler chicks to live Newcastle disease vaccine. Pakistan Journal of Biological Science 11 (14): 1848-1851.
JAIME, L., MARTÍN-CABREJAS, M.A., MOLLÁ, E., LÓPEZ-ANDRÉU, F.J. and ESTEBAN, R.M. (2001) Effect of storage on fructan and fructooligosaccharide of onion (Allium cepa L.). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 49: 982-988.
KHAN, R.U., CHAND, N. and ALI, A. (2016a) Effect of organic acids on the performance of Japanese quails. Pakistan Journal of Zoology 48: 1799-1803.
KHAN, R.U., NAZ, S., DHAMA, K., KATHRIK, K., TIWARI, R., ABDELRAHMAN, M.M., ALHIDARY, I.A. and ZAHOOR, A. (2016b) Direct-fed microbial: beneficial applications, modes of action and prospects as a safe tool for enhancing ruminant production and safeguarding health. International Journal of Pharmacology 12 (3): 220-231.
KIRIL, M., CLAUDIO, L. and PATTI, J. (2016) Newcastle disease - a solved problem or a continuous challenge? Veterinary Microbiology 1135 (16): 30804-30805.
KOTOWSKA, M., ALBRECHT, P. and SZAJEWSKA, H. (2005) Saccharomyces boulardii in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in children: a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Alimentary Pharmacology Therapeutics 21: 583-590.
LEE, U.S., LEE, H.J., CHOI, H.S., LEE, S.J., OHNISI-KAMEYAMA, M., KOZUKUE, N., LEVIN, E.C. and FRIEDMAN, M. (2008) Flavonoid content in fresh, home-processed, and light-exposed onions and in dehydrated commercial onion products. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 56: 8541-8548.
LILLY, D.M. and STILLWELL, R.H. (1965) Probiotics: growth promoting factors produced by microorganisms. Science 147: 747-748.
LIU, J.J., KONG, I.I., ZHANG, G.C., JAYAKODY, L.N., KIM, H., XIA, P.F., KWAK, S., SUNG, B.H., SOHN, J.H., WALUKIEWICZ, H.E., RAO, C.V. and JIN, Y.S. (2016) Metabolic engineering of probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 82: 2280-2287.
LIU, X.F., WAN, H.Q., NI, X.X., WU, Y.T. and LIU, W.B. (2003) Pathotypical and genetypical characterisation of strains of Newcastle disease virus isolated from outbreaks in chicken and goose flocks in some regions of China 1985 - 2001. Archives of Virology 148: 1387-403.
LUKANOV, H., GENCHEV, A. and RIBARSKI, S. (2015) Effect of feed supplementation with garlic power on meat productivity and meat quality traits of classic Ross 308 male hybrid chickens. Trakia Journal of Sciences 1: 66-67.
MANAFI, M., HEDAYATI, M. and MIRZAIE, S. (2018) Probiotic Bacillus species and Saccharomyces boulardii improve performance, gut histology and immunity in broiler chickens. South African Journal of Animal Science 42 (2): 379-389.
MILLER, P.J., KOCH, G., SUAREZ, D. and et al. (2013) Newcastle disease, other paramyxoviruses, and avian metapneumovirus infections, in: SWAYNE, D.E., GLISSON, J.R., MCDOUGALD, L.R., NOLAN, L.K., SUAREZ, D.L. & NAIR, V. (Eds) Diseases of Poultry, 13th ed., pp. 250-377 (Ames IA: Blackwell Publishing).
MOHAMMED, A.A., JACOBS, J.A., MURUGESAN, G.R. and CHENG, H.W. (2018) Effect of dietary symbiotic supplement on behavioral patterns and growth performance of broiler chickens reared under heat stress. Poultry Science 97 (4): 1101-1108.
NAVIDSHAD, B., DARABIGHENE, B. and MALECKY, M. (2016) Garlic: An Alternative to Antibiotics in Poultry Production, A Review. Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science 8 (1): 9-17.
OLIVEIRA, M.C., FIGUEIREDO-LIMA, D.F., FILHO, D.E.F., MARQUES, R.H. and MORAES, V.M.B. (2009) Effect of mannanoligosaccharides and/or enzymes on antibody titers against infectious bursal and Newcastle disease viruses. Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia 61 (1): http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-09352009000100002.
