Skip to main content
×
×
Home

History of artificial insemination in poultry, its components and significance

  • J. MOHAN (a1), S.K. SHARMA (a1), G. KOLLURI (a1) and K. DHAMA (a2)
Abstract

Artificial insemination (AI) technology use in poultry production has enabled the rapid dissemination of genetic material from a small number of superior males to a high number of females. Excellent fertility in poultry can be obtained by AI compared to natural mating. Successful application of this technique needs good quality semen that should be inseminated very close to the sperm storage tubules in the female to obtain the optimum fertility in chicken. Since the 1950s, AI has been used in commercial poultry production, initially in Israel and Australia, followed by the USA. Doses of spermatozoa required for AI increases with storage time or that obtained from aged bird. The average volume of semen is between 0.05-0.50 ml in light chicken breeds and 0.1-0.9 ml in heavy males. In light turkeys, volume is 0.08-0.30 ml, whereas in heavy-weight males it is 0.1-0.33 ml. Quality evaluation of semen gives an indication of the male reproductive potential and is the major determinant of fertility and subsequently hatchability of eggs. Semen from cockerels contains between 3-7 billion sperm cells/ml. Among the several factors that influence the semen quality, sperm motility is a primary determinant of fertility in domestic fowls; however, visual examination of semen cannot be ignored for successful AI under field conditions. Dilution of low and viscous volume of avian semen is essential for handling and storage, and chicken semen typically requires a two to three-fold dilution. Collected samples should be preserved at 2-8°C for avian species, ideally with turkey sperm stored at 4-8°C, and chicken semen at 7-8°C for good fertility. Currently, the technique of AI in most of the poultry species is well developed; however, there is a need for successful development programme of this technique in non-domesticated birds to assist in creating viable, self-sustaining populations of critically endangered species.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Corresponding author: mohanjagjag@rediffmail.com
References
Hide All
AISHA, K. and ZAIN, U.A. (2010) Artificial Insemination in Poultry. Department of Pathology, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan.
AKASHI, T., MIZUNO, I., OKUMURA, A. and FUSE, H. (2005) Usefulness of sperm quality analyzer-V (SQA-V) for the assessment of sperm quality in infertile men. Archives of Andrology 51 (6): 437-442.
ARTEMENKO, A.B. and TERESHCHENKO, A.V. (1992) Dependence of hen fertility of the depth of AI with frozen sperm. Nauchno-tekhnicheskii bulletin of the Ukrainian Poultry Research Institute 32: 7-10.
BAKST, M.R. (1993) Future developments in artificial insemination technology. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 2: 373-377.
BAKST, M.R., WISHART, G.J. and BRILLARD, J.P. (1994) Oviductal sperm selection transport and storage in poultry. Poultry Science Review 5: 117-143.
BENOFF, F.H., ROWE, K., FUGUAY, J.I., RENDEN, J.A. and SCOTT, A.R. (1981) . Effect of semen collector on semen volume and sperm concentration in broiler breeder males. Poultry Science 60: 1062-1065.
BEULAH, P.V. (2017) Effect of different semen extenders on fertility of chicken spermatozoa during short term preservation. M.V.Sc Thesis, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, India
BISWAS, A., MOHAN, J. and SASTRY, K.V.H. (2009) Effect of higher dietary vitamin E concentrations on physical and biochemical characteristics of semen in Kadaknath cockerels. British Poultry Science 50: 733-738.
BLANCO, J.M., WILDT, D.E., HOLFE, U., VOELKER, W. and DONOGHUE, A.M. (2009) Implementing artificial insemination as an effective tool for ex situ conservation of endangered avian species. Theriogenology 71: 200-213.
BLESBOIS, E. (2007) Current status in avian semen cryopreservation. World's Poultry Science Journal 63: 213-221.
BOOTWALLA, S.M. and MILES, R.D. (1992) Development of diluents for domestic fowl semen. World's Poultry Science Journal 48: 121-128.
BRATTE, L. and IBE, S.N. (1989) Optimal insemination interval, semen dose and dilution for optimum fertility in chickens under humid tropical conditions. Animal Reproduction Science 20: 179-185.
BRILLARD, J.P. (2003) Practical aspects of fertility in poultry. World's Poultry Science Journal 59: 441-446.
BRILLARD, J.P. (2009) Practical aspects of fertility in poultry. Avian Biology Research 2: 41-45.
