Five musk deer species (genus Moschus) are distributed in China, and the present estimated numbers in the wild are between 220 000 and 320 000. Population size of musk deer has dropped significantly due to historical over-hunting and loss or degradation of their habitat. Musk deer farming, therefore, has become one of the most appropriate ways to protect and utilize musk deer resources. In China, musk deer farming and extracting musk from the captive musk deer have been reasonably successful since the early 1950s. At present three species of musk deer, namely forest (Moschus Berezovskii), alpine (M. sifanicus) and Siberian (M. moschiferus) musk deer are farmed in China and, of these, the forest musk deer is the main captive population. The present patterns of musk deer farming in China, however, need to be improved and developed into more economic and scientific modes in order to improve the rate of survival and reproduction, and to increase the production of musk.