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    Garfin, Dana Rose Poulin, Michael J. Blum, Scott and Silver, Roxane Cohen 2018. Aftermath of Terror: A Nationwide Longitudinal Study of Posttraumatic Stress and Worry Across the Decade Following the September 11, 2001 Terrorist Attacks. Journal of Traumatic Stress, Vol. 31, Issue. 1, p. 146.

    Thompson, Rebecca R. Garfin, Dana Rose Holman, E. Alison and Silver, Roxane Cohen 2017. Distress, Worry, and Functioning Following a Global Health Crisis: A National Study of Americans’ Responses to Ebola. Clinical Psychological Science, Vol. 5, Issue. 3, p. 513.

    Silver, Roxane Cohen Holman, E. Alison Andersen, Judith Pizarro Poulin, Michael McIntosh, Daniel N. and Gil-Rivas, Virginia 2013. Mental- and Physical-Health Effects of Acute Exposure to Media Images of the September 11, 2001, Attacks and the Iraq War. Psychological Science, Vol. 24, Issue. 9, p. 1623.

    Holman, E. Alison 2012. Acute Stress and Cardiovascular Health: Is There anACEGene Connection?. Journal of Traumatic Stress, Vol. 25, Issue. 5, p. 592.

    Poulin, Michael J. Holman, E. Alison and Buffone, Anneke 2012. The Neurogenetics of Nice. Psychological Science, Vol. 23, Issue. 5, p. 446.

    Cardeña, Etzel and Carlson, Eve 2011. Acute Stress Disorder Revisited. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, Vol. 7, Issue. 1, p. 245.

    McIntosh, Daniel N. Poulin, Michael J. Silver, Roxane Cohen and Holman, E. Alison 2011. The distinct roles of spirituality and religiosity in physical and mental health after collective trauma: a national longitudinal study of responses to the 9/11 attacks. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, Vol. 34, Issue. 6, p. 497.

    Kosloff, Spee Landau, Mark Weise, Dave Sullivan, Daniel and Greenberg, Jeff 2009. The Impact of 9/11 on Psychology and Education. p. 7.

    Brow, Marnie and Silver, Roxane Cohen 2009. The Impact of 9/11 on Psychology and Education. p. 37.

    Suvak, Michael Maguen, Shira Litz, Brett T. Silver, Roxane Cohen and Holman, E. Alison 2008. Indirect exposure to the September 11 terrorist attacks: Does symptom structure resemble PTSD?. Journal of Traumatic Stress, Vol. 21, Issue. 1, p. 30.

    Schlenger, William E. and Silver, Roxane Cohen 2006. Web-based methods in terrorism and disaster research. Journal of Traumatic Stress, Vol. 19, Issue. 2, p. 185.

  • Print publication year: 2006
  • Online publication date: October 2009

4 - Coping with a national trauma: a nationwide longitudinal study of responses to the terrorist attacks of September 11

from Part II - The psychological aftermath of 9/11

The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, exposed every person in the USA to an experience that, in recent decades, was unprecedented in its scope and traumatic impact. Perhaps over 100,000 individuals directly witnessed these events, and many others viewed the attacks and their aftermath via the media (Yehuda, 2002). It has been argued that this national trauma “influenced and will continue to influence the clinical presentation of patients seeking health care services” in the USA (Yehuda, 2002, p. 108).

A wide range of responses can be expected following traumatic life events. Research conducted after the Oklahoma City, OK, bombing indicates that responses to a terrorist attack are likely to be highly variable (North et al., 1999). Research in the broader field of stress and coping has also demonstrated considerable variability in emotional and cognitive responses to stressful experiences (Silver & Wortman, 1980;Wortman & Silver, 1989, 2001). Despite advances in understanding reactions to traumatic events, our understanding of responses to community-level events in general, and terror attacks in particular, is limited. Progress in understanding the social and psychological process following such occurrences requires examination of how responses to a variety of stressful events are similar and different at both the group and individual level. Research has matured to the point that large-scale, prospective, longitudinal studies with the scope to examine mediators and moderators of adjustment processes are not only possible, but also necessary (North & Pfefferbaum, 2002). Moreover, the threat of future terrorist attacks demands that a higher level of urgency and research sophistication be directed not only at understanding the effects of such attacks, but also at the individual and social variables that predict psychological outcomes to such events over time.

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9/11: Mental Health in the Wake of Terrorist Attacks
  • Online ISBN: 9780511544132
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