BRILLARD, J.P. and BAKST, M.R. (1990) Quantification of spermatozoa in the sperm-storage tuboles of turkey hens and the relation to sperm numbers in the perivitelline layer of eggs. Biology of Reproduction 43: 271-275.
BRILLARD, J.P. and McDANIEL, G.R. (1986) Influence of spermatozoa numbers and insemination frequency on fertility in dwarf broiler breeder hens. Poultry Science 65 (12): 2330-2334.
BROWN, K.I. GRAHAM, E.F. and CAROO, B.G. (1971) Some factors affecting loss of intracellular enzymes from spermatozoa. Cryobiology 8: 220-224.
BURROWS, W.H. and QUINN, J.P. (1937) Artificial insemination of chicken and turkeys. Poultry Science 14: 251-254.
CARSON, J.D., LORENZ, F.W. and ASMUNDSON, V.S. (1955) Semen production in the turkey male. 2. Age at sexual maturity. Poultry Science 34: 344.
CHRISTENSEN, V.L. and JOHNSTON, N.P. (1977) Effect of time of day of insemination and the position of the egg in the oviduct on the fertility of turkeys. Poultry Science 56: 458-462.
COLE, H. and CUPPS, P.T. (1977) Reproduction in domestic animals. 3rd Edition. Academic Press. New York. pp. 195.
COOPER, D.M. (1965) Artificial insemination in poultry. World's Poultry Science Journal 21: 12-22.
COOPER, D.M. (1977) Artificial insemination, in: Gordon, R.F. (Eds) Poultry Disease, pp. 302-307 (Baillierte Tindall, London).
DAVILA, M.P., MUÑOZ, M.P., TAPIA, J.A., FERRUSOLA, O.C., DA SILVA, B.C.C. and PEÑA, F.J. (2015) Inhibition of mitochondrial complex i leads to decreased motility and membrane integrity related to increased hydrogen peroxide and reduced atp production, while the inhibition of glycolysis has less impact on sperm motility. PLoS ONE 10 (9): e0138777.
DE REVIERS, M. and BRILLARD, J.P. (1984) Variations in the sperm production, the sperm output and in the number of sperms to be inseminated in aging broiler breeders. In: Proceedings of Abstract XVII World's Poultry Congress, Helsinki.
DONOGHUE, A.M., HOLSBERGER, D.R., EVENSON, D.P. and FROMAN, D.P. (1998) Semen donor selection by in vitro sperm mobility increases fertility and semen storage in the turkey hen. Journal of Andrology 19: 295-301.
DONOGHUE, A.M. and WISHART, G.J. (2000) Storage of poultry semen. Animal Reproduction Science 62: 213-232.
DOUARD, V., HERMIER, D., MAGISTRINI, M. and BLESBOIS, E. (2003) Reproductive period affects lipid composition and quality of fresh and stored spermatozoa in Turkeys. Theriogenology 59: 753-764.
ETCHES, R.J. (1996) Artificial insemination, in: Reproduction in poultry, pp: 234-262 (CAB International, Wallingford, UK).
FROMAN, D.P. and THURSTON, R.J. (1984) Decreased fertility resulting from treatment of fowl spermatozoa with neuraminidase or phospholipase C. Poultry Science 63: 2479-2482.
GEE, G.F. (1995) Artificial insemination and cryopreservation of semen from nondomestic birds. Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium of AI in Poultry, Savoy, IL, pp. 262-279.
GEE, G.F., BERTSCHINGER, H., DONOGHUE, A.M., BLANCO, J.M. and SOLEY, J. (2004) Reproduction in nondomestic birds: Physiology, semen collection, artificial insemination and cryopreservation. Avian Poultry Biology Reviews 15: 47-101.
GORDON, I. (2005) Reproductive technologies in farm animals. CABI Publishing UK. Chapter: 1, pp.16-28
HAFEZ, B. and HAFEZ, E.S.E. (2000) Reproduction in Farm Animals. 7th ed. New York. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, USA.
HAFEZ, E.S.E. (1978) . Reproduction in farm animal. 2nd edition, pp. 237.
HAMMERSTEDT, R.H. (1996) Artificial insemination using extended liquid semen: An old technology of great value to modern industry. USDA 88: 3742- 3752.
