Nurse practitioners (NPs) and physician assistants (PAs) are healthcare professionals committed to delivering high-quality health care, and they strive to meet the needs of their patients in an effective, caring, and efficient manner. There are several entities that govern how NPs and PAs can practice. These include but are not limited to the Centers for Medicare Systems (CMS), Medicare Conditions of Participation (CoP), the Joint Commission (TJC), state law, private payer policies, established institutional polices and medical staff bylaws and the defined scopes of practice of the NP or PA. This chapter provides clarification on each of the entities' policies regarding NPs and PAs providing moderate sedation and highlights the nuances of such language. All practitioners should have the ability to manage complications during moderate sedation and have the ability to activate the appropriate emergency response team for that practice area.