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Regulatory Differences in the Approval of GMOs: Extent and Development over Time


Considering the regulatory approval developments for cotton, maize, and soybean within the time period 2000–2013, this paper assesses the extent of asymmetry in the authorizations of new genetically modified organism (GMO) events between importing and exporting countries. The results show an increase in the asynchronous approval across the majority of country pairs. However, focusing only on commercialized events and considering only regulatory approval differences in which the importers are more stringent than the exporters, the asynchronous approval is considerably lower, and the result indicates that the major trade leaders have synchronized their approval status for GMOs over time. Some countries, such as Norway, Switzerland, Thailand, and Turkey seem to face the highest potential for trade disruption, while the opposite holds for Japan and South Korea.

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N. Winchester , M. L. Rau , C. Goetz , B. Larue , T. Otsuki , K. Shutes , C. Wieck , H. L. Burnquist , M. J. Pinto de Souza , and R. N. de Faria (2012), ‘The Impact of Regulatory Heterogeneity on Agri-Food Trade’, The World Economy, 35(8): 973993.

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World Trade Review
  • ISSN: 1474-7456
  • EISSN: 1475-3138
  • URL: /core/journals/world-trade-review
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De Faria and Wieck supplementary material
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