HEMBERGER, M.Y., HOSPES, R. and BOSTEDT, H. (2001) Semen collection, examination and spermiogram in ostriches. Reproduction in Domestic Animals 36: 241-243.
INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE AND RESOURCES (2018) www.iucn.org/theme/species/our-work/bids. Accessed on 23rd May 2018.
ISHIKAWA, H. (1930) Life duration of cock spermatozoa outside the body. Proceedings of 4th World's Poultry Congress, pp: 9.
IVANOW, E.I. (1907) De la fécondation artificielle chez les mammifères. Archives of Biological Sciences 12: 377-511.
IVANOW, E.I. (1922) On the use of artificial insemination for zootechnical purposes in Russia. Journal of Agricultural Science 12: 244-256.
JOYNER, C.J., REDDIE, M.J. and TAYLOR, T.G. (1987) The effect of age on egg production in domestic hens. General and Comparative Endocrinology 65 (3): 331-336.
KLIMOWICZ, M., LUKASZEWICZ, E. and DUBIEL, A. (2005) Effect of collection frequency on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of pigeon (Columba livia) semen. British Poultry Science 46 (3): 361-365.
KURBATOV, A., NARUBINA, L., BUBLAYEVA, G. and TSELUTIN, K. (1984) Cryopreservation of cock sperm. Ptitseuodstuo(Moscow) 11: 28-29.
LAKE, P.E. (1960) Studies on the dilution and storage of fowl semen. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 1: 30-35.
LAKE, P.E. (1983) Factors affecting the fertility level in poultry, with special reference to artificial insemination. World's Poultry Science Journal 39 (2): 106-117.
LAKE, P.E. (1995) Historical perspective of artificial insemination technology, in: BAKST, M.R. & WISHART, G.J. (Eds) Proceedings of First International Symposium Artificial Insemination of Poultry, pp. 1-20 (Poultry Science Association Savoy, Illinois).
LAKE, P.E. and STEWART, J.M. (1978) Preservation of fowl semen in liquid nitrogen- an improved method. British Poultry Science 19: 187-194.
LAKE, P.E. and WOOD-GUSH, D.G.M. (1956) Diurnal rhythms in semen yields and mating behaviour of the domestic cock. Nature London 178: 853.
LODGE, J.R. FECHHEIMER, N.S. and JAAP, R.G. (1971) The relationship of in vivo sperm storage interval to fertility and embryonic survival in the chicken. Biology of Reproduction 5: 252.
LODGE, J.R., AX, R.L. and FECHHEIMER, N.S. (1974) Chromosome aberrations in embryos from in vivo aged chicken sperm. Poultry Science 53: 1816.
LORENZ, F.W. and LERNER, I.M. (1946) Inheritance of sexual maturity in male chickens and turkeys. Poultry Science 25:188-189.
ŁUKASZEWICZ, E. (2002) An effective method for freezing white Italian gander semen. Theriogenology 58: 19-27.
MALECKI, I.A. and MARTIN, G.B. (2004) Artificial insemination in the emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae): effects of numbers of spermatozoa and time of insemination on the duration of the fertile period. Animal Science Papers and Reports 22 (3): 315-323.
MALECKI, I.A., RYBNIK, P.K. and MARTIN, G.B. (2008) Artificial insemination technology for ratites: a review. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 48: 1284-1292.
MANN, T. (1964) The biochemistry of semen and of the male reproductive tract. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
MARKS, H.L. and LEPORE, P.D. (1965) A procedure for artificial insemination of Japanese quail. Poultry Science 44: 1001-1003.
MAULE, J.P. (1962) The semen of animals and artificial insemination. Common Wealth Agricultural Bureau, England.
MCDANIEL, C.D., HANNAH, J.L., PARKER, H.M., SMITH, T.W., SCHULTZ, C.D. and ZUMWALT, C.D. (1998a) Use of a sperm analyzer for evaluating broiler breeder males. 1. Effects of altering sperm quality and quantity on the sperm motility index. Poultry Science 77: 888-893.
MCDANIEL, C.D., PARKER, H.M., YEATMAN, J.B., SCHULTZ, C.D. and ZUMWALT, C.D. (1998b) Selection of young broiler breeder roosters for the sperm motility index increases the percentage of fertilized eggs produced for weeks. Poultry Science 77 (1): 124 (Abstract).
