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It is estimated that 1.5 million infants undergo surgery and anesthesia in the USA each year. However, there are serious concerns within the pediatric anesthesia community regarding the safety of anaesthesia in infants and children. There is mounting evidence from animal studies that anesthetics in common clinical use are neurotoxic to the developing brain and cause long-term neurobehavioral abnormalities. Essentials of Anesthesia for Infants and Neonates provides a comprehensive guide to the special needs of infants undergoing anesthesia. It focuses on the first year of life, the time when anesthesia mortality and morbidity is highest. Chapters are illustrated in color throughout, and include sections on newborn physiology for anesthetic management, specific procedures, pain management, and topics such as regional anesthesia and sedation. Written by nationally recognized experts, this book will become an invaluable point of reference for any physician interested in pain management in the first year of life.
Nurse practitioners (NPs) and physician assistants (PAs) are healthcare professionals committed to delivering high-quality health care, and they strive to meet the needs of their patients in an effective, caring, and efficient manner. There are several entities that govern how NPs and PAs can practice. These include but are not limited to the Centers for Medicare Systems (CMS), Medicare Conditions of Participation (CoP), the Joint Commission (TJC), state law, private payer policies, established institutional polices and medical staff bylaws and the defined scopes of practice of the NP or PA. This chapter provides clarification on each of the entities' policies regarding NPs and PAs providing moderate sedation and highlights the nuances of such language. All practitioners should have the ability to manage complications during moderate sedation and have the ability to activate the appropriate emergency response team for that practice area.