The Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus is a target fishery species in European waters. The stock assessment of N. norvegicus is complicated because it is caught in commercial gear only when it emerges from its burrow. Landings are lower in winter, and feeding limitations have been hypothesized as the cause. Wild large-sized male lobsters were sampled each season (winter, spring, summer and autumn), and two groups of animals were kept in captivity for 90 d (fed and food-deprived). The hepatopancreas and muscle were dissected, weighted, frozen for biochemical analyses (proximal analyses and DNA/RNA) and fixed in Bouin solution for microscopic observations. The oxygen consumption rates in the wild individuals caught in the spring and in the captive animals after the treatments were measured. Significant differences among the experimental groups were observed in the lipid concentration of the hepatopancreas and muscle, the water content in the hepatopancreas, and the numbers of vacuoles and pyknotic nuclei in the cells of the tubules of the hepatopancreas. The results showed that the wild Norway lobsters generally presented intermediate values between those observed in the food-deprived and the fed lobsters kept in captivity, but the values were closer to those obtained for the fed animals. This finding indicates that the wild animals exhibit a good nutritional condition throughout the year. Therefore, the wild males of N. norvegicus do not face food deprivation during winter as is suggested by the pattern of commercial catches, the flow of organic matter, and the moulting period/reproductive behaviour of the species.