MIŠKEJE, M., SLANINA, T., PETROVIČOVÁ, I. and MASSÁNYI, P. (2013) The effect of different concentration of fallopian tubes (oviducts) secretion extract on turkey spermatozoa motility in vitro. Journal of Microbiology Biotechnology Food Science 2: 13.
MOHAN, J., SASTRY, K.V.H. and KATARIA, J.M. (2017b) A Process for the Preparation of CARI Poultry Semen Diluent’ in patent office New Delhi. Patent filed on 28/02/2017, Application number 201711007119.
MOHAN, J. and MOUDGAL, R.P. (1996) Biochemical characteristics of transparent fluid and its effect on in vitro storage of spermatozoa. Indian Journal of Poultry Science 31: 96-100.
MOHAN, J. and SHARMA, S.K. (2017) Recent advances in poultry semen diluents. Proceedings of 26th Annual Conference of Society of Animal Physiologists of India, Bidar, India, pp. 103-108.
MOHAN, J., KHANDAY, J.M., SINGH, R.P. and TYAGI, J.S. (2013) Effect of storage on the physic-biochemical characteristics and fertility guinea fowl semen. Advances in Animal and Veterinary Sciences 1: 65-68.
MOHAN, J., MOUDGAL, R.P., SASTRY, K.V.H. and SINGH, R. (2002) Effects of hemicastration and castration on foam production and its relationship with fertility in male Japanese quail. Theriogenology 58: 29-39.
MOHAN, J., SHARMA, S.K., KOLLURI, G., GOPI, M., TYAGI, J.S. and KATARIA, J.S. (2017a) Effect of different semen dilutors on fertilizing capacity of chicken semen stored for 24h. Proceedings of XXVIII Annual Australian Poultry Science Symposium, Sydney, Australia, pp. 260-263.
MOHAN, J., SHARMA, S.K., KOLLURI, G., GOPI, M., TYAGI, J.S. and SINGH, R.P. (2017c) Effect of various dilution rates on fertilizing ability of chicken spermatozoa using CARI diluent. Proceedings of 34th Indian Poultry Science Association Conference, Bengaluru, India. pp. 61.
MOHAN, J., SHARMA, S.K., KOLLURI, G., SINGH, R.P., TYAGI, J.S. and KATARIA, J.M. (2016) Semen quality characteristics and seasonality in different varieties of male guinea fowl. Advances in Animal and Veterinary Sciences 4 (6): 320-326.
MOHAN, J., SINGH, R.P., SASTRY, K.V.H., MOUDGAL, R.P., SHIT, N. and BISWAS, A. (2011) Influence of chicken native breeds on some physical and biochemical characteristics and short- term storage of semen. British Poultry Science 52: 395-400.
MOULTRIE, F. (1956) A new technique for the artificial insemination of caged hens. Poultry Science 35: 1230.
NAHAK, A.K., GIRI, S.C., MOHANTY, D.N., MISHRA, P.C. and DASH, S.K. (2015) Effect of frequency of collection on seminal characteristics of White Pekin duck. Asian Pacific Journal of Reproduction 4 (1): 70-73.
NEI, T. (1981) Mechanism of freezing injury to erythrocytes. Effect of initial cell concentration on the post-thaw hemolysis. Cryobiology 18: 229-237.
NISHIYAMA, H., NAKASHIMA, N. and FUJIHARA, N. (1976) Studies on the accessory reproductive organs in the drake, 1. Addition to semen on the fluid from the ejaculatory groove region. Poultry Science 55 (1): 234-242.
PARKER, H.M. and MCDANIEL, C.D. (2006) The immediate effect of semen diluent and rate of dilution on the sperm quality index, ATP utilization, gas exchange, and ion balance of broiler breeder sperm. Poultry Science 85: 106-116.
PETERS, S.O., OMIDIJI, E.A., IKEOBI, C.O.N., OZOJE, M.O. and ADEBAMBO, O.A. (2004) Effect of naked neck and frizzled genes on egg traits, fertility and hatchability in local chicken. Proceedings of the 9th Annual Conference of Animal Science Association, Nigeria, pp. 262-264.
PETERS, S.O., SHOYEBO, O.D., LLORI, B.M., OZOJE, M.O., IKEOBI, C.O.N. and ADEBAMBO, O.A. (2008) Semen quality traits of seven strain of chickens raised in the humid tropics. International Journal of Poultry Science 7: 949-953.