POURALI, M., MIRGHELENJ, S. and KERMANSHAHI, H. (2010) Effects of garlic powder on productive performance and immune response of broiler chickens challenged with Newcastle disease virus. Global Veterinaria 4 (6): 616-612.
RAHMAN, S., KHAN, S., CHAND, N., SADIQUE, U. and KHAN, U.R. (2017) In vivo effects of Allium cepa L. on the selected gut microflora and intestinal histomorphology in broiler. Acta Histochemica 119 (5): 446-450.
RAJPUT, I.R., LI, L.Y., XIN, X., WU, B.B., JUAN, Z.L., CUI, Z.W., YU, D.Y. and LI, W.F. (2013a) Effect of Saccharomyces boulardii and Bacillus subtilis B10 on intestinal ultrastructure modulation and mucosal immunity development mechanism in broiler chickens. Poultry Science 92: 956-965.
RAJPUT, I.R., LI, Y.L., XU, X., HUANG, Y., ZHI, W.C., YU, D.Y. and LI, W. (2013b) Supplementary effect of Saccharomyces boulardii and Bacillus subtilits B10 on digestive enzyme activities, antioxidation capacity and blood homeostasis in broiler. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 15: 231-237.
RIVLIN, R. (2001) Historical perspective on the use of garlic. The Journal of Nutrition 131: S1-S4.
ROBERFROID, M. (2007) Prebiotics: The concept revisited. The Journal of Nutrition 137 (2): S830-S837.
ROLDÁN-MARÍN, E., SÁNCHEZ-MORENO, C., LLORÍA, R., ANCOS, B. and CANO, M.P. (2009) Onion high-pressure processing: Flavonol content and antioxidant activity. Food Science and Technology 42 (4): 835-841.
SAFDAR, K., MUHAMMAD, K. and NAZ, R. (2016) Effect of herbal extracts on serum minerals, lipid profile and anti-NDV-HI antibody levels of vaccinated broiler chicks. Pakistan Journal of Zoology 48 (6): 1715-1719.
SALEH, A.A., EBEID, T.A. and ABUDABOS, A.M. (2018) Effect of dietary phytogenics (herbal mixture) supplementation on growth performance, nutrient utilisation, antioxidative properties, and immune response in broilers. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 25 (15): 14606-14613, doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-1685-z.
SALMINEN, S. (1996) Uniqueness of probiotic strains. IDF Nutrition Newsletter 5: 16-18.
SHALINI, R., ABINAYA, G., SARANYA, P. and ANTONY, U. (2017) Growth of selected Probiotic bacterial strains with fructans from Nendran banana and garlic. Food Science and Technology 83: 68-78.
SHIRISHA, R., KRISHNADAIDA RAJU, M.V.L.N., REDDY, S.S. and REDDY, V.R. (2017) Effect of dietary supplementation of probiotic (problend) on immune status, biochemical profile and E. coli counts in commercial broiler chicken. Journal of Animal Research 7 (4): 717-721.
SIMON, O. (2005) Micro-organisms as feed additives-probiotics. Advances in Pork Production 39: 161-167.
SPRADBROW, P.B. (1994) Newcastle disease in village chickens. Poultry Science Review 5: 57-96.
SUSTA, L., HAMAL, K.R., MILLER, P.J., CARDENAS-GARCIA, S., BROWN, C.C., PEDERSEN, J.C., GONGORA, V. and AFONSO, C.L. (2014) Separate evolution of virulent Newcastle disease viruses from Mexico and Central America. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 52 (5): 1382-1390.
TALEBI, A., AMANI, A., POURMAHMOD, M., SAGHAEI, P. and REZAIE, R. (2015) Symbiotic enhances immune responses against infectious bronchitis, infectious bursal disease, Newcastle disease and avian influenza in broiler chickens. Veterinary Research Forum 6 (3): 191-197.
THORNTON, P.K. (2010) Livestock production: recent trends, future prospects. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B. Biological Science 365: 2853-2867.
USDA (2014) Basic Report 02020, Spices, garlic powder. National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Release 27, Report Date: September 29, 2014 22:01 EDT.
WAHEED, S., HASNAIN, A., AHMAD, A., TARAR, O.M., YAQEEN, Z. and ALI, M. (2017) Effect of spices and sweet violet extracts to replace antibiotics and antioxidants in feed on broiler performance, hematology, lipid profile and immunity. The Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences 27 (3): 714-724.