In The Communist Manifesto completed just before the outbreak of the 1848 revolutions, its joint authors, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, depicted communism as a theory. Hegel's political thought contained a fundamental Christian component, which indirectly at least linked Christianity to the individualism of modern economic life. If religion was one great source of division among the Hegelians of the 1830s and 1840s, politics was the other. The Young Hegelians were republicans rather than liberals. During the years between 1844 and 1848, Marx with the help of Engels transformed the initial critique into a fully elaborated theory of communism: what was later called the materialist conception of history. As Marx understood his task in 1844, a theory of communism presupposed not only a critique of political economy, but also a critique of the modern state. According to him, the modern state was inseparable from the slavery of civil society.