In many regions primates are an important dietary resource for isolated human populations, and they are among the most hunted species by traditional and indigenous communities in the Neotropics. Little is known about the characteristics or the spatial and temporal patterns of hunting, which limits a more detailed evaluation of its impact. We describe, quantify and analyse the spatial dynamics of primate hunting in the várzea (seasonally flooded forest) and paleovárzea (characterized by a series of low-lying ridges interspersed with flooded depressions, which result from cyclical depositional processes) environments of Central Amazonia, based on the monitoring of riverine communities at the Amanã and Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserves over an 11-year period. During this time 402 primate hunting events were recorded, involving the harvesting of 541 individuals of nine species: Alouatta juara, Aotus cf. vociferans, Ateles chamek, Cacajao ouakary, Callicebus lucifer, Cebus albifrons, Saguinus inustus, Saimiri cassiquiarensis and Sapajus macrocephalus. Two hundred and forty of these hunts occurred in the paleovárzea and 162 in the várzea. The distances travelled by the hunters from their communities to the kill sites were significantly different between the environments, with longer distances being covered in the paleovárzea. Hunters in the paleovárzea also hunted across significantly larger areas than those in the várzea. The continuous monitoring of hunting areas and the gathering of data on the exploitation of species are necessary to understand the effects of hunting, as well as to support decision making in the management of the local fauna by traditional communities, and the development of effective conservation strategies for the local game species.