QUINN, J.P. and BURROWS, W.A. (1936) Artificial insemination in fowls. The Journal of Heredity 27 (1): 31-37.
REDDY, R.P. (1995) Artificial insemination of broilers economics and management implication. Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium on the Artificial Insemination, Savoy, I.L. pp. 73-89.
ROZENBOIM, I., NAVOT, A., SNAPIR, N., ROSENSHTRAUCH, A., EL HALAWANI, M.E., GVARYAHU, G. and DEGEN, A. (2003) Methods for collecting semen from the ostrich (Struthio camelus) and some of its quantitative and qualitative characteristics. British Poultry Science 44: 607-611.
SAEKI, Y. and NAGOMI, Y. (1964) Seasonal differences in fertility and hatchability of eggs produced by the natural mating and artificial insemination methods of chickens. The Japanese Journal of Animal Reproduction 10: 37-43.
SANTIAGO-MORENO, J., CASTANO, C., TOLEDANO-DIAZ, A., COLOMA, M.A., LOPEZ-SEBASTIAN, A., PRIETO, M.T. and CAMPO, J.L. (2012) Influence of season on the freezability of free-range poultry semen. Reproduction in Domestic Animals 47: 578-583.
SANTIAGO-MORENO, J., ESTESO, M.C., VILLAVERDE-MORCILLO, S., TOLEDANO-DÍAZ, A., CASTAÑO, C., GIMENO MARTÍNEZ, J., VELÁZQUEZ, R., LÓPEZ-SEBASTIÁN, A. and LÓPEZ GOYA, A. (2016) Recent advances in bird sperm morphometric analysis and its role in male gamete characterization and reproduction technologies. Asian Journal of Andrology 18 (6): 882-888.
SAYED, M.A.M., ABOUELEZZ, F.M.K., AMIRA, A. and ABDEL-WAHAB, M. (2017) Analysis of sperm motility, velocity and morphometry of three Egyptian indigenous chicken strains. Egypt Poultry Science (37) (IV): 1173-1185.
SENGER, P.L. (2003) Pathways to pregnancy and Parturition. (99164-6332) 2nd Ed. Pullman, Washington, USA. Siudzinska A and Lukaszewicz E (2008). Effect of semen extenders and storage time on sperm morphology.
SEXTON, T.J. (1977) A new poultry semen extender 1. Effect of extension on the fertility of chicken semen. Poultry Science 56: 1443-1446.
SEXTON, T.J. (1979) Preservation of poultry semen a review. Beltsville Symposium on Agricultural Research of Avian Reproduction, Allanheld, Osmum & Co., NJ.
SHAFEEQUE, C.M., SINGH, R.P., SHARMA, S.K., MOHAN, J., SASTRY, K.V.H., KOLLURI, G., SAXENA, V.K., TYGAI, J.S., KATARIA, J.M. and AZEEZ, P.A. (2014) Development of new method for sperm RNA purification in the chicken. Animal Reproduction Science 149: 259-265.
SHIT, N., SINGH, R.P., SASTRY, K.V.H., PANDEY, N.K., MOHAN, J. and MOUDGAL, R.P. (2010) Development of artificial insemination technology in Japanese quail. Indian Journal of Poultry Science 45: 50-54.
SINGH, R.P., SHAFEEQUE, C.M., SHARMA, S.K., . PANDEY, N.K., SINGH, R., MOHAN, J., KOLLURI, G., SAXENA, M., SHARMA, B., SASTRY, K.V.H., KATARIA, J.M. and AZEEZ, P.A. (2015) Bisphenol a reduces fertilizing ability and motility by compromising mitochondrial function of sperm. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 34 (7): 1617-1622.
SINGH, R.P., SHAFEEQUE, C., SHARMA, S., SINGH, R., MAHARAJAN, M., SINGH, R., SASTRY, K.V.H., SAXENA, V.K., MOHAN, J. and AZEEZ, P. (2016) Effects of bisphenol-a on male reproductive success in adult kadaknath chicken. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 128: 61-66.
SKALLER, F. (1951) Artificial insemination applied on a large scale to poultry breeding research. Official Report of 9th World's Poultry Congress, Paris, pp.124.
