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The WTO rules on dumping and anti-dumping reflect a political bargain, negotiated in the context of a fundamental normative dissensus as to whether dumping is a “wrong” practice and why.
In the GATT, there is an apparently strong statement against dumping, which can be defined as the sale of a product in the country of importation at a lower price than in the country of exportation, or at below cost. Dumping, the GATT says, is to be “condemned.” However, this is immediately followed by the qualification “if it causes or threatens material injury to an established industry in the territory of a contracting party or materially retards the establishment of a domestic injury”(Article VI.1: emphasis added).
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