SLANINA, T., PETROVIČOVÁ, L., MIŠKEJE, M., KŇÍŽAT, L., MIRDA, J., LUKÁČ, N., TRANDŽÍK, J., PETROVIČOVÁ, I. and MASSÁNYI, P. (2015) The effect of diluent, temperature and age on turkey spermatozoa motility in vitro, Journal of Applied Animal Research 43 (2): 131-136.
SPILLER, N., GRAHAME, I. and WISE, D.R. (1977) Experiments on artificial insemination of pheasants. World Pheasant Association Journal 2: 89-96.
STURKIE, P.D. (1986) Avian Physiology, 3rd Edition Springer-Verlag, New York, USA.
TABATABAEI, S. (2010) The effect of spermatozoa number of fertility rate of chicken in artificial insemination programs. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 9 (12): 1717-1719.
TALEBI, A.R., BATAVANI, R.A. and TABATABAEI, S. (2009) Comparison of oviductal sperm age on fertility, hatchability and embryonic death rates in Iranian indigenous and Ross-308 broiler breeder chicken. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 8: 85-89.
THUMIN, A. (1951) Improvement in the technique of artificial insemination of chickens. Official Report of 9th World's Poultry Congress, Paris, pp.154.
THURSTON, R. (1995) Storage of poultry semen above freezing for twenty-four to forty-eight hours. Proceeding of the First International Symposium on Artificial Insemination of Poultry; 1994 June 17-19; Savoy (IL): Bakst and Wishart; pp. 107-122.
TINGARI, M.D. and LAKE, P.E. (1972) Ultrastructural evidence for resorption of spermatozoa and testicular fluid in the excurrent ducts of the testis of the domestic fowl, Gallus domesticus. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 31 (3): 373-381.
TSELUTIN, K., NARUBINA, L., MAVRODINA, T. and TUR, B. (1995) Comparison of cryoprotectants and method of cryopreservation of fowl spermatozoa. British Poultry Science 36: 805-811.
TUMOVA, E. and GOUS, R.M. (2012) Interaction of hens production type, age and temperature on laying pattern and egg quality. Poultry Science 91 (5): 1269-1275.
VAN WAMBEKE, F. (1978) The effect of storage time, dilution rate and number of spermatozoa on fertility and hatchability obtained with broiler breeders. Proceedings of 16th World's Poultry Congress, Brazil, pp. 148.
VAN WAMBEKE, F. (1986) Workshop on artificial insemination. Proceedings of 7th European Poultry Conference, Paris, pp.153-157.
VAN WAMBEKE, F. (1987) Dilution and storage of fowl semen. Poultry Science 87: 18-19.
VAN WAMBEKE, F. and HUYGHEBAERT, G. (1989) Current role of semen storage and artificial insemination in the turkey industry. British Poultry Science 30: 461-469.
VASICEK, J., KUZELOVA, L., KULIKOVA, B. and CHRENEK, P. (2015) Effect of diluent and storage time on sperm characteristics of rooster insemination doses. Avian Biology Research 8 (1): 41-26.
VILLAVERDE-MORCILLO, S., ESTESO, M.C., CASTAÑO, C., TOLEDANO DÍAZ, A., LÓPEZ-SEBASTIÁN, A., CAMPO, J.L. and SANTIAGO-MORENO, J. (2015) Influence of staining method on the values of avian sperm head morphometric variables. Reproduction in Domestic Animals 50: 750-755.
WISHART, G.J. and WILSON, Y.I. (1997) Sperm motility and metabolism IV. Sperm motility analysis using the ‘Semen Quality Analyzer’, in: BAKST, M.R. & CECIL, H.C. (Eds) Techniques for semen evaluation, semen storage, and fertility determination, pp. 54-55 (Poultry Science Association, Savoy, IL).
WISHART, G.J. (1987) Regulation of the length of the fertile period in the domestic fowl by numbers of oviducal spermatozoa, as reflected by those trapped in laid eggs. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 80: 493-498.
WISHART, G.J. and WOOD, L.K. (1994) Quantitation of holes hydrolyzed by spermatozoa in the perivitelline layer of laid eggs as a means of evaluating fertility. 9th International Poultry Breeders Conference, pp. 312-314. Glasgow, Scotland, U.K.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

World's Poultry Science Journal
  • ISSN: 0043-9339
  • EISSN: 1743-4777
  • URL: /core/journals/world-s-poultry-science-journal
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 4
Total number of PDF views: 36 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 261 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 8th June 2018 - 20th August 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.